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Catesby's Designation.

Popular Names.
Querquèdula Americana fusca.... 1.99 Blue wing teal
Awas Americanus cristatus elegans. 1.97 Summer duck.
Anas Americanus lato rostro..... 1.96 Blue wing shoveler.
Anas cristatus.

1.94 Round created duck.
Prodicipes minor rostro vario. 1.91 Pied bill dopchick.
Ardea cristata maxima Americana.. 3.10 Largest crested heron
Ardea stellaris cristata Americana. 1.79 Crested, bittern.
Ardea cærulea.

1.76 Blue heron. Crane.
Ardea stellaris minima.

1.80 Small bittern. Ardea alba minor Caroliniensis. 1.77 Little white heron. Ardea stellaris Americana

1.78 Brown bittern. Indian hen.
Pelicanus Americanus.

1,81 Wood pelican.
Numenius albus.

1.82 White curlew.
Numenius fuscus,

1.83 Brown curlew
Pluvialis vociferus.

1.71 Chattering plover. Kildee.

1.85 Oyster-catcher
Gallinula Americana..

1.70 Soree. Ral-bird.
Gallopava Sylvestris.

xliv. Wild Turkey.
Perdix Sylvestris Virginiana. 3.12 American partridye. American quail.
Urgallus minor, or kind of Lagopus. 3. 1 Pheasant. Mountain partridge.
Turtur miuimus guitatus.

1.26 Ground dove............,
Palumbus migratorius.

1.23 Pigeou of passage. Turtur Caroliniensis.

1.24 Turtle. Turtle dove.. Alauda gutture flavo..

1.32 Lark. Sky lark... Alauda magna.

1.33 Field lark. Large lark. Sturnus niger allis superné rubentibus.

1.13 Red wing. Starling. Marsh blackbird. Turdus pilaris migratorius. .

1.29 Fieldfare of Carolina. Robin redbreast....
Turdus rufus..

1.28 Fox colored thrush. Thrush.
Turdus minor cinereo albus non ma-

1.27 Mocking bird.





Wild pigeon.

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Turdus minimus...
Garrulus Caroliniensis.
Coccothrapstes rubra.
Coccothranstes cærulea
Passer nivalis.
Hortulanus Caroliniensis.
Fringilla tricolor.
Linaria cærulea.
Passer fuscus.
Passer niger oculis rubris.
Carduelis Americanus.
Fringilla purpurea.
Muscicapa cristata ventre luteo.
Muscicapa rubra..
Ruticilla Americana.
Muscicapa vertice nigro.
Muscica pa nigrescens..
Muscicapa fusca.
Muscicapa oculis rubris.
Rubicula Americana cærulea.
Regulus cristatus.......
Oenanthe Americana pectore luteo.
Parus cristatus..
Parus fringillaris.
Parus uropygeo luteo.
Parus cucullo nigro..
Parus Americanus gutture luteo...
Parus Caroliniensis
Hirundo cauda aculeata Americana.
Hirundo purpurea
Caprimulgus minor Americanus.

1.81 Little thrush 1.46 Chatterer 1.38 Red bird. Virginia nightingale. 1.39 Blue gross beak 1.36 Snow bird. 1.14 Rice bird. 1.44 Painted finch. 1.45 Blue linnet. 1.35 Little sparrow 1.34 Cowpen bird. 1.34 Towhe bird. 1.43 American goldfinch. Lettuce bird. 1.41 Purple finch. 1.5.2 Crested flycatcher. 1.56 Summer red bird. 1.67 Red start. 1.66 Cat bird. 1.53 Black cap flycatcher. 1.54 Little brown flycatcher. 1.54 Red-eyed flycatcher. 1.47 Blue bird. 3.13 Wren 1.50 Yellow breasted chat. 1.57 Crested titmouse. 1.64 Finch creeper .. 1.58 Yellow rump.. 1.60 Hooded titmouse. 1.62 Yellow throated creeper 1.63 Yellow titmouse. 3. 8 American swallow. 1.51 Purple marten. House marten. 1. 8 Goatsucker. Great bat. 3.16 Whip poor Will.


7 9.259




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Besides these, we have,

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The Royston crow. Corvus cornix. The Black head.
Crane. Ardea Canadensis.

House swallow. Hirundo rustica. Sprigtail.
Ground swallow. Hirundo riparia. Didapper, or dopchick.
Greatest gray eagle.

Spoon-billed duck. Smaller turkey buzzard, with a Water-witch. feathered head.

Water-pheasant. Greatest owl, or night hawk.

Mow-bird. Wet hawk, which feeds flying.

Blue Peter. Raven.

