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Warrington, on the Mersey; Coccium = Walton, on the Ribble ; and Bremetonacis = Lancaster, on the Lune. The second or inland line is formed by Mamucium = Manchester, on the Irwell, a tributary of the Mersey; Rerigonium = Ribchester, on the Ribble; and Ad Alaunum = verborough, on the Lune. (Hist. Preston, p. 34.)

We may, therefore, now consider these as so many fixed points, and proceed to examine the roads which intersect the county. The Rev. John Whitaker, after tracing a portion of the great road from north to south through Rerigonium, alludes to several “minor ways" to Manchester, York &c.,

one of which passes through Whalley, and points to Colne." (Hist. Manch., vol. i, p. 186.) He afterwards traces what he conceives to be the course of Richard's seventh Iter, which runs from west to east, beginning at Freckleton on the Ribble ; but after leaving Ribchester he passes by Clitheroe, through Downham, Broughton near Skipton, and thence through Ilkley to York. Returning to the "minor road," he finds it passing by the fortifications of Castercliffe near Colne; and hence concludes that this place is the Colunio of the Anonymous Ravennas. He, however, places Ad Alpes Peninos at Broughton in Craven, and alters the distance in the Iter accordingly. Mr. Hatcher, in his edition of Bertram's Richard, (London, 1809,) adopts this arrangement, in which he is supported by the Rev. Thomas Leman in his Commentary appended to the same work. Their joint results may be given thus :

usque,

sic.

From

"A Portu Sistuntiorum Eboracum Freckleton to

M. P.
Rerigonio ... XIII
Ad Alpes Peninos ... XXIII
Alicana

X
Isurio

XVIII
Eboracum

XVII

Ribchester
Broughton.
Ilkley.
Aldborough
York.

The Roman road being tolerably perfect all the way to Aldborough and the vestiges of the stations undoubted, these authors consider that they are justified in altering the two first distances from XXIII and VIII to XIII and XXIII, as above. Dr. Whitaker, in his History of Whalley, (pp. 29-32, Ed. 1818,) partially dissents from these views. He traces the general courses of the two great roads, which intersected nearly at right angles on Fulwood Moor, but he doubts whether Ad Alpes Peninos ought to be considered a station ; and if it be so, whether it ought not to be sought on the “minor way" which traverses the eastern skirts of Pendle.” This able antiquary was not inclined to place much confidence in the Itinera of Richard ; although he admits the existence of the stations indicated in the Iter under discussion. Doubts respecting the authenticity of Richard's work are also stated by Messrs. Petrie and Hardy in the Introduction to the Monumenta Historica; and again by Dr. Robson in pp. 10-12, Vol. III of the Transactions of this Society. Thomas Wright, in his Celt, Roman and Saxon, lends his authority to the other side, and I think with very sufficient reasons :- -" his “roads have been traced where he (Richard) places them ; " and their existence was certainly not known in Bertram's “time." (Celt &c., p. 459.) The via media has been found by the Rev. Thomas Reynolds, who considers Richard to have been “the first known English commentator on the work of “ Antoninus.” (Iter Britanniarum, p. 126.) It is worthy of remark that not only the names of the stations, but the direction of the roads across the county, are given with an accuracy in Richard's Itinerary which cannot be found in either Ptolemy or Antoninus; and hence his general trustworthiness may be considered as established.

The late Mr. John Just carefully examined the route of the seventh Iter, commencing with Poulton-le-Fylde on the Wyre, and ending with Downham on the north of Pendle Hill; but

he does not attempt to fix any of the stations beyond Rerigonium. (Transactions Hist. Society, Vol. III, pp. 3-10.) At the close of this paper he remarks “that much remains to “ be done” respecting the topography of the district. The difficulty of placing the stations beyond Ribchester had been felt long before by the historian of Whalley. Admitting Richard's authenticity for the sake of argument only, he remarks that the seventh Iter “calls upon us to look out for “his station Ad Alpes Peninos at a distance of eight miles “ from Rerigonium.” (Hist. Whalley, p. 29.) He sets out with the names of Calunio and Gallunio from the Anonymous Ravennas, and supposes, with his namesake the historian of Manchester, that these are really only one and the same station. Finding that the main road from Ribchester, on nearing Pendle, throws off a branch towards Burnley, he examines the route of this “minor road”, and finds the remains of a considerable rectangular encampment at Portfield, about two miles from Whalley, and on the crest of a spur from Pendle Hill. This station commands the valleys of the Calder and the Ribble, and was "probably one of the castra estiva dependent upon Ribchester." (Whalley, p. 252.) He would not pronounce this to be Gallunio, because he held that there was no such station on this Iter.

