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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS.

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1. ADDISON, JOSEPH

295, 438 2. ARNOLD, GEORGE

133 3. ATHERSTONE, EDWIN

401 4. BACON, SIR FRANCIS

332 5. BEECHER, LYMAN

128, 228 6. BIBLE, THE

160, 189, 420 7. BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM 410 8. BLACKWOOD's MAGAZINE

63 9. BROWN, JOHN

417 10. BROWNING, ELIZABETH B. 195 11. BRYANT

141, 275, 434 12. BULWER-LYTTON.

334 13. BURKE, EDMUND

379 14. BYRD, WILLIAM

94 15. BYRON

205, 408, 415 16. CALHOUN, JOHN C.

344 17. CAMPBELL, THOMAS. 211, 396 18. CARY, ALICE

88 19. CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY. 132 20. CHORLEY, H. F.

81 21. COLERIDGE.

462 22. COLMAN, GEORGE

303 23. COWPER

310 24. DANA, RICHARD H., Jr.

371 25. DAVY, SIR HUMPHRY

131 26. DEWEY, ORVILLE

389 27. DICKENS

96, 135 28. DISRAELI, BENJAMIN

70 29. DRAKE, JOSEPH RODMAN 119 30. DRYDEN

96 31. DWIGHT, TIMOTHY

419 32. EMERSON

447 33. EVERETT

68 34. FIELDS, JAMES T.

301 35. FLAGG, WILSON

90 36. Fox, CHARLES JAMES

102 87. FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN

431

NAME.

PAGE. 38. GOLDSMITH

215 39. GRATTAN, HENRY

154 40. GRAY, THOMAS .

108 41. GREELEY, HORACE .

398 42. GREENWOOD, F. W. P.

223 43. GRIMKÉ, THOMAS S.

163 44. HALLECK, Fitz-GREENE

202 45. HAYNE, ROBERT YOUNG

257 46. HAZLITT, WILLIAM

278 47. HEMANS, FELICIA D.

226 48. HENRY, PATRICK

115 49. HOLMES

246, 405 50. HOOD, THOMAS .

266 51. HOPKINSON, FRANCIS

73 52. HOWELLS, W. D.

292 53. HOWITT, WILLIAM

132 54. HUNT, LEIGH

321 55. HUTTON, JOSEPH

161 56. IRVING

192, 242, 249 57. JACKSON, HELEN HUNT

358 58. JEFFERSON, THOMAS

253 59. JOHNSON, SAMUEL

78, 130 60. JONES, SIR WILLIAM

255 61. KENNEDY, JOHN P.

171 62. KING, THOMAS STARR

426 63. LEE, HENRY

444 64. LEFEBVRE-LABOULAYE

269 65. LONGFELLOW 262, 290, 392, 429 66. MACAULAY

375 67. MACKENZIE, HENRY

218 68. MILTON

312 69. MITFORD, MARY RUSSELL 221 70. NEAL, JOHN

104 71. PARKMAN, FRANCIS

325 72. PERCIVAL, J. G.

251 73. PHILLIPS, CHARLES

143 74. PIERPONT, JOHN

146

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS.

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NAME.

PAGE. 75. PITT

152 76. PoE, EDGAR ALLAN

382 77. POPE

451 78. PORTER, NOAH .

457 79. PRENTICE, GEO. D.

355 80. PRESCOTT

286 81. PROCTER, ADELAIDE ANNE 178 82. READ, T. B.

256 83. ROGERS, SAMUEL

340 84. RUSKIN, JOHN

131 85. SCOTT

156, 176, 197, 350 86. SHAKESPEARE

95, 158, 167 234, 281, 322, 327, 339, 368 87. SHERIDAN, R. B.

130 88. SIMMS, WILLIAM GILMORE 453 89. SPARKS, JARED

440 90. SPRAGUE, CHARLES

209 91. SPRING, GARDINER

186 92. SUMNER

148

NAME.

PAGL, 93. TAYLOR, B. F.

231 94. TENNYSON

347 95. THACKERAY

435 96. THOMSON, JAMES

72, 95 97. THRALE, HESTER LYNCH 124 98. TIMROD, HENRY

456 99. TOBIN, JOHN

238 100. TYNDALL

364 101. VON HERDER. J. G..

100 102. WALLER, EDMUND

95 103 WALPOLE.

151 104. WEBSTER

259, 352, 362 105. WHITNEY, ADELINE D. T. 185 106. WHITTIER

317, 424 107. WILSON, JOHN

94, 180 108. WINTHROP, R. C.

394 109. WIRT, WILLIAM

366 110. WOODWORTH, SAMUEL

67 111. WORDSWORTH

4.46

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401

HERCULANEUM

Drawn by Charles D. Sauerwein. Engraved by Francis S. King.

INTRODUCTION.'

The subject of Elocution, so far as it is deemed applicable to a work of this kind, will be considered under the following heads, viz:

1. ARTICULATION.
2. INFLECTION.
3. ACCENT AND EMPHASIS.

4. READING VERSE.
5. THE VOICE.
6. GESTURE.

I. ARTICULATION.

Articulation is the utterance of the elementary sounds of a language, and of their combinations.

As words consist of one or more elementary sounds, the first object of the student should be to acquire the power of uttering those sounds with distinctness, smoothness, and force. This result can be secured only by careful practice, which must be persevered in until the learner has acquired a perfect control of his organs of speech.

ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

An Elementary Sound is a simple, distinct sound made by the organs of speech.

The Elementary Sounds of the English language are divided into Vocals, Subvocals, and Aspirates.

VOCALS.

Vocals are sounds which consist of pure tone only. They are the most prominent elements of all words, and it is proper that they should first receive attention. A vocal may be represented by one letter, as in the word hat, or by two or more letters, as in heat, beauty. A diphthong is a union of two vocals, commencing with one and ending with the other. It is usually represented by two letters, as in the words oil, boy, out, now.

Each of these can be uttered with great force, so as to give a distinct expression of its sound, although the voice be suddenly suspended, the moment the sound is produced. This is done by putting the lips, teeth, tongue, and palate in their proper position, and then expelling each sound from the throat in the same manner that the syllable “ah!” is uttered in endeavoring to deter a child from something it is about to do; thus, a'—a'— a'—.

Let the pupil be required to utter every one of the elements in the Table with all possible suddenness and percussive force, until he is able to do it with ease and accuracy. This must not be considered as accomplished until he can give each sound with entire clearness, and with all the suddenness of the “crack” of a rifle. Care must be taken that the vocal alone be heard; there must be no consonantal sound, and no vocal sound other than the one intended.

At first, the elementary sounds may be repeated by the class in concert; then separately.

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REMARK I.-In this table, the short sounds are nearly or quite the same, in quantity, as the long sounds. The difference consists chiefly in quality. Let the pupil determine this fact by experiment.

REMARK II.—The vocals are often represented by other letters or combinations of letters than those used in the table: for instance, à is represented by ai in hail, by eu in steak, etc.

REMARK III.-As a general rule, the long vocals and the diphthor should be articulated with a full, clear utterance; but the short vocals have a sharp, distinct, and almost explosive utterance. Weakness of speech follows a failure to observe the first point, while drawling results from carelessness with respect to the second.

SUBVOCALS AND ASPIRATES.

Subvocals are those sounds in which the vocalized breath is more or less obstructed.

Aspirates consist of breath only, modified by the vocal organs.

Words ending with subvocal sounds should be selected for practice on the subvocals; words beginning or ending with aspirate sounds may be used for practice on the aspirates. Pronounce these words forcibly and distinctly,

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