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money was placed with the Executive Committee, and the expenditure of the funds, so far as was called for, was made under the direction of the President and Secretary; and the report of the President will show the state of the funds, leaving a balance unexpended of $294.62. Owing to the illness of Mr. Cornell he was unable to attend, and Austin Baldwin, Esq., of New York, was appointed in his place, and Mr. Baldwin has made his report, which accompanies our report.
The Society is under great obligations to Mr. Baldwin for his valuable services. The Hon. Joseph A. Wright, the commissioner appointed by President Lincoln, in his report, remarks "The labors of Mr. Baldwin at home, in presenting this subject to our people are well known. To him are we greatly indebted for the interest taken by our people in this exhibition.'
The State Agricultural Society forwarded to the exhibition one hundred varieties of grasses and herbage, pressed and arranged in book form, and four bouquets of grasses and everlasting flowers, arranged by Mrs. J. T. VanNamee, of Pittstown, Rensselaer county, and for which a medal was awarded; twenty-nine samples of grain; ten samples of corn in the ear; thirteen samples of grain in the stalk, prepared by Wm. P. Ottley, Esq., of Phelps, Ontario county; and one hundred and fifty samples of grain in bottles, from the Museum of the Society, for which a medal and diploma were awarded.
These seeds were distributed under the direction of the United States Commissioner, and a very large and beautifully arranged assortment of seeds, mostly from the Swedish Minister, which have not yet been received, but which are to be distributed by Commissioner Wright to the several State Societies represented. Our grasses and seeds attracted much atten tion. The city of Hamburg presented to the Society the flag of the city, which is placed in our rooms, and the report of the exhibition will be furnished. The Commissioner of Sweden presented a collection of grain and seeds, very finely arranged, which have been arranged in the Museum. It is not improbable that this exhibition will lead to others; and it is suggested by gentlemen abroad, that an exhibition, at a proper time, be held in this country, in which the nations of Europe should be invited to take part.
At the exhibition at Hamburg there was an exhibition of the steam plows from Great Britain, which attracted much attention, and which was entirely successful. Mr. Wright remarks in his report that "he was convinced if some modification could be made, by which the expense attending the ma. chinery for this operation could be materially diminished, the introduction of plowing by steam could be easily effected, so as to be highly advanta geous to the agricultural interests in many portions of the country. It is most manifest that steam is designed to play an important part in many of the branches of agriculture.” From the information referred to in our remarks on the trial of implements, it will be seen that the modification of the steam plow machinery has been accomplished, and we can now secure it, and have the work done at less expense than by labor of the team. To EDWARD G. FAILE, President of the New York State Agricultural Society:
Sir-Having had the honor of being appointed to act as a substitute for the Hon. Ezra Cornell, who had been chosen as a delegate from your Society to the Hamburg International Agricultural Exhibition, I take the earliest opportunity, since my return from Europe, to make the following report:
That in pursuance of the duties devolved upon me, I embarked for Hamburg via Bremen, on the 20th June last, where I arrived about one week previous to the opening of the exhibition, and was received with all the courtesy due to the representative of this State and of your Society, by the Executive Committee of Hamburg, where arrangements for holding the exhibition were nearly completed, upon a scale of magnificent liberality, highly creditable to their energy and good taste.
A large field in the immediate suburbs of the city, admirably adapted to the purpose, which for centuries had been known as the “ Field of the Holy Ghost," had been inclosed with a high substantial fence, containing up wards of eighty acres, in which were erected enormous covered sheds, for the convenience of the stock, and the protection of implements and machinery. A large building, elegantly decorated for a dining saloon, with ao commodations for more than a thousand persons, together with a unique edifice, surmounted by a colossal figure of a female, representing commerce, adorned the centre of the grounds. A beautiful artificial basin had been excavated, in the centre of which played a large fountain, which was supplied by water brought from a distance of wine miles, and distributed throughout the grounds by about 20,000 feet of pipe, especially laid for that purpose. Suitable buildings had been erected for the use of the various delegations to the exhibition, and the various officers and such committees connected with it; in fact, nothing appeared to have been left undone to secure a complete success to the enterprise.
