The History, Present State, and Future of Information Technology

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Informing Science, 2016 - Počet stran: 399

In Part I, Prof. Targowski takes us through the evolution of modern computing and information systems. While much of this material is familiar to those of us who have lived through these developments, it would definitely not be familiar to our children or our students. He also introduces a perspective that I found both refreshing and useful: looking at the evolution on a country by country basis. For those of us who live in the U.S., it is all too easy to imagine that evolution to be a purely local phenomenon. I found my appreciation of the truly global nature of computing expanding as he walked me through each country’s contributions.

In Parts II and III, constituting nearly half of the book, Targowski provides what I would describe as an in-depth case study of the challenges and successes of informatics in Poland. As he tells each story—many of which involved him personally—the reader cannot help but better understand the close relationship between the freedoms that we in the west take for granted and the ability to produce innovations in IT. Even after Poland left the orbit of the former Soviet Union, the remaining vestiges of the old way of thinking remained a major impediment to progress. Being right and being rigorous were far less important than being in tune with the “approved” ways of thinking. There are important lessons to be learned here, particularly as we try to project how IT will evolve in rapidly developing economies such as China. But, from my experience, they apply equally well to western academia, where moving outside of preferred values and patterns of research can lead a scholar to be ignored or even disparaged.

In Part IV, Targowski presents a bold, forward-looking synthesis of informatics and informing science in the future. Building upon articles recently published in Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, he presents a conceptual scheme of historical informing waves that builds upon historians such as Toynbee. He then considers how these trends will necessarily force us to rethink how we develop and apply IT. He does not steer away from the controversial. But he also provides cogent arguments for all his predictions and recommendations.

 

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The first copy Figure 15 of UNIVAC I UNIVersal Automatic Computer I was supplied to the Census Bureau on 31 March 1951 A number of compa...
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The Univac Company has educated a number of engineers in industrial computer design A number of designs at Univac were made upon orders fro...
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ENIAC which was continued by the same designers in UNIVAC was further developed by the designer who left UNIVAC to create CDC which went ...
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IBM 1400 with the IBM 1401 IBM 1410 IBM 1440 Figure 17 and IBM 1460 2nd generation sets
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At the end of the 1980s the company lost orientation in the developmental trends of ICT It failed to understand the role that was to be played by pers...
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In 1959 Ben Gurley designed the first DEC computerProgrammable Digital Processor or PDP1with a memory of fourthousand words a computing w...
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The Further Development of Computer Hardware
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d Mobile phones
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land satellite microwave cable TV as well as private links of various kinds In the course of time as telecommunications technology was upgraded it w...
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Global Area Network GAN The first such network was Tymnet which in 19792004 conducted the services of data transmission mainly between the ...
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In all about 4000 programming languages were devised Figure 116 shows the developmental process of major computer programming languages
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Complex utilization of a computer set requires an operating system OS which coordinates information processing through computer resources to mee...
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allowing Microsoft to sell the system IBM believed that the more MSDOS was sold the more PCs will be sold too The company did not predict howe...
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At the end of the 1960s the company launched the Production Information Control System PICS package which included production planning subsy...
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Data management systems are concerned with making arrangements for multiple sets of data through specific applications of online modification incl...
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DB2 Cloudscape Infomix Microsoft Access and SQL Sybase bought by SAP Ingress as well as MySQL and PostgresSQL
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The leading US center for the conceptualization of these systems was the RAND Corporation set up in 1948 in Santa Monica near Los Angeles Califo...
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In 1972 P Baran set up a private company CableData Associate which was supposed to consult an ARPA division on ARPANET That very year Bara...
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1984 The name Internet was adopted as obligatory and the TCPIP was accepted for this network
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1998 The term New Economy appears based upon the Internet however no one knows yet what it is about The term was to be replaced by Global E...
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it usually takes a long time to build centuries sometimes and there is no one constructor So it is the case with the Internet and its applications there are...
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The specific work on this kind of administration was commenced in 1999 after the formation of the Intergovernmental Technology Leadership Cons...
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simplifying administration processes and reducing costs
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The architecture of eGovernment in the US can be characterized by four categories of services as shown in Figure 130
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In the spring of 2010 the newly elected British Prime Minister David Cameron wanted some advice regarding how to manage millions of people who...
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Table 13 The countries with the biggest populations in the world in 2010 in millionsVirtual Societies in bold font
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On 5 June 1989 the world found out through email about the Tienanmen Square student riots Figure 133 After the unrest was over Chinese students ...
