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REPORT OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES, MEET
FROM THE SECRETARY, PROF. RAFN.
Tillæg til "Den Berlingske Tidende."
Anniversary Meeting at the Castle of Christiansborg, Copenhagen, on the 27th day of May, 1861, His Majesty King Frederick VII of Denmark, presiding.
The Secretary, Professor C. C. Rafn, delivered a Report of the Proceedings and State of the Society during the year 1860.
Of the Annals of Northern Archæology the two volumes for 1859 and 1860 are in the press, of which the former, with 7 plates, contains several papers by C. C. Lorenzen and others, on ancient remains in the duchy of Sleswick, and the latter opens with the poem of Brage the Old on the shield of King Ragnar Lodbrok, communicated by Gisle Brynjulfsson.
Of the Archæological Review, containing the Proceedings of the Society, List of Fellows, etc., as also of the "Mémoires des Antiquaires du Nord," the volumes concluding with the year 1860 are in the press, from which they will shortly be ready. The Review contains a series of critical notices of several newly published works on American Antiquities, of which the "Antigüedades Peruanas," by Rivero and Tschudi, the "Histoire des nations civilisées du Mexique et de l'Amérique Centrale" par l'abbé Brasseur de Bourbourg, and the "Evangeliarium Aztecum," edited by Bernardino Biondelli, have been reviewed in detail. Among the papers contained in the "Mémoires," we only mention one by P. A. Munch, in English, on the Scotch Local Names occurring in the Sagas, and another, in French, by C. C. Rafn and C. J. Thomsen, containing the explicative text to the "Atlas de l'archéologie du Nord."
As now ready was exhibited the "Lexicon poeticum Antiquæ Linguæ Septentrionalis," by the late Dr. Sveinbiörn Egilsson. In the introduction, due to Jon Sigurdson, particular mention has been made of the labors of the author tending to illustrate the ancient language and literature of the North, as also of those of several of his Icelandic countrymen, who have deserved well of the preservation of Old Northern poetical remains. It concludes with some remarks on the terms "Dönsk tnnga," "Norræna," and "Old Northern," applied to the ancient language of the Scandinavian North.
His Majesty the King graciously exhibited a considerable number of very remarkable objects, with which his "Cabinet of Northern Antiquities" has been enriched since the last Anniversary of the Society, viz., numerous specimens from the age of stone, amongst others a triangular arrow-point of flint, found in a turf-pit near Thorsiö, in Scania, sticking in a scull; moreover several beautiful specimens from the age of bronze. Amongst the objects from the age of iron-85, almost all very fine ones-found in the turf-moor at Thorsbierg, near South-Brarup, in Angel; the other objects of this great and valuable collection are preserved in the Flensborg Museum. Their age is proved by Roman coins found with them, the most recent one belonging to the Emperor Commodus, and stamped a. 185. p.
Chr., whence we may conclude with some probability, that the objects just mentioned belong to the 3d century of our era. Of those now preserved in His Majesty's Cabinet, we only mention an iron coat of mail, and a shoulder buckle with gold and silver covering, a circular shield of wood, 38 inches in diameter, several arrow-shafts of pine wood with incision for the bowstring, a silver mounting destined for a sword-sheath and covered with gold bands.
Of the objects exhibited by His Majesty in the Meeting, several have been selected for representation in the detailed report to be given in the "Mémoires des Antiquaires du Nord."
General Fibiger, Commander-in-Chief of the Artillery, exhibited some very ancient and curious pieces newly received for the historical collection of arms in the Royal Arsenal.
From Dr. Henry J. Rink, Inspector of South Greenland, was received and exhibited vol. II of "Kaladlit okalluktualliait," or Greenlandic popular traditions written down and communicated by natives, together with a collection of wood-cuts designed and executed by Esquimaux in illustration of the said traditions. Mr. Samuel Kleinschmidt, teacher at the Godthaab Seminary, had transmitted a compendious history of the world, written by him in the Greenlandic language, and printed at Noungme, in Greenland.
