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Wm. Floyd Jones, of South Oysterbay, advocated surface manuring as most beneficial to the crop.
George Allen, of North Hempstead, concurred in the opinion above expressed, advocating spreading the manure broadcast upon the soil for corn particularly.
Jacob Smith, of Center Island, had excellent success in surface manuring. Had tried both systems, side by side, and was satisfied that the shallow applications of fertilizers is the proper course for farmers to pursue.
Isaac H. Cocks, of Westbury, inquired whether it is deemed best to apply manure for potatoes in the fall or spring.
Jacob Mott, of Newtown, had seen the two practices pursued, and well rotted manure had produced decidedly the best results, when applied in the spring. Warm and fresh manure were apt to injure potatoes and prevent them from coming up.
Isaac H. Cocks believed that proper sheds for the covering of their manure might be beneficial if judiciously constructed.
S. B. Mersereau, of Hempstead, had practiced covering his manure with sheds and is of the opinion that it would be an economical practice.
S. M. Titus, of Glen Cove, remarked that Mr. Ketcham, of Jericho, had large sheds in his yards for protecting his manure. Was unable to say what the result was.
Samuel Wanser, of Cedar Swamp, said a farmer in his neighborhood had a large shed for making manure, and if he continues the system a few years he thinks that he will be able to raise nothing but sorrel.
Mr. S. T. Taber, of Mineola, stated his practice was to put on as much as he could. He thought perhaps that the theories relating to the subject might be carried to extremes. Had applied pond mud the last year to wheat, and the effect at the commencement of the season was marked, but at the close of the season there was but little if any difference. Had also used poudrette in the hill of corn with good success, but cannot say it is a cheap manure.
Mr. Taber inquired whether any farmer in Queens county had raised a crop of wheat that paid the expenses of the production.
Jacob Smith said that he had. That he had raised forty bushels to the acre, manured with stable manure; applied thirty wagon loads of manure to the acre.
W. F. Jones said the average of the Long Island wheat crop was about sixteen bushels to the acre.
Jacob Smith said that in a number of years he had raised at two different times thirty-five bushels of wheat to the acre.
Wm. Floyd Jones offered the statement of a farmer living at South Oyster bay, Samuel Robbins, of his products upon 60 acres of ground:
STATEMENT. 3,000 bushels potatoes; 400 bushels onions; 650 bushels carrots; 100 bushels wheat, and 75 tons of hay.
Mr. Youngs presented a statement from Geo. R. Underhill made to the Glen Cove Farmers' Club relative to experiments upon potatoes.
of George R. Underhill, of Locust Valley, to the Glen Cove Farmers' Club of a series of experiments on raising Mercer potatoes, the present year; the principal object of the experiments was to discover some remedy against the depredations of the wire worm. Another object was to test the value of Bruce's concentrated manure—fish scraps, shell lime, and wood ashescompared with Peruvian guano. The last object was to determine the propriety of planting seed from large potatoes, or from those of medium size.
April 2d. Commenced planting a plat of 5ļ acres, a portion of the ground manured with New York stable manure at the rate of 90 carmen loads to the acre; another portion with the same kind of manure 125 loads to the acre; the balance of the ground with hog-pen manure 30 wagon loads to the acre; the manure was all placed in the furrows, the seed dropped on the manure. A portion of the plat was left without any additional manure; immediately adjoining it on four rows Bruce's concentrated manure was added at the rate of 1,360 pounds to the acre. It added nothing to the crop, and the potatoes were as much eaten by the wire-worm as on the rows adjoining. The next four rows with Peruvian guano added at the rate of 680 pounds per acre, increase of crop half the value of the guano, did not check the worms. Four rows with fish scraps added at the rate of 2,400 pounds per acre, added to the crop two-thirds the value of the fish, not more than two-thirds as many potatoes were eaten by the wireworms, as in the previous experiments.
Four rows with fresh slaked oyster-shell líme added at the rate of 120 bushels to the acre, no addition to the crop, and did not prevent the wireworm.
Four rows with fresh leached ashes, result the same as the last.
