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on the banks of the Ribble, between Preston and Rib
chester. Oxyria reniformis, Campd.-On the rocks forming the west
side of Clitheroe Castle hill, plentiful; but probably
introduced. Myrica gale, Linn.-Weeton Moss, plentiful. Butomus umbellatus, Linn.-Canal, Altham-Miss Becker. Sagittaria sagittifolia, Linn.-Canal, Enfield-Miss Becker. Elodea Canadensis, Rich.-In several places in the canal
north of Preston, abundant, especially near Nateby Hall. Epipactis latifolia, Sw.—Wood at Dinckley; woods near
Samlesbury Mill; Altham Clough, and occasionally in hedges in the neighbourhood-Miss Becker.
palustris, Sw.—Marshy place in Pleasington-Mr. George Ward. Convallaria multiflora, Linn.--Altham-Miss Becker. Maianthemum bifolium, D. C.-In May, 1863, I had a long
but unsuccessful search through Dinckley Wood for this
plant. (See Part III.) Colchicum autumnale, Linn.-Meadow at Portfield, abundant. Carer stellulata, Gooden.—Pendle Hill.
extensa, Gooden.-Banks of the Wyre, between Skippool and the Shard Ferry.
dioica, Linn.-Pendle Hill-Miss Becker. Chära.–One or more of this family may be found in abun
dance in ditches between Knot End and Pilling. Botrychium lunaria, Sw.—A solitary specimen of this plant
was found between Barley and Sabden, a few years since,
by Miss Becker. Osmunda regalis, Linn.- Weeton Moss. Polypodium phegopteris, Linn.—Hoghton Wild Bottoms;
Dinckley Hall Wood; Churn Clough, Pendle-Miss
Dryopteris, Linn.-Hoghton Wild Bottoms.
Allosorus crispus, Bernh.-Hameldon Scar, above Huncoat
Miss Becker. Asplenium Filix-foemina var : Rhæticum, Linn.-Hedge banks at Rufford, occasionally.
Trichomanes, Linn.-Wall near Portfield-Miss Becker.
Ruta muraria, Linn.-Wall near Portfield-Miss Becker. Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh.-In a lane a little to the south
west of the Nick of Pendle ; in Altham-Miss Becker.
NOTE.-Miss Becker remarks that she has not seen Saxifraga tridactylites, Geranium lucidum, Asplenium Trichomanes and Rura-muraria, within many miles of their above-mentioned Portfield habitat. For this reason, although the plants are abundant in other parts of the district, the last-named station is considered worthy of mention.
NUMISMATIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND, FROM
1066 TO THE PRESENT TIME.
PART I. 1066-1504.
By F. J. Jeffery Esq., F.G.H.S.
(READ 4th May, 1865.)
That bartering was the means used among the ancients in the primitive state to obtain from one man what another required without force of arms, there is no doubt; but the first invention or use of coined money is unknown. Some suggest that Tubal Cain invented coins, because he was
an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron ; this is not very probable, for we read, 2000 years after, that Abraham gave Ephron “four hundred shekels of silver,
current money with the merchant,” for the cave of Machpelah, this money being not by tale (or pieces of metal bearing a recognised value throughout the country), but by weight, for “Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which “ he had named.” If I were to enter into all the arguments as to the origin of coined money, I should fill more space than this paper is intended to do: suffice it to say-some declare Janus or Saturn to have invented it; some (Greeks) Hermodice wife of King Midas; some (Jews) say Abraham, and, in proof, produce a coin with an old man and woman, “ Abraham and Sarah,” on one side, and a young man and woman, “Isaac and Rebecca," on the other; others (Latins) say Numa Pompilius, from whose name they say the word numus was derived ; but Pliny tells us, l. 18, cap. 3,* King Servius first impressed the figures of sheep and oxen on the money (copper) whence pecunia, money, itself is derived from pecus (cattle) : still the Greek colonists,
* Gen. iv, 22.
“ O'er Asia's coast,"
are believed to have the honour of first coining money about 800 B.C.
As Rome and Greece grew powerful and wealthy, so the arts improved from rude figures impressed on pieces of metal, to bold and trustworthy portraits of the Emperors well and, if I may use the term, beautifully executed; but with the fall of Rome, falls her “all,” her arts, sciences, everything, and by the time William the Conqueror put his foot on Albion's soil, coining, like all her sister arts, had scarcely passed its lowest ebb: from a fine profile of a Cæsar on a piece of metal of substantial thickness, coining had degenerated to a thin piece of silver with a something on one side styled a portrait, but just such a one as is given in the painting of “Neglected Genius." It is my intention, in a short outline, to trace the progress of the art from this low ebb to its second flood, and shew how and under what circumstances it has gradually improved and again reached to a point of perfection ; following the poverty and wealth of this island during the past eight hundred years, as illustrated by her coinage.
There are three distinct sections into which the English coinage can be divided : they are
“Servius rex, ovium boumque effigie primus aes signavit Pecunia ipsa a pecore appellabatur.”
1.-The RUDE, to 1504.
I. The Rude, to 1504.
This section I term “ rude” from the fact that the portrait is so rough and rude that there was certainly no attempt by the engravers to produce a likeness, for throughout this series any one is as like its original as any other. The cross and pellets, name of mintage-town and, on some, a Latin motto, generally fill the reverse of the silver coins; the obverse bearing the effigy of “my liege,” and round the field his name and dignities.
When William I found himself master of the field of Hastings and his opponent numbered among the dead, he did his best to induce his new subjects to believe he succeeded to the throne of England, not by conquest but by right of descent and as lawful heir of Edward the Confessor; and it is worthy of note that in Domesday Book, his arrival is referred to by the phrase, “after King William had come," as though he had merely “come to his own without opposition;" and only once does “after King William had conquered
England” appear. One of his first acts was to satisfy his new subjects that the coinage would not be changed, and it was with no little pleasure they found his money passing of the same weight, fineness and denomination as that of Harold. “In his laws the fines are regulated by pounds, oras, marcs,
shillings and pence. The shillings are sometimes expressly "stated to be English shillings of fourpence each. But in “Domesday Book various other denominations of money are
to be found ; such as the mite, farthing, halfpenny, marc of gold and of silver, ounce of gold and marsum.”* The
• Ruding's Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, vol. i, p. 147.