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POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY,

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Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by

CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

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i University of Wisconsin - Madison

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Madison, WI 53706-1494
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E55
1835
Voll

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

REVELATION. Besides the exhibitions the darkness of all the heathen mytholoof divine agency in the works of nature, gies, which, on closer examination,

plainly and the inward disclosures of divinity in appear to have been built up on the simthe human mind, we find among almost ple religious notions of the primitive age, all nations traditions of an immediate rev. confirming the declaration of Scripture, elation of the will of God, communicated that God has never left himself without a by words or works of supernatural sig- witness in the world. These earlier nonificance or power. The nations of anti- tions were preserved pure, and gradually quity traced the origin of their religions, enlarged, during the Mosaic period, by and even of their civilization, to the in- successive revelations to chosen individustructions of the gods, who, in their opin- als, with whom the Bible makes us acjon, taught their ancestors as men teach quainted under the name of prophets, children. As a child, without the assist- from Moses to Malachi. God finally comance of others, would be incapable of ac- pleted his revelations through Christ. quiring knowledge, so the human race, in Thus has revelation educated the human its infancy, could not have made the first race from infancy to manhood, and man, step in the arts and sciences without a dismissed from this school eighteen cenguide; and even if external nature, in its turies ago, has now only to make the light, various objects and phenomena, were a thus received, known and healing to all. sufficient guide to that kind of knowledge The evidences of this divine plan of the and skill which is necessary to provide for education of the human race, proclained the bodily wants of man, can it be sup- and accomplished in the Bible, are exhibitposed that this nature could set in action ed in the history of the world. (See Chrisbis moral faculties, and open to his view tianity.) the world of spiritual being ? To reason, REVELATION. (See Apocalypse.). which derives its knowledge from sensual REVENUE. For the revenue of the difexperience, the world is a riddle: the so- ferent states of Europe and America, see lution of this riddle—a knowledge of God the articles on the respective countries; and his relation to the world—could have also the Table of European States. (The been given only by God himself. What- early copies of this work have an imever knowledge man possesses of this proved form of this table after the index subject must have been received directly, of vol. v.) See also the article Taxes. by oral communication, from the Deity, REVERBERATion, in physics; the act of without which he could never, or at least a body repelling or reflecting another after not so soon por so surely, have acquired its impinging on it. Echoes are occasionit. In this revelation of himself," God ed by the reverberation of sounds from adapted his communications to the com- arched surfaces.-In glass furnaces, the prehension of the beings for whose instruc- flame reverberates, or bends back again, to tion it was intended; and we may distin- burn the matter on all sides.—In chemisguish three periods in this education of try, reverberation denotes a circulation of the buman race in divine things. The flame, or its return from the top to the earliest revelations, made in the patriarchal bottom of the furnace, to produce an inage, were common to the progenitors of tense heat, when calcination is required. all people; and their light shines through REVEREND; a title of respect given to

ecclesiastics. The religious, in Catholic ed plan. The Revue was edited till the countries, are styled reverend fathers, and close of 1831 by Jullien (9. v.), and is the abbesses, prioresses, &c., reverend now conducted by M. Hippolyte Carnot. mothers. In England, bishops are right The Bulletin universel (q. v.), conductreverend, archbishops most reverend, and ed by baron Ferussac, has appeared the lower clergy reverend.

since 1824, and contains, as its name REVERSION; the residue of an estate imports, information on every subject in left in the grantor, to coinmence in pos- literature, science, and the arts. The Resession after the determination of the par- vue Française was established in 1828, and ticular estate granted. The estate returns has been conducted with great ability in to the grantor or his heirs after the grant the hands of Guizot (q. v.) and the duke is over.

