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Of the 2,612 first admissions into the State of Washington's three mental hospitals for the year ending September 30, 1938, 7 were of Japanese and 8 were of Chinese descent. Of the 1,299 residents in the East Oregon State Hospital in 1938, 1,283 were white, 1 was Negro, 2 were Chinese, 2 were Japanese, and 1 was Filipino. Economic opportunities barred to aliens

"Ineligible to citizenship" has worked hardship and humiliation. Those classified as, "aliens ineligible to citizenship,” who were already residents of the United States when the Immigration Act of 1924 became effective, have been subjected to various economic restrictions based upon their inability to become citizens. Some of these restrictions are enumerated below. These people who have not been permitted to change their status through naturalization have been allowed to remain "in our house, but not of it.”

In 23 States aliens are not permitted to work on public works projects. In 26 States they cannot receive old-age benefits. In 12 States they cannot buy or hold real estate. Some Federal public work relief laws, as did the 1938 Emergency Relief Appropriations Act, prohibit their employment. Most Government units are not permitted to hire them. Several State universities consider them as nonresidents and charge them high tuitions as "out-of-State students.” Some States charge them more for fishing and hunting licenses, while others prohibit them entirely from fishing or hunting.

More than 500 State laws are so worded as to exclude all who are not citizens or declarants from owning or leasing land, obtaining business licenses, gaining employment in various industries, practicing certain professions, and working for governmental units. Many local units of government also legislate against aliens. While such restrictions extend equally to all aliens, they are inescapable to the aliens from the Pacific and far eastern areas. For these people are "ineligible to citizenship” and cannot change their status.

Over 30 years ago, U. S. Webb, then attorney general of the State of California, and his law partner, Francis J. Heney, coauthored a bill to bar those "ineligible to citizenship” from owning land in California. The courts have upheld the law.

Since then, every State of the Union has at least one law discriminating against those who are not citizens or who have not declared their intention of becoming citizens. New York leads the list with 27 occupations restricted to citizens or declarants. On the other extreme are Maryland and Indiana, with only four occupations barred to those "ineligible to citizenship" and other aliens. A listing by States of the number of occupations currently restricted is shown below.

TABLE 26.-Number of occupations restricted to citizens, by States

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A list of the various occupations which are restricted to citizens and the number of States having such restrictions is as follows:

TABLE 27.-Types of professions and occupations restricted to citizens

Profession or occupation

Number
of States

Profession or occupation

Number of States

22 1 49

2 8 1 9 5 1 2 1 47

2 39 1 1 14 IS 10 1 3 5 1 22

Architect
Attorney
Auctioneer
Bank director
Banker--foreign exchange
Barber.
Billiard or pool parlor
Boat puller
Boiler inspector.
Boxing promoter.
Certified public accountant.
Certified shorthand reporter
Chauffeur
Chiropodist.
Chiropractor.
Collection agency
Hairdresser
Dentist
Dental hygienist
Detective (private).
Electrolysis
Embalmer or funeral director
Employment agency.
Engineer and/or surveyor.
Explosives dealer.
Fish breeder.
Gas fitter
Guide.
Horserace-track-operator
Horseshoer
Insurance broker
Investigator.
Junk dealer.

2
10
10
3
6
26
6
8
1
17

6
14
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1

Life insurance agent
Liquor, manufacture or sale
Manicurist.
Masseur-masseuse.
Mine supervisory employee
Optometrist
Osteopath
Naturopathy
Pawnbroker.
Peddler
Pedicurist
Pharmacist
Physician
Physiotherapist.
Pilot (aviation)
Pilot (vessel)
Plumber
Poison dealer.
Policeman (special)
Poultry inspector
Psychologist (certified)
Realtor
Registered nurse
Refrigerated truck operator
Teacher
Tile contractor.
Tree expert
Veterinarian
Watchman, guard or patrol agency.
Wrestling promoter
Fiduciary (administrator, guardian), gen-

erally
Where land is involved

8 4 1 1 1 1 8 12

1 18 1 1 6 1 1

1 8

1 Includes District of Columbia.
Source: State Law Index, Library of Congress.

I have a number of letters and resolutions representing the action of a variety of organizations. While we have made no particular effort to secure this sort of thing, these do represent a sampling of opinion in widely separated sections of the country. With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I should like to have these inserted in the record. These resolutions and letters cover the following organizations:

National YWCA
Common Council for American Unity
West Coast Sponsors of the Committee for Equality in Naturalization
Philadelphia Fellowship Commission
International Institute, Philadelphia
Arch Street and Race Street Yearly Meeting, Society of Friends, Committee

on Race Relations
Women's Overseas Service League, Santa Clara County Unit, Calif.
Women's City Club, Naturalization Committee, Kansas City, Mo.
Political Effectiveness Committee, Metropolitan Student Christian Council,

YWCA, New York City
Protestant Council of New York City, Human Relations Commission
First Congregational Church, First Christian Church, Social Action Com-

mittee, Portland, Oreg.
Hamilton Methodist Church, Women's Society of Christian Service, San

Francisco, Calif.