Mr. Niels Arnzen, of Fall River, in the county of Bristol and State of Massachusetts, had transmitted to the Society a "Warranty Deed," by which "in consideration of his esteem for the editor of the 'Antiquitates Americanæ,' and the author of the 'Memoir on the discovery of America by the Northmen,' Professor C. C. Rafn, and the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen in Denmark, he does give, grant and convey unto the said Professor and Royal Society the rock known as the 'Writing,' or 'Dighton Rock,' and the 'lot or parcel of land surrounding it,' and situated in the town of Berkley, in said county of Bristol," its limits being stated in detail in the said deed. The Society charged its Committee of Management with expressing to the donor its thanks for this gift, as also with taking the proper measures to see the monument duly fenced and preserved.
At this Meeting were elected new Fellows R. S. N. A.: Baron BlixenFinecke, of Dallund, in Funen, and Colonel Taliaferro P. Shaffner, LL. D., presently at the head of the expedition for the North Atlantic Telegraph enterprise.
In the past year, 1860, have been enrolled in the List of Founding Fellows, or "Membres Fondateurs": H. Imp. H. Constantine Nicolaïevitch, Grand Duke of Russia; H. Imp. H. Ferdinand Maximilian, Archduke of Austria; Sir Henry Barkly, Governor of Victoria; Count Vitaliano Borromeo, Grandee of Spain, and Senator of Sardinia; Count Vladimir de BroëlPlater, of Wiszniowietz, Minsk; John H. Wilder Crosby, Esq., Advocate, Abbey Lodge, Ireland; George Granville, Earl of Ellesmere, London; George Fair, M. D., F. R. C. S., Edinburgh; Ivan I. Foundouklei, ControllerGeneral of Poland, Warsaw; Edward A. Hopkins, Esq., United States. Consul in the Republic of Paraguay; William H. Hudson, Esq., United States Consul Buenos Ayres; Count Stanislas Kossakowski, President of
the Heraldic Chamber of the Kingdom of Poland, Warsaw; Don Juan Mariano Larsen, Professor at the University of Buenos Ayres; Frederick Mueller, President of the Royal Institute of Victoria; Raja Pratápa Chandra Sinha Bahádoor Pakparâh, Bengal; Baboo Rajendralál Mitra, Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal; Iginio da Scarpa, Consul of Denmark, Fiume; Nicolas C. Schuth, Danish Consul-General in the Republic of Chili; Sir William Foster Stawell, Chief Justice, Victoria; Jonathan Binns Were, Danish Consul Melbourne; Sjoerd Wiarda, Consul of the Netherlands, Buenos Ayres.
REAPING AND MOWING MACHINES.
AUBURN, N. Y., 1864.
Col. B. P. JOHNSON:
Dear Sir-The rapid progress and development in this important branch of agricultural machinery since the day that Obed Hussey, of Baltimore, first exhibited his grain reaper at the New York State Agricultural Soci ety's Fair and Cattle Show in 1842, and his brother, Thomas R. Hussey, came to Auburn in 1842, with his reaper: From that day to this the improvement in this branch of agricultural machinery has been so rapid that I purpose giving a statement of the number of reapers and mowers that were manufactured at Auburn during the year 1863, that you may have some idea of the magnitude of the results obtained by the invention of the grain reaper and mower, which invention surpasses the most sanguine anticipations of its warmest friends.
First. D. M. Osborn & Co., in 1863, manufactured and sold 2,800 of the Kirby reaping and mowing machines; requiring for their construction as follows: 800 tons of pig iron, 350 tons of wrought iron and steel, 800 tons of coal, 300,000 feet of lumber; employing 300 men. Cost of materials $80,000. Paid for labor $100,000. This house has manufactured in four years over 10,000 machines.
Second. Dodge, Stevenson & Co., in 1863, have manufactured and sold 2,200 of the Ohio reaping and mowing machines; in the process of construction of the machines they have used 600 tons of pig iron, 275 tons of wrought iron and steel, 600 tons of coal, 250,000 feet of lumber. Employ 250 men. Cost of labor $60,000, of material $80,000. This house has manufactured in four years some 6,000 machines.