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virtual citizens and their societies are able to organize in innovative ways
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Foundations Development Applications NY George Braziller revised edition 1976 later to be popularized by Erwin Laszlo in a series of his books
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Structured Programming was first formulated in 1968 by the Dutch theorist of programming Edsger W Dijkstra Figure 143 who recommended that ...
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The software engineering approach is associated with the books of Barry Boehm b 1935 Figure 144 who in 1978 had Characteristics of Software Qu...
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An approach to enterprise systems was first formulated by A Targowski in 1990 op cit and then in The Enterprise Systems Approach edited by MM ...
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and NY IGIGlobal 2011 The application of this theory makes possible the design and launching of systems that are close to the ultimate approach
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The Concept of Further Development of IT in the US
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Another progress is being predicted in the dissemination of logic chips which compute with less precision than do the more precise ones of today In a...
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The Development of Information Technology in Western Europe and Japan
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The British government assigned 17000 pound sterling for the implementation of the difference engine Following several years of work this money ...
54
Following Charles Babbages death the work on the engine was continued by his son Henry who completed the construction of the analytical machine...
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A Turing benefited a great deal in his design of the universal machine from his involvement in the WWII breaking of the German codes This was co...
56
The further development of computers in the UK was taken over by industry which was rather welldeveloped in the country that had started the Indu...
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In the early 1950s ICT designed a small computer called HollerithHEC and several years later together with the British General Electric Company it u...
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The 21st century saw the British economy transformed from industrial into servicebased with a heavy bent on tourism and hence the development of ...
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It was thought at the time that analytical machines would still be produced whereas computer design and manufacturing would only pay in special ap...
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The backstage view of the wasted chance of the French information industry reveals the overlap of the interests of private capital state administration ...
63
The third Bull scandal was about the disbanding of the office of Plenipotentiary for Information Technology in 1974 after Valery Giscard dEstaigne ...
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In this way BULL overcame major turbulences that took place in the ICT market in 19601990 This was all the easier as soon the American informati...
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Further work on Z4 was interrupted by the Nazi German government as it deemed it futile to pursue the design of a machine like that It ought to be b...
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In 19741975 it became clear in Europe that the market expected smaller computers facilitating distributed computing The success of this was warrant...
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The biggest surprise on the European market was the Dutch Philips which launched the production of their own series 1000 computers only in 1968 ...
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Information Technology Applications in World War II Europe
69
On 6 June 1940 under pressure from the US politicians and administration as well as a loud media campaign Watson returned the distinction to Hitler...
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In each concentration camp there was a division of Hollerith Abteilung Hollerith which ran the register of the camps prisoners wrote reports and han...
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IBM business in all three periods was by all means unethical and utterly bewildering The services for the Third Reich were not performed for ideolog...
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Upon the comparison of the two filing systems it becomes clear that the deportation index was three times higher in the Netherlands than in France N...
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25 25 times fewer So thanks to the Hollerith IBM machines it was possible to murder an additional 44 million people 74296 Obviously these are ten...
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There is a precedent of German companies IG Farben which in the 1990s paid compensation to Polish slave laborers from WWII The IBM Corporati...
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In the 21st century the situation reoccurs when the Global Business folds down the industry in the USA and creates jobs in countries where there are ...
78
Although the Japanese information industry evolved thanks to the knowledge taken from America it is characterized by a higher quality of the goods...
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The Development of Information Technology in the USSR and Eastern Europe
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As far as analytical machines are concerned known as SAM in the USSR an electronic tube calculator EW80 was introduced in 1960 similar to IBM 6...
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The STRELA machine was used for the sake of nuclear physics computing in the computing center of the Academy of Sciences as well as in space ex...
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The Ordzhonikidzhe factory in Minsk was the main computer development center in Belarus and a major one in the whole of the USSR Minsk machi...
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The overall number of the MINSK machines produced can be estimated at 1000 copies which puts it first in Europe alongside the British ICL 1900 T...
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BESM 2 differed little from BESM3 but introducing the changes took three years Eventually the commission headed by AA Dorodnichin accepted ...
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Work in computerassisted control of technological processes was carried out in the Institute of Steering Machines in Severnodonetsk Ukraine Two hi...
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The KWM 1 machine was the second most expensive machine in the USSR 3 million rubles The SOU system was soon upgraded and it was called A...
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On top of the mainstream Soviet design presented here for the historical record it is worth noting the initiatives to do with the design of the LEM SET...