The United States was most ably represented by the Hon. Joseph A. Wright, appointed as Commissioner by the President, to whose indefatigable exertions in raising the funds in aid of American contributors may be justly ascribed the success attending our mission. The States of Illinois, Indiana, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont, as well as our own, were represented by delegates. Several of our ministers, and quite a large number of our consuls, attended the exhibition. Upwards of thirty nationalities were represented by agricultural products of every variety, and about four thousand head of stock, the best probably that Europe could furnish, among which should be mentioned twelve Spanish Merino sheep from Vermont, which, notwithstanding the splendid specimens from Saxony and elsewhere, over seventeen hundred in number, took the first of the liberal prizes offered by the committee, and were sold upon the ground for one thousand pounds, or about $7,500 of our currency.
The agricultural implements and machines were spread over forty acres of ground; the most of the latter was in operation with the aid of about eighty steam engines of every description. To give an idea of the extent of this part of the exhibition, I would state that, being upon the jury of agricultural implements and machinery on the part of American exhibitors, it required seven days of continued labor to give it a very superficial examination,
It would be impossible in the limits proper for this report to enter into detail with a description of the articles pertaining to agricultuaal industry, or of the numerous splendid animals at this exhibition. I shall endeavor to furnish your Society with the published catalogue as soon as it can be procured, although I regret that it will be printed in the German language. I am informed that photographs have been taken of many of the finest specimens of animals, which I shall also endeavor to procure for the use of your Society.
Among the principal American exhibitors was C. H. McCormick, of Illinois, who had the splendid prize reaper, which had taken the gold medal at the late London exhibition, on the ground; also another of reapers of ordinary manufacture, with which he entered the trial, and for which he was unanimously awarded the gold medal as having introduced and perfected the best method of reaping by machinery. At the close of the exhibition, at the request of Mr. McCormick, I presented on his behalf this elegant reaper to the Hamburg Committee for the Museum of Agriculture, which they had resolved to establish.
Messrs. Seymour & Morgan, of this State, received a large silver medal, being the premium of the next grade, for a beautiful reaper exhibited by them, which was proved upon trial, both for cutting and delivering in sheaves, to be fully entitled to the honors it received.
John Kelsey, Esq., of Pennsylvania, exhibited an improved harrow, being a combination to level the ground as well as to break the clod, which excited much attention. Messrs. Thompson & Avery, of Pennsylvania, exhibited a thrashing and cleaning machine, together with a novel application of horse power, which was highly approved, and was taken to Russia, and since followed by one recently sent on of the same pattern. Messrs. Jackson & Co., of Michigan, sent a splendid sample of finely finished hoes, forks, &c., exceeding far in elegance of workmanship anything of the kind at the exhibition, and which were purchased for an Austrian collection.
A large assortment of agricultural implements and machinery was sent from the firms of Messrs. R. H. Allen & Co., Harris & Pell, E. H. Reive & Co., J. Vanderbilt & Co., J. Mayher & Co., J. Griffing & Co., from this city. Messrs. Hoyt & Co. also sent a large sample of their superior belting, which was not equaled by any other at the exhibition.
Among the articles exciting great curiosity, were an assortment of house keeping articles from the firm of Messrs. Windle & Co., of this city, the most of which were entirely new to the visitors at the exhibition, and were eagerly purchased by them. Messrs. Whitteman & Belcher, of MassachuBetts, exhibited a large assortment of plows, straw cutters, &c., for which they received a large bronze medal. Medals were awarded Messrs. Hotchkiss & Co. and Messrs. Hale & Parshall for specimens of essential oils, from Lyons, in this State. Messrs. Saxton & Co., of Ohio, sent an excellent reaping machine, and Mr. Free, of Indiana, a fanning mill, which were sold, and for each a medal was awarded. We were much indebted to your Honorable Secretary, Col. Johnson, for a case of seeds, which were distributed under the immediate supervision of the United States Commissioner, Gov. Wright, and who received, chiefly through the Swedish minister, . large assortment of seeds, beautifully put up in conical glass jars, which are now on the way from Hamburg, and as soon as they arrive will be distributed among the several State Societies represented at the exhibition. A sample of anthracite coal was sent by Mr. S. C. Ward, of this city, for which a medal was awarded.