de Broglie. The Revue Britannique (1825), REVIEWS. The French were the first Revue Germanique (1829), and Revue Euto establish critical journals. The Biblio- ropéenne (1831), are monthly journals, degraphia Parisina of Jacob (1645) was voted, as their titles indicate, to foreign litmerely a yearly catalogue of new books, erature. In most of the French journals, without remarks of any kind; but it is the names of the authors are attached to said to have suggested the idea of the each article.—The freedom of the press in Journal des Savans, a weekly journal, in- Holland led to the establishment, in that stituted in 1665, by M. de Sallo, which country, by learned foreigners, of some of contained analyses and critical judgments the most valuable critical journals, which of new works. It was afterwards edited have appeared any where. Acute critiby the abbés Gallois and De la Roque, and cism, extensive erudition, and charm of president Cousin. From 1715 to 1792, it style, are united in a remarkable degree was conducted by a society of scholars, in the Nouvelles de la République des Letund appeared in monthly numbers. In tres, edited from 1684 to 1687 by Bayle, 1792, it was discontinued, and revived, in and continued by other hands; the His1816, under the patronage of the crown. toire des Ouvrages des Savans, by Basnage The collaborators since its revival have (1687—1709); and the several journals been De Sacy, Langlès, Raynouard, Raoul- conducted by Leclerc (Bibliothèque uniRochette, Rémusat, Dacier, Quatremère verselle, 1686-93, 23 vols.; Bibliothèque de Quincy, Letronne, Biot, Cuvier, &c. Choisie, 1703—13, 27 vols.; and BiblioThe collection from 1665 to 1792 forms thèque ancienne et moderne, 1714—27, 28 111 vols., 410., reprinted Amsterdam (1684 vols.). Besides these are distinguished the seq.), 381 vols., 12mo. The Mercure de Journal littéraire (1713_37), Bibliothèque France, begun in 1672, under the title of raisonnée (1728–51), and Bibliothèque Mercure Galant, and still continued, was nouvelle (1738—44). Among the Dutch originally designed for the amusement of literary journals, conducted by native the court, and men of the world, and was scholars, the principal are De Boekzaal van very miscellaneous in its contents. The Europe (from 1692, under different titles); editorship, which was bestowed as an act Het Republyk de Geleerden (1710—48); of court favor, was sometimes in good Allgemeene Konst-en Letter-Bode (since hands, as, for example, Marmontel's. The 1788, which is most highly esteemed in Année littéraire (1754–76) acquired ce- Holland); De Recensent ook der Recensenlebrity under the management of Fréron. ten; the Vaderlandsche Bibliothek (1790), (q. v.) The Journal étranger (1754–62), &c.—The Italian journals of criticism are and the Journal encyclopédique (1756—91' characterized by the completeness of their contained dissertations and papers of vari- analyses of works: the principal are the ous kinds, as well as reviews. The Revue Giornale de' Letterati d'Italia (Venice, (originally Décade) philosophique, littéraire 1710—33), edited at first by Apostolo Zee politique (1794-1807), was for a time no, and rich in materials of literary histoedited by Ginguené, and was distinguished ry; the Biblioteca Italiana (Milan, 1816 for consistency of principle during a suc- seq.), edited until 1826 by Acerbi, and cession of most agitated periods. Millin's since by Gironi, Carlini, and Fumagalli. Annales (originally Magazin) encyclopé- and distinguished for acuteness of critidiques (1795—1818), together with critical cism and freedom of judgment; the Noreviews, contains a valuable mass of ori- velle Letterarie (Florence, 1740), conducted ginal essays, and a great variety of inter- for some time by the learned Lami; the esting intelligence relating to all countries. Antologia di Firenze, which contains also It has been succeeded by the Revue en-' original essays; the Effemeridi Letterarie, cyclopédique, which still appears in month- and the Giornale Arcadico (1819 seq.), lý numbers, on a similar but more extend- both at Rome, and the Giornale enciclope