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Elektronika K200 Figure 311 was a league of its own probably used in the Lunokhod1 space shuttle Each of the computer modules was doubled and...
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Some foreign observers of the Soviet informatics believe it is characterized by multiple directions But this is exactly what can be seen as its biggest ad...
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1966 saw the prototype of a 2nd generation MSP computer at the ZPA industrial automation works which was replaced by an upgraded model ZPA ...
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The intensity of the development of the computer industry had a political background In 19601970 Romania had close links with China Romania als...
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The Development of the Unified RIAD System in the Communist Bloc
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Table 32 JSRIAD computers main characteristics
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Summary of Part I
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The development of informatics in the COMECON was differentiated rather than uniformed contrary to what could have been expected in the Soviet...
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The Development of Informatics in the Polish Planned and Market Economies 19181945 19451989
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The Development of Information Technology in Poland before 1945 and during World War II
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GUS Office of Statistics developed and managed by Z Wojcieszak A Pietrasinski and T Walczak
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10 rate This reminds one of the forecast concerning the increase of horses in 19th century Paris it proved right in the 20th century after a recalculatio...
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The Development of Information Technology IT 19391961 19611971
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In Poland Prof St Pienkowski Figure 51 while travelling to the West UK and Ireland must have been in touch with Prof Jan Łukasiewicz 18781956 n...
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In Poland following his return from the US K Kuratowski created the Group for Mathematical Machines GAM in 19491950 in the National Mathema...
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The construction of GAM1 concluded the period of early work which can be characterized as an initial orientation into the subject matter of digital m...
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In the fall of 1958 8 years after GAM1 a universal XYZ computer was made at the GAMZAM organization created by the team headed by L Łukasz...
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The ZAM later IMM center saw the creation of the ZAM21 machine for numerical computing as well as ZAM41 for data processing These were desi...
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Pieńkowski Kuratowski Mostowski Groszkowski Greniewski a logician who must have been familiar with the work of Jan Łukaszeicz as well as the t...
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One needs to make a distinction between computers being used for engineering computations and their being applied to data processing Indeed ZAM...
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This can best be illustrated by the fact that the first popular paper about the ECT was written by AB Empbacher later to become the most famous pro...
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On account of its unique arithmetic AB Empacher called it BINEG as the arithmetic of the machine was BinaryNEGative Exponential values were the...
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UMC1 was a tubebased machine Figure 59 and performed 100 operations per second with a memory of 4k words According to resolution number 4...
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In 19701973 he designed the countrys first ever minicomputer K202 based on chips with low and mediumscale integration The processor was equip...
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The year ELWRO was established a group of employees left for Warsaws ZAM PAN center After merely a year of work Wroclaws first tubebased co...
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it computed twice as fast 1000 opssec and on top of the drum memory it was equipped with storage on magnetic cores with a capacity of 256 words ...
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An interesting novelty was the use of thinlayer hybrid microchip technology applied for the first time in Poland in industrial conditions Hybrid syste...
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The sale of the ODRA 1305 computers went well as these computers were not treated as an output of science but as industrial products Also the mach...
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The Beginnings of IT Applications in 20th Century Poland
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In his thesis the author Figure 517 formulated a model of a list of parts and components for products such as mobile radar which was then placed on ...
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The date and computer can be tied to the first accomplished economic applications in Poland chiefly in engineering computations The first managem...
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Kasprzak Radio Works and the Róża Luksemburg Tube Works
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Since the domestic contractor of the ZAM development program did not deliver on its obligations the authorities saw to it that the British ICT 1300 w...
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One can presume that this situation must have been noticed by the technical informatics specialists who were stuck in the overly scientific orientation ...
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Prof Seweryn Chajtmans dismissal from his position at the WUT in 1968 proved harmful for Polish informatics His dismissal resulted from the politic...
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In 1958 the PAN Computation Lab was established and Mieczysław Warmus Figure 520 became its first director In 1961 the lab was transformed int...
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The application of computers in management was notably delayed due to ZAM machine production failure Computational applications in the pionee...
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The KERM resolution number 400 was carried out only partially The production of tubebased UMC machines was started at ELWRO which already ...
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Then again a naked eye could see the lack of progress in the leading IT center of IMM PAN The authorities hardly ever meddled with the PAN busin...
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zakłady units which began their operations in 1965 Alas ELWRO did not come under PRETO Instead ZETO became part of the MERA Group report...