Eighteen rows with coal tar at the rate of 80 gallons per acre, reduced the crop one-third, and did not prevent the agression of the wire worm.
Four rows with the addition of salt at the rate of ten bushels per acre, there was no addition to the crop, but the potatoes were brighter colored, smoother, and not half as badly eaten as the others; probably if twice the quantity of salt had been used, there would have been none eaten.
All of the ingredients used, were placed on top of the manure, and in contact with the potatoes.
The yield was 1141 bushels of marketable potatoes, and 234 bushels of worm eaten and small potatoes, making the entire crop 1375 bushels, or 250 bushels per acre. The conclusion arrived at from the various experiments were, that from the addition of fish scraps there was the largest yield.
From salt, the potatoes were much better looking, and not so much injured by the wire worm.
When seed from large potatoes was used, the increased quantity of large potatoes, over that portion of the lot where the seed was cut from me lium sized potatoes was equal in value to twenty-five dollars per acre.
Where the largest quantity of stable manure was applied, there was the largest net profit.
To sum up, manure heavily with New York stable manure in the furrow, BOW 20 bushels of salt to the acre on the manure, and plant with seed cut from large smooth potatoes.
Mr. S. T. Taber inquired whether any individual had applied castor pumice.
Mr. Youngs said he had on grass with no increase perceptible in the crop.
Several gentleman had also applied plaster, but with no advantage to
Mr. S. T. Taber, gave an interesting account of the application and effects of plaster upon Dutchess county soil.
Wm. Floyd Jones inquired what had been the experience of farmers in planting seed potatoes, large or small ?
Mr. Mott advocated large potatoes, cutting them so as to leave one eye. Had raised 815 bushels of potatoes on three acres of ground. Advised using fish guano on potatoes. Had poor success with it on cabbage.
The following statement was handed in.
Mr. Charles Backus, of Newtown, has under cultivation eight large farms devoted to raising vegetables for. New York market. During the past year he has raised forty acres of potatoes, fifteen to twenty acres of parsnips, carrots and beets, fifty acres of corn, eighty acres of cabbages. One hundred acres are devoted to asparagus, and forty to currants. Three and a half acres are under glass, for raising early salad, radishes, cucumbers, &c. From three hundred to three hundred and fifty laborers are employed in the summer season, and twelve large wagon loads are every day sent to the city. His business in a single year amounts to $100,000. Only thirteen years ago two wagon loåds per week were the whole amount of produce raised by Mr. B., who has every year since extended his operations, until they now probably exceed those of any market gardener in the United States.
THE ANNUAL MEETING Was held at the same place, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, the president, John C. Jackson, in the chair.
A large number of members were present.
Ex-Governor John A. King, Daniel K. Youngs, and Hon. E. A. Lawrence, Ex-Presidents, were invited to take a seat by the side of the president.
The premiums awarded at the winter meeting were then announced by the secretary
The secretary read an able and interesting paper from Thomas Messenger, Esq., of Clarence Hall, Great Neck, on "Draining Swamp Lands,' when the following resolution was unanimously adopted.
Resolved, That the able and interesting paper by Thomas Messenger, Esq., of Clarence Hall, Great Neck, on "Draining Swamp Lands," be received and published in the Transactions of the Society.
Resolved, That the valuable premium essay, by Daniel K. Youngs, Esq., on “ Practical Asparagus Culture," be published in the Transactions of the Society.
The society then proceeded to elect officers for the ensuing year.
Townsend D. Cock, Locust Valley, Vice-President.
B. H. Creed, Jamacia, and R. E. Thorne, North Hemstead, were elected directors for three years.
The following resolution were then unanimously passed:
Resolved, That the thanks of the society are hereby tendered to John C. Jackson, Esq., for the impartial and satisfactory manner in which he has discharged the duties of president during the past year.
On motion of E. A. Lawrence,
Resolved, That the thanks of the society be tendered to John Ilarold, Esq., for the efficient and intelligent manner in which he has discharged the double duties of treasurer and secretary for the past year.
On motion of R. E. Thorne,
Resolved, That the thanks of the society be tendered to Townsend D. Cocks, for his efficient services as vice-president the past year.