Third. Beardsley & Burtis, the next house in order, has, in 1863, manufactured and sold 1,700 of the Cayuga Chief reaper and mower; in the process of construction of the machines they have used 550 tons of pig iron, 225 tons of wrought iron and steel, 550 tons of coal, 175,000 feet of lumber; employ 150 men. Paid for labor $40,000; for material $60,000 This house has manufactured in three years some 3,000 machines.
Fourth. Thomas R. Hussey, a brother of Obed Hussey of Baltimore, the original inventor and patentee, is now manufacturing, under the name of Hussey and Quick, the original Obed Hussey grain reaper and mowing machine to the extent of 200 per year. The manufacturers of these ma. chines are constantly making improvements in their machines. The total number of reapers and mowers manufactured and sold in Auburn in 1863, was 6,900, at the cost of $180,000 for labor and $240,000 for ma terial, and employment of some 700 men.
Milton Aden & Son, manufacturers of agricultural implements of all varieties, employing some 30 men through the year.
JOHN B. DILL.
MEDINA P. O., OUTAGAMIE CO., Wis., March 21, 1864. Hon. B. P. JOHNSON, Secretary N. Y. Agricultural Society, Albany, N. Y.,
Dear Sir-The books and pamphlets you had the kindness to send us, are received, and I trust, duly appreciated. Please accept our thanks and best wishes.
I regret that I am so poorly qualified and prepared to comply with your request; but will make an effort. We are located in the valley of the "Lower Fox River," in a timbered country, and but a short distance from the openings and prairies. This section of country is comparatively new. The first settlements having been made about fifteen years since, like other portions of the West, the prairies and openings were first settled. But each succeeding year shows improvement. New lands are being cleared, and old improved.
The soil and climate resemble that of St. Lawrence county, N. Y., though not rocky and hilly like much of that county. There is also usually less snow here. Wheat, both winter and spring, is tolerably sure. Owing to imperfect tillage, the yield per acre is not large. Winter wheat averages about twenty-five, and spring wheat about fifteen bushels per acre. One field of ten acres yielded, the past season, 475 bushels; other fields fortyty-five bushels per acre. Corn not largely cultivated. Potatoes average about 200 bushels. I have raised that quantity on half an acre.
Much of our land would be improved by draining; but we have no tile. Clay is abundant, and some of it is doubtless suitable for tile-making.
zers we can use.
Tame grass does well here; but at present much hay is obtained on the marshes. In the western portion of our county, clover does remarkably well, and is not only valuable for stock, but one of the cheapest and best fertiliThe attention of our farmers is being turned to the production of wool. Probably this is the most remunerative business we can now engage in, on account of the high price of wool, and the scarcity of labor. The fine and middle grades are preferred. Fruit culture is also receiving considerable attention. The hardy varieties succeed well. In domestic animals there is not as much improvement as is desirable. The "natives" are perhaps as good as can be found of their kind, and are being gradually improved by the introduction of some of the improved breeds. We have a county agricultural society that is tolerably well managed and sustained. Also, a Fruit Growers' Association, recently formed, from which much good may result. Our Town Society remains nearly stationary, in consequence of the absence of those who have gone to defend the rights and honor of our country. We still cling to our organization, hoping that our absent friends may soon return, and again unite their efforts with ours for the advancement of our agricultural interests.
Permit me, in conclusion to say, that probably no portion of our country offers as great inducements to capitalists, especially those who wish to in
vest in manufacturing, as the valley of the Lower Fox River. Having been in nearly every northern, and in some of the southern States, I can safely say that I have never seen its equal. The water power is immense and easily available at all seasons of the year.
This immense water power, capable of driving an almost unlimited amount of machinery, is subject to but very little rise or fall at any season of the year, is never obstructed but little by ice, and is convenient to an abundance of timber, which must soon be valuable for manufacturing purposes. As a farming country this is destined to rank high, on account of its many advantages. Communication with the East, West and South is both easy and speedy. In a few short months the same may be said of the North and North West, as railroads are being pushed rapidly to completion in those directions. I have no personal interest in this matter; but would like to have its importance understood by those desirous of investing capital in any kind of manufactory.
SYLVESTER WOLCOTT, President Freedom Agricultural Society.