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When the foundations of the PRETO department had been laid Zadrzyński started a science and technology journal Maszyny Matematyczne Mathem...
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The Development of LargeScale IT Systems 19701974
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Concerning the applications of IT F Szlachcic had systematic tutorials with A Targowski These quickly moved from the issue of IT to the question of...
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This author proposed another more practical solution to this politician The solution was concerned with the automation of mass transaction processin...
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the first was to identify the scope of the parameters of economic control that the central planner should have as opposed to those that should be at the...
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The IT representative was among a small group of inner critics of the planned economy for which he proposed practical and systemic solutions that ...
147
the departmental HQs ought to represent the interests of the industries visavis the authorities This was Langes concept of a planned market economy ...
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March 1971 marked the beginning of the liquidation of PRETO and the formation of KBI Gackowski and Targowski Figure 62 had a background in...
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Halina Belerska was Director of the Dept of Economics formerly at PRETO She knew the budgeting procedures of central institutions full well and sh...
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A natural development strategy characteristic of the US Britain and Japan which required exceeding the program by 50 in line with this strategy abou...
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On 11 May 1972 Dr of Eng A Targowskion behalf of KBIpresented the council with the principles of the National System of Informatics KSI Figure...
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The Issue of Names IT versus Informatics
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A major flaw of the term ETO is that it emphasizes hardware rather than information therefore the plan of the fields expansion from 19711975 broke...
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40 years later these predictions have proved true Indeed informatics was the key to prosperity and the author has been rather lucky to have been able...
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Thanks to the fifth revolution the US is moving way ahead of other industrialized countries such as Germany and Japan ICT is so successful in the A...
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The subject was expanded on 13 years later in 1988 by Shoshana Zuboff from the famous MIT in her book In the Age of the Smart Machine where ...
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The Group of ZETO Centers Zjednoczenie Informatyki
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Jerzy Trybulski Wrocław Zdzisław Żydowo Gdańsk and Gdynia Zygmunt Łuczak Łodź and Witold Szyszko Białysktok among others A special men...
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The deputies of the OBRI president were Władysłąw Radzikowski and Ludwik Kazalski both formerly at ORGMASZ with Radzikowski having been ...
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The example of Polish IT issues from 19711974 is empirical evidence for the above proposition The 40 past years have proved the KBI NBI concept...
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A PLZ Polish currencyzloty of 40 million worth of computers was equivalent to a 17 million worth of machines in the US adopting an official excha...
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3 Releasing the sources of funding for the development of informatics
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Table 61 The Share of IT Spending with respect to the Total Investment Expenditure in Poland from 19611973 in Prices Equivalent for 1973 in Poli...
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The overall structure of the IT development expenditure from 19711975 has been summarized in Table 63
169
The remaining components worth mentioning are the intensive development of K 202 minicomputers and the imports of mainframes and terminals
170
Surely the new concept is still very general as this type of the economic model is still under development and will be elaborated on and perfected in t...
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ŚWIATOWID an IT system for the sake of storing and searching for scientifictechnical and financial information as well as the management of libra...
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It grows with the needs of customers and new designs with some areas having operated analog rather than digital technology back in 2000
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The fate of innovation is unpredictable KSI and the Infostrada although invented in Poland were not enforced there rather these inventions were impl...
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GII is composed of Global Area Networks National Information Infrastructure NII elements of Global Information Infrastructure of Enterprises GIIE...
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Thinking combined with the ability to communicate initiated the development of scientific knowledge which because of its dissemination and comm...
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In 1972 it was hard to push for the launch of INFOSTRADA in Poland Nonetheless KBI managed to sign an agreement with the Ministry of Commu...
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Fish are known to rot from the head Therefore KBI NBI made attempts to have the Central Planning Commission informated The office had about 1...
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A negative attitude on the part of Eysmontt was determined by the negative atmosphere in which he worked The permanent changes of the commissi...
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the Ministry of the Economy Each such organization was in fact a socialist corporation which had to use an IT system to function effectively KBI call...
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Kramarczuk was soon appointed the head of the Planning Commission and Deputy PM not to mention his promotion to a member of the POLITBUR...
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In the early 1970s according to the official statistics investments took 23 of Polands GDP In practice the figure was 40 Allowing for lies and distortio...
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Józef Kubas M Sc CEO of the Promasz design office at the Ministry of Machine Industry Janusz Wróblewski M Sc department director at the Ministr...
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welldesigned they become systems of power WEKTOR was designed as a system controlling departments such as the Ministry of Construction Figure...