Since Dr. Whitaker wrote this Roman road has become much better known. It has been exposed near New Church in Pendle Forest, and may be traced from Ribchester, by Portfield, above Sabden, along Wheatley Lane, and on by Barrowford to Castercliffe near Colne, and thence over the hills towards Ilkley. Another branch from Portfield passed through Burnley, and on by Cliviger towards Heptonstall and Slack, the ancient Cambodunum. It is known by the name of the " Long Causeway” in one part of its course, and of the “Devil's Pad" in another; and in some places the original boulders appear to occupy their first positions. Evidences of Roman occupation have also been found about the present town of Whalley; and hence I propose to consider Gallunio as a real station, and to place it on the crest of the hill at Portfield.

Calunio has long since been identified with Colne. Dr. Gale was probably the first to suggest this application; and the fact that the orthography of Colne is Calna in a charter of the reign of Henry I, affords a strong additional proof that he was right in his conjecture.

I have described the immense fortifications remaining at Castercliffe in a former communication (Vol. ix, pp. 21-42); and also indicated the direction of the Roman road to Portfield, in the small sketch map which accompanies that paper.

. We may, therefore, accept as very probable that Calunio = Colne, and that the camp at Castercliffe was another of the castra æstiva of the Roman troops. The many Roman coins which have been found along this line of road at Emmot, at Wheatley Lane, and near Colne, are proofs sufficient that the

conquerors of the world " frequently traversed this “minor

way," between Rerigonium and Alicana. May we not, therefore, with a high degree of probability, place Richard's Ad Alpes Peninos either at Portfield or Castercliffe ? And may we not also reasonably attribute his indefiniteness respecting this or these stations, and his erroneous distances, to the imperfections of the MSS. which he consulted when constructing his Diaphragmáta ? Both positions answer his description ; for the first crowns one of the offshoots of Pendle Hill, and the second lies on a high mound at the foot of one of the slopes of Boulsworth, which is certainly the highest hill in that part of the Pennine chain which bounds Lancashire on the east. On the whole I prefer to make Ad Alpes Peninos = Portfield ; and if this postulate be granted, we may then interpret the seventh Iter as follows:

Portus Sistuntiorum = Mouth of the Wyre.
Rerigonium = Ribchester.
Ad Alpes Peninos = Gallunio = Portfield.
Calunio Colne.
Alicana Ilkley.
Isurium = Aldborough.
Eboracum = York.

The several distances between the stations must now be modified so as to include the two which we have placed between Ribchester and Ilkley; when this is done we have the complete Iter as it probably existed in the time of the Romans.

A Portu Sistuntiorum Eboracum usque, sic :

M. P.
Rerigonio

XXIII ...Ribchester.
Ad Alpes Peninos

VIII .. ...Portfield, Whalley.
Gallunio
Calunio

x .......Castercliffe, Colne.
Alicana

..... Ilkley
Isurio.....

XVIII ... Aldborough.
Eboraco.....

XVI ......York.

XV....

From the mouth of the Wyre to Ribchester, along the line of the road, the distance is about that given above when the mille passus is taken = 5,000 feet. Portfield is eight such miles from Ribchester; thence to Castercliffe is ten miles, and this station is again about fifteen Roman miles from Ilkley. These distances are sufficiently accurate for identification. The variations in the numerals are not greater than those which might easily arise from errors of transcription ; and the undoubted remains of the stations along the Iter, afford additional evidence of the general trustworthiness of the Anonymous Ravennas and the Diaphragmáta of Richard. It is also worthy of remark that in the map, which Bertram

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