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He was the son of Mr. John Shakspere ; and was born at Stratford upon Avon, in Warwickshire, in April, 1564. His family, as appears by the register and public writings relating to that town, were of good figure and fashion there, and are mentioned as gentlemen. His father, who was a considerable dealer in wool, had so large a family, ten chil. dren in all, that, though he was his eldest son, he could give him no better education than his own employment. He had bred him, it is true, for some time at a free school ; where it is probable, he acquired what Latin he was master of : but the narrowness of his circumstances, and the want of his aflistance at home, forced his father to withdraw him from thence, and unhappily prevented his further proficiency in that language. It is without controversy, that in his works, we scarce find any traces of any thing that looks like an imitation of the ancients. The delicacy of his taste, and the natural bent of his own great genius, (equal, if not superior, to some of the best of theirs) would certainly have led him to read and tudy them with so much pleasure, that some of their fine images would naturally have insinuated themselves into, and been mixed with his own writings ; fo that his not copying at least something from them, may be an argument of his never having read them. Whether his ignorance of the ancients were a disadvantage to him or not, may admit of a dispute : for though the knowledge of them might have made him more correct, yet it is not improbable, but that the regularity and deference for them, which would have attended that correctness, might have restrained some of that fire, impetuosity, and even beautiful extravagance, which we admire in Shakspere : and I believe we are better pleased with those thoughts, altogether new and uncommon, which his own imagination supplied him fo abundantly with, than if
he had given us the most beautiful passages out of the Greek and Latin poets, and that in the most agreeable manner that it was poflible for a malter of the English language to deliver them.
Upon his leaving school, he seems to have given entirely into that way of living which his father proposed to him ; and, in order to settle in the world after a family-manner, he thought fit to marry while he was yet very young. His wife was the daughter of one Hathaway, said to have been a substantial yeoman in the neighbourhood of Stratford. In this kind of settlement he continued for some time, till an extravagance that he was guilty of, forced him both out of his country, and that way of living which he had taken up and though it seemed at first to be a blemish upon his good manners, and a misfortune to him; yet it afterwards happily proved the ocetion of exerting one of the greatest geniuses that ever was known in dramatick poetry. He had, by a misfortune common enough to young fellows, fallen into ill company; and, amongst them, fome, that made a frequent practice of deer-stealing, engage ed him with them more than once in robbing a park that belonged to Sir Thomas Lucy of Cherlecot, near Stratford. For this he was prosecuted by that gentleman, as he thought, fomewhat too severely ; and, in order to revenge that ill usage, he made a ballad upon him. And though this, probably the first essay of his poetry, be loft, yet it is said to have been so very bitter, that it redoubled the prosecution against him to that degree, that he was obliged to leave his business and family in Warwickshire, for some time, and shelter himself in London. ,
It is at this time, and upon this accident, that he is said to have made his first acquaintance in the play-house. He was received into the company then in being, at first in a very mean rank ; but his admirable wit, and the natural turn of it to the stage,
foon distinguished him, if not as an extraordinary actor, yet as an excellent writer. His name is prin. ted, as the custom was in those times, amongst those of the other players, before fome old plays,
but with out any particular account of what fort of parts he used to play: and though I have enquired, I could never meet with any further account of him this way than that the top of his performance was the Ghost in his own Hamlet. I should have been much more pleased, to have learned from certain authority, which was the first play he wrote.* It would be, without doubt, a pleasure to any man, curious in things of this kind, to see and know what was the firit essay of a fancy like Shakspere's. Perhaps we are not to look for his beginnings, like those of other authors, among their lealt perfect writings ; art had fo little, and nature fo large a share in what he did, that, for ought I know, the performances of his youth, as they were the most vigorous, and had the most fire and strength of imagination in them, were the best. I would not be thought by this to mean, that his fancy was fo loose and extravagant, as to be independent on the rule and government of judga ment ; but that what he thought was commonly la great, fo justly and rightly conceived in itfelf, that it wanted little or no correction, and was immedia ately approved by an impartial judgment at the first fight. But though the order of time in which the several pieces were written, be generally uncertain, yet there are passages in fome few of them which feem to fix their dates. So the chorus at the end of the 4th act of Henry the Fifth, by a compliment very handsomely turned to the Earl of Effex, fhews the play to have been written when that lord was
* The highest date of any I can yet find, is Romeo and Yuliet, in 1597, when the author was thirty-three years old ; and Richard II. and III. in the next year, viz. the thirty-fourth of his age.
general for the queen, in Ireland : and his elogy upon queen Elisabeth, and her fucceffor, king James, in the latter end of his Henry the Eighth, is a proof of that play's being written after the accession of the latter of those two princes to the crown of England. Whatever the particular times of his writing were, the people of his age, who began to grow wonderfully fond of diversions of this kinds could not but be highly pleased to see a genius arife amongst them of fo pleasurable, so rich a vein, and fo plentifully capable of furnishing their favourite entertainments. Besides the advantages of his wit, he was in himself a good-natured man, of great sweetness in his manners, and a most agreeable companion; fo that it is no wonder, if, with fo many good qualities, he made himself acquainted with the best conversations of those times. Queen Elisabeth had several of his plays acted before her, and within out doubt, gave him many gracious marks of her favour. It is that maiden princess plainly whom he intends by
-A fair vestal, throned by the west.
Midsummer Night's Dream, And that whole passage is a compliment very prop erly ought in, and very handsomely applied to her. She was so well pleased with that admirable character of Falstaff, in The Two Parts of Henry the Fourth, that fhe commanded him to continue it for one play more, and to shew bim in love. This is said to be the occasion of his writing The Merry Wives of Windfor. How well she was obeyed, the play itself is an admirable proof. Upon this occasion it may not be improper to observe, that this part of Falstaff is said to have been written originally under the name of Oldcastle ; * some of that family being then remaining,
* See the epilogue to Henry the Fourtha
the queen was pleased to command him to after it ; upon which he made use of Falstaff. The present offence was indeed avoided ; but I do not know. whether the author may not have been somewhat to blame in his second choice, since it is certain that Sir John Falstaff, who was a knight of the garter, and a lieutenant-general, was a name of distinguished merit in the wars in France in Henry the Fifth's and Henry the Sixth's times. What grace foever the queen conferred upon him, it was not to her only he owed the fortune which the reputation of his wit made. He had the honour to meet with many great and uncommon marks of favour and friend. thip from the earl of Southampton, famous in the histories of that time for his friendship to the unfortunate earl of Effex. It was to that noble lord that he dedicated his poem of Wenus and Adonis. There is one inftance fo fingular in the magnificence of this patron of Shak pere's, that if I had not been affured that the story was handed down by Sir William D'Avenant, who was probably very well acquainted with his affairs, I should not have ventured to have inserted, that my lord Southampton at one time gave him a thousand pounds, to enable him to go through with a purchase which he heard he had a mind to ; a bounty very great, and very rare at any time, and almost equal to that profuse generosity the present age
has shewn to French dancers and Italian fingers.
What particular habitude or friendships he con. tracted with private men, I have not been able to learn, more than that every one who had a true taste of merit, and could distinguish men, had generally a just value and esteem for him. His exceed. ing candour and good-nature'must certainly have in. clined all the gentler part of the world to love: him, as the power of his wit obliged the men of the