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houses were generally littered with rubbish and few persons thought of disinfecting the cesspools.

The cemeteries, which will be described elsewhere, were another serious menace to health. The habits of the majority of the inhabitants were conducive to disease. In short, the conditions in the city were such that the wonder was that death and sickness were not more prevalent among its people.

The Island of Manzanillo, on which the city of Colon stands, is in part below the level of the sea and nowhere more than four feet above it. At high tide considerable portions of it were flooded. This condition precluded the presence of any adequate system of drainage and this city, like Panama, lacked water and sewer services, except for that small section which was occupied by the dwellings of the officials and white employes of the Railroad. This was supplied with water of indifferent quality from a reservoir near Mount Hope, in the vicinity of the cemetery. As for the rest of the population, they enjoyed, if possible, even a less degree of sanitary convenience than the people of Panama.

In both cities the campaign against the mosquito was vigorously carried on in the face of protests by the beneficiaries, who seemed to consider the risk of yellow fever preferable to the discomfort of fumigation. Excellent water supplies were instituted, and all uncovered receptacles for water were thereafter forbidden. The streets of Colon and Panama were paved, and much of the Island of Manzanillo was filled in and drained. An adequate sewer system has been installed in each city, and a good fire department is now established in Panama. Only those who knew these cities at the time of the French occupation can fully appreciate the wonderful transformation that has been effected in them.

In a public address, delivered in August, 1909, Mr. H. H. Rousseau of the Isthmian Canal Commission thus summed up the work of the Sanitary Department:

6. The work of the Sanitary Department, under the member of the Commission who has been its head since its organization, has been phenomenally successful, and, by removing the cloud which rested over the Isthmus from its unsanitary and extremely unhealthful condition, and thus making it possible for Americans to live and work there in health and happiness, it has performed a service of inestimable value toward the construction of the Canal. The present condition has been reached only by persevering hard work. There have been 135 cases but since 1905, nearly four years ago, not a case of yellow fever among employes and 34 deaths, has been known. Similar success has attended the fight against malaria. In 1904, threefourths of the Zone population were infected with malaria, and in the early days of Canal construction the number of employes treated for malaria in hospitals in a year averaged over 80 per cent of the whole number. It is scarcely one-third of this at present. In the last three years the hotel sick rate of employes has been reduced more than one-half, and the death rate more than two-thirds.

“Over 1,200 men are carried on the pay rolls of the Department of Sanitation, and the expenditures amount to $2,000,000 per annum. It will require constant work and unceasing vigilance to keep health conditions up to the standard which has been established. The total expenses of the Sanitary Department will amount, it is estimated, to about $20,000,000, or a little over 5 per cent of the total cost of the Canal. Of the total expenditures of the French, less than $2,000,000, or hardly one-half of one per cent, was charged up to hospital service, and practically nothing to sanitation.”



At the time that the Panama Railroad operation was inaugurated, the Island of Manzanillo was wilderness, inhabited upon its edges by a few Indians. It was here that the Railroad Company decided to locate its Atlantic terminal. A worse choice could hardly have been made, but no doubt there was good reason at the time for the selection of the site. The town, which grew up on the seashore, was called Aspinwall by the Americans, after one of the promoters cf the railway enterprise. The Colombian Government, however, named it Colon. The island is a coral formation covered with sand. Its length is less than a mile and its breadth about six hundred yards. The railroad embankment connects it with the mainland. The town was originally built without any regard to order or convenience. The railroad sheds and shops, and the laborers' shacks, were scat

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