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he does not attempt to fix any of the stations beyond Rerigonium. (Transactions Hist. Society, Vol. III, pp. 3-10.) At the close of this paper he remarks “ that much remains to "be done” respecting the topography of the district. The difficulty of placing the stations beyond Ribchester had been felt long before by the historian of Whalley. Admitting Richard's authenticity for the sake of argument only, he remarks that the seventh Iter “calls upon us to look out for “his station Ad Alpes Peninos at a distance of eight miles " from Rerigonium.” (Hist. Whalley, p. 29.) He sets out with the names of Calunio and Gallunio from the Anonymous Ravennas, and supposes, with his namesake the historian of Manchester, that these are really only one and the same station. Finding that the main road from Ribchester, on nearing Pendle, throws off a branch towards Burnley, he examines the route of this “minor road”, and finds the remains of a considerable rectangular encampment at Portfield, about two miles from Whalley, and on the crest of a spur from Pendle Hill. This station commands the valleys of the Calder and the Ribble, and was “ probably one of the
castra cestiva dependent upon Ribchester.” (Whalley, p. 252.) He would not pronounce this to be Gallunio, because he held that there was no such station on this Iter.
Since Dr. Whitaker wrote this Roman road has become much better known. It has been exposed near New Church in Pendle Forest, and may be traced from Ribchester, by Portfield, above Sabden, along Wheatley Lane, and on by Barrowford to Castercliffe near Colne, and thence over the hills towards Ilkley. Another branch from Portfield passed through Burnley, and on by Cliviger towards Heptonstall and Slack, the ancient Cambodunum. It is known by the name of the
Long Causeway” in one part of its course, and of the “Devil's Pad" in another; and in some places the original
boulders appear to occupy their first positions. Eviden oes of
. Roman occupation have also been found about the present town of Whalley; and hence I propose to consider Gallunio as a real station, and to place it on the crest of the hill at Portfield.
Calunio has long since been identified with Colne. Dr. Gale was probably the first to suggest this application; and the fact that the orthography of Colne is Calna in a charter of the reign of Henry I, affords a strong additional proof that he was right in his conjecture.
I have described the immense fortifications remaining at Castercliffe in a former communication (Vol. ix, pp. 21-42); and also indicated the direction of the Roman road to Portfield, in the small sketch map which accompanies that paper. We may, therefore, accept as very probable that Calunio = Colne, and that the camp at Castercliffe was another of the castra æstiva of the Roman troops. The many Roman coins which have been found along this line of road at Emmot, at Wheatley Lane, and near Colne, are proofs sufficient that the
conquerors of the world” frequently traversed this “minor
way," between Rerigonium and Alicana. May we not, therefore, with a high degree of probability, place Richard's Ad Alpes Peninos either at Portfield or Castercliffe ? And may we not also reasonably attribute his indefiniteness respecting this or these stations, and his erroneous distances,
imperfections of the MSS. which he consulted when constructing his Diaphragmáta ? Both positions answer his description ; for the first crowns one of the offshoots of Pendle Hill, and the second lies on a high mound at the foot of one of the slopes of Boulsworth, which is certainly the highest hill in that part of the Pennine chain which bounds Lancashire on the east. On the whole I prefer to make Ad Alpes Peninos = Portfield ; and if this postulate be granted, we may then interpret the seventh Iter as follows:
Portus Sistuntiorum Mouth of the Wyre.
The several distances between the stations must now be modified so as to include the two which we have placed between Ribchester and Ilkley; when this is done we have the complete Iter as it probably existed in the time of the Romans.
A Portu Sistuntiorum Eboracum usque, sic :
XXIII ... Ribchester.
VIII .. ... Portfield, Whalley.
... XV..... .Ilkley.
XVIII ... Aldborough.
From the mouth of the Wyre to Ribchester, along the line of the road, the distance is about that given above when the mille passus is taken = 5,000 feet. Portfield is eight such miles from Ribchester; thence to Castercliffe is ten miles, and this station is again about fifteen Roman miles from Ilkley. These distances are sufficiently accurate for identification. The variations in the numerals are not greater than those which might easily arise from errors of transcription ; and the undoubted remains of the stations along the Iter, afford additional evidence of the general trustworthiness of the Anonymous Ravennas and the Diaphragmůta of Richard. It is also worthy of remark that in the map, which Bertram asserts he copied from the original, the commencement of the seventh Iter is placed a little lower than the estuary of the Lune. This will bring us to the mouth of the Wyre, where I have placed the Portus.
Rerigonium is the next station on the road, as it ought to be, but it is placed too far to the west, or too near the port. Coccium is situated on the banks of the Belisama the Ribble, a little to the south of the junction of the seventh Iter with the tenth, or that from Carlisle through Lancaster towards Manchester and the south; and this is certainly the correct position of the new station at Walton-le-Dale.
The same Iter is represented in the map as crossing the Alpes Penina Montes ” between Rerigonium and Alicana, but no stations are marked as situated near these mountains. This is sufficiently accurate geography; for the omissions are only similar in kind to those in our modern atlases, where the less important towns are frequently omitted. The compiler of the Iter might easily forget the Roman names of Portfield and Colne ; and yet remember that they were
Peninos," and that one of them was only eight miles to the east of the principal station on that line of road. From all that has been advanced, I conclude that Portfield has stronger claims than Broughton in Craven to be considered the station intended by Richard. It is situated at the proper distanco from Rerigonium --it is near the hills laid down in the map as crossed by the road—and the corrections of the numerals do less violence to the original than any other with which I am acquainted. The corrected Iter, therefore, appears to me to have a high degree of probability in its favour; and in its present state I beg to offer it to this Society, and for the consideration of those who may hereafter interest themselves in the Roman Topography of East Lancashire.
“ Ad Alpes