THE NATIONAL BOARD
YOUNG WOMENS CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS

OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

New York ,N. Y., February 17, 1948. Mr. ROFERT M. CULLUM, Committee for Equality in Naturalization,

Washington 1, D. C. DEAR MR. CULLUM: The YWCA at its convention in Atlantic City went on record as supporting immigration and naturalization policies free from racial discrimination. You may therefore list our organization as supporting this principle. Sincerely yours,

CONSTANCE W. ANDERSON
Mrs. Arthur Forrest Anderson,

President.

COMMON

COUNCIL FOR AMERICAN UNITY,

New York, N. Y., April 19, 1948.

STATEMENT IN CONNECTION WITH HEARINGS ON H. R. 5004

The Common Council for American Unity, by action of its board of directors, declares its conviction that the right to become a naturalized citizen of the United States should not be denied or abridged because of race and that our nationality laws should be amended to provide that all aliens having a legal right to permanent residence should be made eligible to naturalization. The council believes that such legislation is an act of justice to those aliens resident in the United States who are still denied citizenship because of race and that, in addition, it would strengthen our American position in the Far East and improve our international relations in general in the world-wide conflict between democracy and totalitarianism.

Because H. R. 5004 embodies such legislation and at the same time takes practicable steps toward eliminating racial discrimination from our immigration laws by making immigration quotas available to Asiatic and Pacific peoples, the Common Council for American Unity hopes that it or legislation embodying those principles will receive favorable consideration by Congress.

READ LEWIS,
Executive Director.

STATEMENT OF WEST Coast SPONSORS OF COMMITTEÈ FOR EQUALITY IN

NATURALIZATION, APRIL 17, 1948 Informed Americans generally agree that the Achilles heel in our ideological competition with the Soviet Union is American racial discrimination. But when "racial discrimination” is mentioned, most Americans think only of the Negroes within our borders. They overlook the fact that Soviet propagandists are constantly playing upon our denial of naturalization and of admissibility on the quota basis to many Asiatic peoples, and are thereby weaning them away from us and democracy.

Since 1943, our Congress has made a splendid beginning in patching up this Achilles heel by granting the rights of naturalization and admissibility by quota to the peoples of China, India, and the Philippines. It is not only logical but also most timely, to extend the same rights to Burma, Guam, Indonesia, Japan, and Korea.

Preoccupation with the European front should not blind us to the increasingly important Far Eastern front. Congress should be urged into action before it is

too late. Fortunately, there is already before Congress bill H. R. 5004, which grants the rights in question to all remaining Asiatic peoples. We, the undersigned, declare our own support of H. R. 5004.

Mrs. Wallace M. Alexander, Orinda, Calif.; Homer D. Crotty, Los

Angeles, Calif.; Monroe E. Deutsch, Oakland, Calif.; Galen M.
Fisher, Berkeley, Calif.; Mrs. Ruth W. Kingman, Berkeley,
Calif., Alfred J. Lundberg, Oakland, Calif.; E. B. MacNaughton,
Portland, Oreg.; (Judge) Robert McWilliams, San Francisco,
Calif.; Irving F. Reichert, San Francisco, Calif.; C. S. Reifsnider,
Pasadena, Calif.; Harry S. Scott, San Francisco, Calif.; Jesse F.
Steiner, Seattle, Wash.; Mrs. Joseph W. Stilwell, Carmel, Calif.;
Mrs. Maynard F. Thayer, Pasadena, Calif.; Rev. E. C. Farn-
ham, Los Angeles, Calif., Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, Stanford
University, Calif.; Charles A. Sprague, Salem, Oreg.; and John
Anson Ford, Los Angeles, Calif.

PHILADELPHIA FELLOWSHIP COMMISSION,

Philadelphia, Pa., February 20, 1948. Mr. ROBERT M. CULLUM, Committee for Equality in Naturalization,

Washington 1, D. C. DEAR MR. CULLUM: The Philadelphia Fellowship Commission at its last regular meeting unanimously approved the principle that "all immigrants having a legal right to permanent residence in the United States should have the privilege of becoming citizens of the United States without regard to the race, religion, or nationality of such immigrants.

The Philadelphia Fellowship Commission adopted this principle to indicate its support of measures designed to place Asiatic and Pacific peoples on the same basis in our immigration laws as Chinese persons and races indigenous to India.