Ex-Governor King presented the following resolution, prefacing it with some very appropriate remarks.
Resolved, That the multiplied duties of treasurer and secretary of the Society deserve and should receive an adequate and reasonable increase of salary, and that the funds of the society warrant an addition of $150 for this year.
On motion of Charles W. Rodgers,
Resolved, That the tharks of the society are due and are hereby tendered to the various county papers for the gratuitous use of their columns during the past year.
TREASURER'S REPORT. Receipts, including balance on hand....
84.795 75 Expended ...
3,202 34 Balance on hand....
JOHN HAROLD, Secretary,
DRAINING OF SWAMP LANDS ON LONG ISLAND, BY THOMAS MESSENGER, ESQ., CLAR
ENCE HALL, GREAT NECK. As but few experiments have been made in this favored section in draining swamp lands-deemed by many almost worthless and as what may have been accomplished has seldom met the eye of the farming interest, it will be my endeavor in a brief way, to show that few investments will realize better, and that no lands can be rendered more highly productive. The careful farmer, though of a reflective turn of mind, is not usually inclined to experiment, except on a limited scale; yet in the general, if I mistake not, it is only necessary to exhibit a fair probability of profit, to enlist his prompt acquiescence in new enterprises; and it will be a source of great satisfaction, if the following statements shall serve in any measure, to awaken new interest in this important branch of agricultural operations.
The land of which I now propose to speak, is situated in a valley, declining to the west, consisting of about twenty acres, one third of which was black muck or peat of various depths, the greatest being about seven feet, the remainder a heavy slate colored loam, bordering on clay. The sub-stratum was hard-pan, occasionally met with in this region, of sufficient closeness to hold water. The tract sloped gently upward right and left from the center, facilitating drainage. I commnened by opening a main canal from west to east from the lowest point of depression. As the adjacent land afforded but a slight fall, this opening was at first only about one foot deep by three feet wide at the top, increasing gradually to the highest point, where it reached the dep:h of four feet; this became necessary as it took the water from the more elevated fields. This principal channel remains open from necessity, a portion of it which had been closed being forced open by pressure. It was ascertained that the water, which at times entirely submerged the swamp, was derived in part from springs, which were discovered while running the cross drains. These drains were generally at distances of about two rods apart, being from two and a half to four feet deep by six inches wide at the bottom, and eighteen inches at the surface. For one-third of the space I brought into use draining tile of the "horse shoe” pattern; for a part of the remainder I used sinall stones, and for the balance brush: to which I was obliged to resort in the absence of a firm bottom, and much to my surprise, after a test of five years, this latter work remains sound and even more reliable than either of the others, discharging copiously, and as yet requiring no repairs. The result so far is highly encouraging, and with a few additional drains the whole plot will be reclaimed.
Those who were familiar with this swamp in by-gone years, would now scarcely recognise the spot. A more forbidding spectacle could scarcely be imagined; the whole being densely covered with sumach, alders, and the usual vegetation incident to such localities, while the higher surfaces contiguous, were thickly overrun with briars and like noxious growths. In fact, such was its condition, that portions of it were untrodden by the foot of man; in confirmation of which, it may be here stated, that while excavating the main channel, the remains of two farm cattle were discovered in such positions as to indicate that they had been entangled and mired, without any effort having been made for their recovery. The enterprise was attended at times with discouragements, and it was only by virtue of perseverance, as in all difficult undertakings, that success was eventually attained.
Now, the question may be asked, “why expend so much to recover waste lands, when for an equal outlay, improved lands could be obtained?" I have a ready answer, and first, the land itself is of the highest value. This is no longer a problem. I have produced corn of the best quality and largest quantity. One-half the area was sown with wheat last year, which was of rank growth and good yield, producing so far as thrashed, twenty bushels to the acre, and had it not been for the weevil, the result must have been nearly double. It grows celery four to five feet high; cabbages have been taken from it weighing twenty pounds to the head; mangel wurtzel and turnips, from limited experience have resulted well, Of potatoes I cannot speak so favorably, the exuberant growth of the