Water Wagtail. Water Pelican of the Mississippi, Yellow-legged Snipe. whose pouch holds a peck.

Squatting Snipe. Swan.

Small Pluver.

Whistling Plover.

Duck and mallard.

Red bird, with black head, wings Widgeon.

and tail. Sheldrach, or Canvas back.

And doubtless many others which have not yet been described and classed.

To this catalogue of our indigenous animals, I will add a short account of an anomaly of nature, taking place sometimes in the race of negroes brought from Africa, who, though black themselves, have, in rare instances, white children, called Albinos. I have known four of these myself, and have faithful accounts of three others. The circumstances in which all the individuals agree are these. They are of a pallid cadaverous white, untinged with red, withont any colored spots or seams; their hair of the same kind of white, short, coarse, and curled as is that of the negro; all of them well formed, strong, healthy, perfect in their senses, except that of sight, and born of parents who had no mixture of white blood. Three of these Albinos were sisters, having two other full sisters, who were black. The youngest of the three was killed by lightning, at twelve years of age. The eldest died at about 27 years of age, in child-bed, with her second child. The middle one is now alive, in health, and has issue, as the eldest had, by a black man, which issue was black. They are uncommonly shrewd, quick in their apprehensions and in reply. Their eyes are in a perpetual tremulous vibration, very weak, and much affected by the sun ; but they see much better in the night than we do. They are of the property of Colonel Skipwith, of Cumberland. The fourth is a negro

woman, whose parents came from Guinea, and had three other children, who were of their own color. She is freckled, her eye-sight so weak that she is obliged to wear a bonnet in the summer ; but it is better in the night than day. She had an Albino child by a black man. It died at the age of a few weeks. These were the property of Col. Carter, of Albemarle. A sixth instance is a women the property of a Mr. Butler, near Petersburg. She is stout and robust, has issue a daughter, jet black, by a black man. I am not informed as to her eye-sight. The seventh instance is of a male belonging to a Mr. Lee of Cumberland. His eyes are tremulous and weak.

He is tall of stature, and now advanced in years. He is the only male of the Albinos which have come within my information. Whatever be the cause of the disease in the skin, or in its coloring matter, which produces this change, it seems more incident to the female than male sex. To these I may add the mention of a negro man within my own kuowledge, born black, and of black parents ; on whose chin, when a boy, a white spot appeared. This continued to increase till he became a man, by which time it had extended over his chin, lips, one cheek, the under jaw, and neck on that side. It is of the Albino white, without any mixture of red, and has for several years been stationary. He is robust and healthy, and the change of color was not accompanied with any sensible disease, either general or topical.

Of our fish and insects there has been nothing like a full description or collection. More of them are described in Catesby than in any other work. Many also are to be found in Sir Hans Sloane's Jamaica, as being common to that and this country. The honey-bee is not a native of our continent. Marcgrave, indeed, mentions a species of honey-bee in Brazil. But this has no sting, and is therefore different from the one we have, which resembles perfectly that of Europe. The Indians concur with us in the tradition that it was brought from Europe ; but when, and by whom, we know not. The bees have generally extended themselves into the country, a little in advance of the white settlers. The Indians, therefore, call them the white man's fly, and consider their approach as indicating the approach

of the settlements of the whites. A question here occurs, How far north wardly have these insects been found ? That they are unknown in Lapland, I infer from Scheffer's information, that the Laplanders eat the pine bark, prepared in a certain way, instead of those things sweetened with sugar. 6. Hoc comedunt pro rebus saccharo conditis.” Scheff. Lapp. c. 18. Certainly if they had honey, it would be a better substitute for sugar than any preparation of the pine bark. Kalm tells us* the honey-bee cannot live through the winter in Canada. They furnish then an additional fact first observed by the Count de Buffon, and which has thrown such a blaze of light on the field of natural history, that no animals are found in both continents, but those which are able to bear the cold of those regions where they probably join.


A notice of all that can increase the progress of Human

Knowledge ?

Under the latitude of this query, I will presume it not improper nor unacceptable to furnish some data for estimating the climate of Virginia. Journals of observations on the quantity of rain, and degree of heat, being lengthy, confused, and too minute to produce general and distinct ideas, I have taken five years' observations, to wit, from 1772 to 1777, made in Williamsburg and its neighborhood, have reduced them to an average for every month in the year, and stated those averages in the following table, adding an analytical view of the winds during the same period.

The rains of every month, (as of January, for instance,) through the whole period of years, were added separately, and an average drawn from them.

The coolest and warmest point of the same day in each year of the period, were added separately, and an average of the greatest cold and greatest heat of

* I. 126.

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