Although the contributions from the United States were comparatively small, yet they excited much attention from the numerous visitors who thronged the exhibition; and our agricultural implements and machinery being manufactured at prices much below those of Great Britain or any part of Europe, will doubtless establish for themselves a precedence in the markets of Germany and Northern Europe. Bat I do not, by any means, consider this the most important result of our mission as the interest manifested by the Chief Executive of our Nation, as well as by the State autho rities and State Agricultural Societies, in this effort of our German friends to advance the interests of agricultural industry, has increased the friendship and awakened a sympathy between the people of the German States and ourselves to an extent not hitherto felt, and which in numerous ways cannot fail to be highly advantageous.
One of the features of the exhibition was the plowing by the use of steam power, which was completely successful, and for which the English were the only competitors. The first prize having been taken by Messrs. Ransom & Simms, of Ipswich, and the second prize by Messrs. Howard, of Bedford, England; for a description and cost of the machinery necessary for this operation, I refer you to their illustrated catalogue and price list, which will accompany this report. Although the Messrs. Howard received the 2d prize of three hundred thalers, yet in my judgment his system is better adapted to the wants of our country than that of Ransom & Co., who took the first premium of seven hundred thalers, as it is more economical and more easily managed by unexperienced hands; and I would take the liberty of suggesting at this time that at the next fair held in this State an invitation be extended to the Messrs. Howard & Co. to visit it with his steam plowing apparatus, feeling confident that the invitation would be accepted, and that great advantage might result to the agricultural interest of our State and country by the introduction of plowing by steam, which is now successfully practiced in Europe. In view of the want of agricultural labor at present this becomes a very important consideration.
In the construction of common plows, we have permitted the sharp competition which exists among English manufacturers to carry them ahead of ours in point of excellence, and it was with no little mortification that as a member of the jury upon agricultural implements, I was obliged to yield to the undivided judgment of my colleagues and acknowledge the superiority in the construction of the plows exhibited by the Messrs. Howard & Co.; and I regretted that our manufacturers of plows and other implements had not sent out practical machinists who could have taken particular note of the many improvements produced at the exhibition. Among these novelties should be noticed a barrow of singular construction, being two iron wheels lying in a horizontal position, with teeth like an ordinary harrow, but arranged to revolve toward each other as it was drawn over
the ground, by throwing the greatest weight on the outside of the harrow or the outer edge of the wheels, thus by the teeth at no time passing in straight lines prevented the ground from being laid up in furrows as by an ordinary harrow.
There was also a harrow made from heavy triangular links, like a chain, which was intended for smoothing the surface or covering seed, which was particularly noticed, and appeared to work well.
I deem it proper' to mention in this report that, through the liberality of a few of the leading German merchants and bankers in this city, a large assortment of agricultural implements and machinery of American manufacture was purchased in this city and sent to the exhibition, at the close of which it was presented to the Hamburg committee, by Commissioner Wright, in their behalf, for the purpose of establishing an agricultural museum, in which should be collected all the improved agricultural implements and machinery known to be in successful use; this will doubtless result in the introduction of our agricultural inventions into use in the German states and other countries contiguous.
The contributors from this State are deeply indebted to the liberal donar tion made by the Legislature of this State of one thousand dollars, by which they have been enabled to sustain the credit of our State at this exhibition, and bring to the knowledge of a large portion of the people of continental Europe our improved agricultural facilities for saving labor and increasing the agricultural wealth of the country.
It was with pride and pleasure that I beheld the national flag of our country spreading its ample folds over the main entrance of the exhibition by the flag of the free city of Hamburg, and alluding to this fact at the close of the exhibition, I asked in behalf of the New York State Agricultural Society, that the Hamburg flag which had floated over the heads of the thousands who had thronged to this exhibition, should be sent as a memento of this great occasion, to be used at the coming exhibition in our State for the same purpose, that its folds might on this side of the Atlantic be entwined with the stars and stripes of our beloved country. This request was at once granted with evident pleasure and pride, and I shall take much pleasure in forwarding it to your secretary at Albany as soon as I can obtain possession from our Custom House.
Deeply regretting the circumstances which prevented your Society from being more ably represented by the Hon. Ezra Cornell, whose practical experience in agriculture would have made this exhibition highly interesting to him, and the knowledge he might have obtained communicated to your Society would have proved highly advantageous to the agricultural interests of your state, I shall be obliged to ask your kind indulgence for the deficiencies in this report, and the length of time which it has been delayed. All of which is most respectfully submitted,
Your ob't servant,