We would appreciate being advised of specific measures designed to carry out these principles so that we may study such measures and determine any action that may be needed on the part of the Fellowship Commission. Sincerely,

MAURICE B. FAGAN,

Executive Director.

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PHILADELPHIA, PA.
SERVICE BUREAU FOR FOREIGN SPEAKING PEOPLES,

Philadelphia, Pa., February 2, 1948. Mr. ROBERT M. CULLUM,

Washington 1, D. C. DEAR MR. CULLUM: This is to inform you that the International Institute of Philadelphia, Pa., officially endorses legislation to provide the privilege of becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States to all immigrants having & legal right top ermanent residence, regardless of race, religion, or national origin and to place all Asiatic and Pacific people on the same basis in the immigration law as Chinese persons and races indigenous to India. Sincerely yours,

Mrs. E. A. ROBERTS,
President of the Board of Directors.
MARIAN LANTZ,

Executive Director,

COMMITTEE ON RACE RELATIONS,

SOCIETY OF FRIENDS,

Philadelphia, Pa., February 11, 1948. Mr. ROBERT M. CULLUM, Committee for Equality in Naturalization,

Washington 1, D. C. Dear MR. CULLUM: At the February meeting of the Committee on Race Relations held February 3, 1948, we were instructed to write to you.

Friends have been deeply interested in the wartime situation of JapaneseAmericans and of the many Japanese-born residents in this country who have

chosen it as a permanent residence. We heartily endorse the principle of equality
in naturalization. We desire to see the privilege of becoming a naturalized
citizen extended to all immigrants having a legal right to permanent residence,
regardless of race, religion, or national origin. We should like to see all Asiatic
and Pacific people placed on the same basis in immigration law as those from
China and India.
Sincerely yours,

THE COMMITTEE ON RACE RELATIONS,
W. WALKER CHEYNEY,
EMMA R. SIDLE,

Chairmen.

WOMEN'S OVERSEAS SERVICE LEAGUE,
SANTA CLAPA COUNTY UNIT, CALIFORNIA,

San Jose, Calif., March 15, 1948.
Mr. ROPERT M. CULLUM,
Secretary, Committee for Equality in Naturalization,

Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. CULLUM: The members of the Santa Clara County (Calif.), unit of the Women's Overseas Service League are much inerested in H. R. 5004 and wholeheartedly give it our full support. We feel that we must stand for democracy at home if we wish to have an influence abroad for our way of life.

I am enclosing a little leaflet about the Women's Overseas League so that you will understand why we are interested in the above bill. Sincerely yours,

Sarah E. CARTER, President,

WHAT IS THE WOMEN'S OVERSEAS SERVICE LEAGUE? What Is Its PURPOSE!

What Is IT ACCOMPLISHING? WHO ARE ITS MEMBERS?

OVERSEAS WOMEN WHO SERVED IN WORLD WAR I AND II

PURPOSE.--"To keep alive and develop the spirit that prompted overseas service, to maintain the ties of comradeship born of that service, and to assist and further any patriotic work; to inculcate a sense of individual obligation to the community, State, and Nation; to work for the welfare of the armed services; to assist in any way in their power the men and women who were wounded or incapacitated in the service of their country; to foster and promote friendship between the United States and her allies."

During the First World War there was a new element which developed so naturally that the Nation as a whole did not realize its scope, nor its importance. This was the active participation of women, not merely on the home front and in hospitals, but in war zones and in many branches of war service. Thousands of women went overseas with the American Expeditionary Forces to serve under Government orders as nurses with the Army and Navy, and in divers activities in the Ordnance, Quartermaster and Signal Corps; the Treasury Department and Secret Service. Other thousands served with welfare organizations such as the Red Cross, the YMCA, the Salvation Army, etc.

The total number of women who served overseas included 10,000 nurses with the Army and 1,000 with the Navy. More than 15,000 women went to serve under the auspices of some 52 American and 45 foreign agencies and organizations. These young women served as hostesses, entertainers, camion drivers, doctors, nurses, dentists, therapists, bacteriologists, secretaries, telephone operators, librarians, medical officers and social workers. They worked in canteens, recreation huts, hospitals, offices, and Army headquarters, in crude barracks, ancient palaces, in city, country or devastated areas; wherever their services were needed.

It was these women, who, when the came home, organized the Women's Overseas Service League, "to keep alive and develop the spirit that prompted overseas service."

Although these women had shared the hardships of the armed forces and many came back to civil life with impaired health, only the nurses who served under Government orders were entitled to limited compensation. The Red Cross nurses who served beside them in army hospitals were not eligible for any kind of compensation or care. None of the welfare organizations made any provision for their workers after the war.

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