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has fubftituted another, copied indeed from a contemporary writer, but still not illustrative of the passage in question. I shall beg leave then te present the reader with some others, from which it will appear, that the quintain was a military exercise in Shakspeare's time, and not a mere rustic sport, as Mr. Malone imagines.


No. 1. is copied from an initial letter in an Italian book printed in 2560. Here is the figure of a man placed upon the trunk of a tree, holding in one hand a shield, in the other a bag of land. No. 2. is the Saracen quintain from Pluvinol instruction du Roi Louis XIII. dans l'exere tise de monter à cbeval. This sort of quintain, according to Menestrier, was invented by the Germans, who, from their frequent wars with the Turks, accustomed their soldiers to point their lances against the figure of their enemy. The skill consisted in livering the lance to pieces, by striking it against the head of the man, for if it touched the shield, the figure turned round and generally struck the horseman a violent blow with his sword. No. 3. is the Flemish quintain, copied from a print after Wouvermans; it is called La bague Flamande, from the ring which the figure holds in his right hand : and here the object was to take away the 7


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ring with the point of the lance, for if it firuck any other part, the man turned round and hit the rider with his fand-bag. This is a mixture of the quintain and running at the ring, which two sports have been some how or other in like manner confounded by the Italians, whg sometimes express the running at the ring by correre alla quintana. The principle of all these was the fame, viz. to avoid the blow of the sword or fand-bag, by striking the quintain in a particular place.

It might have been expected that some instance had been given of the use of the quintains in England; and for want of it an objection may be taken to this method of illustrating the present subject : but let it be remembered, that Shakspeare has indiscriminately blended the usages of all nations; that he has oftentimes availed hims: 1f of hearsay evidence; and again, that as our manners and customs have at all times been borrowed from the French and other nations, there is every reason to infer that this species of the quintain had found its way into England. It is hardly. needful to add, that a knowledge of very many of our ancient spprts and domestic employments is not now to be attained. Historians have contented themselves to record the vices of kings and princes, and the mi.. nutie of battles and fingers; and with very few exceptions; they have Congidered the discufiion of private manners (a theme perhaps equally interetting to pofterity) as beneath their notice and of little or no importance.

As a military sport or exercife, the nfe of the quintain is very ancient, and may be traced even among the Romans. It is mentioned in Juftinian's Code, Lib. III. Tit. 43 ; and its most probable etymology is. from “ Quintus,” the name of its inventor. In the days of chivalry it was the lubftitute or rehea:sal of tilts and tournaments, and was at Length adopted, though in a ruder way, by the common people, becoming amingit them a very favourite amusement. Many instances occur of its use in several parts of France, par:icularly as a feignorial right exacted from millers, watermen, new-married men, and others; when the party was obliged, under some penalty, to run at the quintain on. Whitsunday and other particular times, at the lord's castle for his diver.. Gon. Sometimes it was practised upon the water, and then the quintain: was either placed in a boat, or erected in the middle of the river. Some. thing of this kind is described from Fitzstephen by Stowe in his Survey, p. 143, edit. 1618, 4to. and still continues to be practised upon the Seine at Paris. Froissart mentions, that the shield quintain was used in Ireland in the reign of Richard II. In Wales it is still practised at weddings, and at the village of Offham, near Town Malling in Kent, there is now standing a quintain, resembling that copied from Stowe, opa posite the dwelling house of a family that is obliged under some tenure to support it, but I do not find that any use has been ever made of it within the recollection of the inhabitants.

Shakspeare then has most probably alluded to that sort of quintain which resembled the human figure; and if this be the case, the speech of Orlando may be thus explained : “ I am unable to thank you; for sure. prized and subdued by love, my intellectual powers, which are my better



parts, fail me, and I resemble the quintain, whose human or active part being thrown down, there remains nothing but the lifeless trunk or block which once upheld it."

Or, if better parts do not refer to the quintain, “ that which here Aands up” means the buman part of the quintain, which may be also not snaptly called a lifeless block. Douce.

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