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As part of the WEKTOR budget the author assigned 25 million for the purchase of a Western computer to the ETOB computation center of the const...
191
This had led to the idea of informating the register of graduates estimated at 800000 to facilitate predicting the states need for specialists and on this b...
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Some justice must be done to Col Zygmunt Orłowski Delegate of the Minister of the Interior for PESEL who in using his ruthless secretservice metho...
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The author got in touch with Prof Dr Med F WidyWirski director of the GBL and asked whether he was interested in the ŚWIATOWID project He in...
202
Based on the concept tested at the GBL KBI succeeded in forming the Council of Library Users composed of the representatives of the Parliamentary ...
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Within the framework of the Informatics Development Program 18 Technological Progress Automation TPA programs were provided for Today the...
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When there was no longer a political sponsor for the modernization of the country the events took a faster course In 1974 Prof Jan Kaczmarek Dr En...
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Poles have been decimated and suffered great losses from the Nazis and Communists as expressed in the numbers of people murdered and buildings ...
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The meeting started with a polemic between Bratkowski and Kulesza who started to pick on Bratkowskis press language Janicki got lost in the high le...
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In 1974 production of K202 was stopped Deputy PM Wrzaszczyk offered to hire Karpiński in machine tool manufacturing asking him if he had any...
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After the author was dismissed from the National Bureau for Informatics KBI he left for the US to become a visiting professor at Hamilton College N...
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Prof Janusz Groszkowski former President of the PAN Polish Academy of Sciences has given this description of Polish scholars We have 50000 inde...
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It was rather clear that someone saw to it that the author would not work at the SGPiS As things were the author arranged for his transfer to Politechni...
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Despite the apparently friendly attitude on the part of Prof Bożyk and although the adviser did not exactly attempt to harm the authors book in fact h...
215
the main feature of the central planner who allegedly knew everything was that heshe in fact knew very little and made decisions accordingly
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The Communist system in Poland was known to be unreformable by the controlled discussions at Party plenary sessions where the First Secretary was...
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Radzikowski goes on to say that It is now not just naivety but a method to claim that Prof A Targowski the main creator of that Development Progra...
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ignorance Prof Bożyk would not be able to advise the Chinese Communists in the present on account of which one ought to be sorry for him On the ...
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In the 1980s attitudes were thoroughly reevaluated which became expressed in terms of the new fighting the old Polish IT was not exempt from the p...
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In the period of the Polish Revolution of Solidarity 19801989 the Peoples Republic and the Jaruzelski Junta began to tighten the leash around the pe...
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the mere title of professor was supposed to guarantee the validity of an opinion From what we know about IT nowadays having such titles and utteri...
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3 Gagged Prof W Turski when he addressed the Second Congress of Polish Science
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Subsequently the author approached the Polish Informatic Society PTI Polskie Towarzystwo Informatyczne which wrote back indirectly that they co...
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In connection with this issue the author has received a number of letters from people he does not know who have condemned the assault Prof Włady...
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The history of IT in Poland is long and rich in solutions and policies It is also one of the longest and most complicated in Europe It turns out that the ...
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The concept of INFOSTRADA which can now be seen as the Internet did arouse some interest around the world at a time when the Internet was not y...
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As far as personal costs the author has borne as the main promoter of the development of the informed society in Communist Poland he do not regret...
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Prof Bożyk is unabashed by his role in Communist Poland and brags about remembering a different Poland presumably better Figure 626 on the rig...
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pseudodemocracy pseudoeconomy pseudopolitics pseudoindependence pseudojustice pseudopress pseudotruth pseudoreality and even unreality or p...
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The Development of IT in Poland with Limited Scope
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Krug M in 1976 Kub M since 1975 9K33 Osa since 1980 as well as 9K111 Fagot antitank missiles since 1975
234
Table 71 Economic Indexes in the Peoples Republic 19761980
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In 1984 the IMMheaded by the former CEO of ELWRO Bronisław Piwowar Figure 71designed the Mazovia PC which was manufactured in several t...
236
Summary of Part II
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The Development of IT in Polands Market Economy since 1989
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In July 2002 after giving up the company Kluska was spectacularly arrested on the charges of grubbing PLN 30 million of VAT He was released afte...
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As a result of Kluskagate Poland lost an excellent producer of PCs which resembled the Karpińskigate K202 in Communist Poland
241
The work on RODAN proved successful at OBRI and the SZBD RODAN software was implemented in URSUS tractor works GUS the governments P...