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dico (Naples, 1806), chiefly a selection the lapse of a century, under the editorfrom other journals. The Giornale de ship of Sylvanus Urban (the original UrLetterati (Pisa, 1771 seq.) was for a time ban was, as is well known, the bookseller edited by the celebrated biographer Fab- Cave), and has acquired celebrity by the broni, and is one of the best Italian period- early connexion of Dr. Jobnson with its icals. The principal literary journals of publisher. There is an index extending Spain are the Diario de los Literatos de from 1731 to 1786, and a second from 1787 España (1737-43, 4 vols.), and the Me- to 1818 (2 vols., 1829), with a historical morial litterario de Madrid (1784—1807), preface by Nichols. The Monthly Review wbieb contain little more than an account (1749) was the first critical journal estabof the contents of books. In 1831, a jour- lished in England ; it was followed by the nal in Spanish was undertaken at Ha- Critical Review (1756). The British Critic vana, under the title of Revista Bimestre (1793) has appeared since 1827 in quarCubang, by Mariano Cubi i Soler.-Ger- terly numbers, under the title of the Themany has been most fruitful in critical jour- ological Review, and is the organ of the nals, which are more severely literary and church party. A new era of periodical learned than the English productions of the criticism, in Great Britain, began with the same kind. The earliest critical periodical Edinburgh Review (q. v.), which took a is the well-known Acta Eruditorum (Leip- wider range and a loftier tone, both in sic

, 1682—1776), established by Oito politics and literature, than bad been asMencke, and containing, besides reviews, sumed by any of its predecessors. The original treatises. Thomasius's Monats- London Quarterly Review was estabgespräche (1688—90), and Tenzel's Monat- lished, under the management of Gifford, liche Unterredungen (1689, continued un- in 1809, and has supported tory and high der the title Curieuse Bibliothek), are church principles. In 1825, it passed into among the earlier German journals of the hands of H. N. Coleridge, and is at criticism. The Neuen Zeitungen von present edited by Mr. Lockhart. The gelehrten Sachen (Leipsic, under different principal contributors to this journal have titles

, 171597) gives an abstract of all been Gifford, Southey, Scott, Croker, &c. native and foreign journals up to 1740. These two Reviews are republished in The Göttinger gelehrten Anzeigen (Göt- the U. States; and there have recently been tingen, 1739, under different titles) was announced, as preparing for publication, edited by Haller and Heyne, and contains Selections from the Edinburgh Review, contributions from Michaelis, Eichhorn, with a Preliminary Dissertation and Notes Blumenbach, Hugo, Spittler, Heeren, &c. by Maurice Cross, and Essays, moral, poThe Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend litical and literary, selected from the (Berlin, 1759—65), by Lessing, Mendels- Quarterly Review, with an Introduction sohn, Nicolai , &c., and the Allgemeine by Mr. Lockhart

. The Westminster ReDeutsche Bibliothek (Berlin, 1766–96, 118 view (established in 1824) is the advocate Fols. Neue Allg. Deutsche Bib. 1793— of radical reform in church, state and le1806, 107 vols.), form a new period in gislation, and was established by the disciGerman literature. The Allgemeine Lit- ples of Jeremy Bentham (q. v.), whose eraturzeitung (Jena, 1785, transferred to principles in law and morals it supports. Halle in 1804, edited by Schűtz and Huf- The Foreign Quarterly Review (estabeland) took a yet wider range and a high- lished in 1827) is devoted to foreign literer tone. On its removal to Halle, Eichborn atures. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine undertook the Neue Jenaische Allgem. Lit- (1817, edited by Wilson), though but eraturzeitung (Jena, 1804). The Leipziger partially occupied with critical matter, Literaturzeilung (since 1800, under several contains many able criticisms. Its polititles)

, and the Èrlanger. Literaturzeitung tics are high tory. Tait's Edinburgh (1746–1810), are of inferior value. The Magazine has recently been started (April, Heidelberger" Jahrbücher der Literatur 1832), professedly to defend opposite (1808), and the Wiener Jahrbücher der Lit. principles in politics, and to assume a eratur (1818), have enjoyed considerable higher tone in literature than has been usureputation. The Hermes (Leipsic, 1819, ally adopted by these smaller periodicals, discontinued 1831, 35 vols.) was distin- The other English magazines are chiefly guished for its elevated tone, and depth filled with matter of local or temporary and variety of erudition.-In England, the importance. We must not, however, forGentleman's Magazine (1731), which at get to mention the Retrospective Review first consisted merely of selections from (14 vols., ending in 1827), devoted to nonewspapers, curious intelligence, &c., is tices of old works, and the celebrated venerable for its age ; it still appears, after Anti-Jacobin Review (chiefly political,

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