242
In 2006 it was voted one of Polands 20 Icons of Architecture having received an award from the Minister of Infrastructure in 1999 and in 1998 it wa...
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Ryszard Krauze Figure 86 was born in Sopot in 1956 He graduated from the Gdańsk University of Technology and this was where he developed his ...
244
The globalization of the manufacturing of IT products limits the role of the Polish computer companies to importing digital hardware and software w...
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The main reason foreign software is preferred by Polish users is its successful design by IT specialists with excellent knowledge of the applications fie...
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3 Billions of the administrations data 390000 datasets has been released to the public datagov with a view to the IT private sector designing applicatio...
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Cyberattacks are predicted and possible against hospitals power plants and their national systems of power distribution scientific labs offices and priva...
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The Development of the Polish Information Society PIS
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Limiting the welfare state preferring civic solidarity and selfhelp instead
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1 Enable by its structure and organization the stimulation of as much creative energy on the part of its people as possible which is can be done by the...
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The book suggested some measurable goals for Poland although from a political point of view they are only tentative as they have not been adopted ...
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highways data highways and fast railways The networks should be dense for in the fastgrowing free market economy most employment occurs in sm...
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Both the directives for the PIS Strategy by 2013 and the recommendations for the vision of Poland by 2040 place the value of innovation in the fore...
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Table 93 The distribution of key values for Poland in comparison with other model countries
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Table 94 The state of PIS as compared with other competing countries for 2005
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EU Requirements for the PIS
258
Table 95 A common list of online eservices in the EU
259
In order to accelerate the development of eGovernment the EU organized the Forum for European ePublic Services wwweuforumorg
260
Learning from experience leads to ever more sophisticated solutions as long as there occurs a transformation from a bureaucratized office to a citizen...
261
Vivien Jupp Realizing the Vision of eGovernment Journal of Political Marketing 234 2003 129145
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11 The growing role of the eGovernment Chief Information Officer in eGovernment who is supposed to handle eServices in a complex rendition for...
263
Figure 97 The evolution of the program of informating the Singapore Civil Service
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Devising user eAuthentication to secure unambiguous authentication that is safe in the interactions between citizens and civil servants
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The Total Requirements of the PIS
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Intercultural social communication which was a weakness of the postCommunist society it was static xenophobic hardly mobile domestically and inte...
275
Those processes and systems are new for the majority of Poles who are being transformed in the 21st century from an industrial society into an infor...
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Another developmental phase is global societies which use nano and biotechnologies as illustrated in Figure 916
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The development of the PIS is supposed to boost the development of the Polish state and its citizens on a local domestic and international scale
280
Principle 3 requires an additional comment In the Information Civilization a resident becomes a national resident or a global resident not because hes...
281
Table 98 AT Kerney Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index 2006
282
0622
284
INDEX IKS
285
Automation civilizational laws TargowskiModrak 2011
286
The PKBS as a key to the Poles knowledge and wealth
287
i Concerning the development of the PIS by means of the PIS MD
288
Table 910 Deadlines for 20132018
289
2018
290
Table 911 The Analysis of the PISs Strategy in Terms of SWOT
291
Table 912 Classification of the Advancement Levels of eServices in eGovernment in Poland
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2 Developing Knowledge Control Systems as supplementing Management Dashboards which also will be functioning based on Data Warehouses and...
297
Soon national and global businesses such as AOL MSN US Cities Yahoo and recently Google too took over the tasks performed by teleCity Has then ...
299
Summary of Part III
301
7 The part played by IT sciences in the development of IT in Poland is very limited and it originates from the lack of a scholarly IT periodical where ...
302
The Impact of Information Technology on Civilization
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Lessons Learned from the Internetization of Business
305
The manufacturing companies often need a middleman to help sell goods in the business environment The Internet of People allows these companies...
306
millions of workers in fear of unemployment
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Figure 102 describes the longterm effects of continued job losses from offshoring Short term profits for US companies improve from lower costs but...
308
Business consequences of outsourcing are described in Table 101 Ultimately its effects depends upon the balance that industry achieves between opti...
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The Informing Systems as Transformers of Western Civilization into Global Civilization
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These types of autonomous civilizations we will call societal civilizations In addition to the environmental challenges the societal civilization as a who...
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Figure 111 The Process of Evolving Civilizations at the Beginning of the 21st century
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c Informing systems infrastructure
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Informing Systems and Their Place in the Dynamics of Civilization
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Ages Eras and Waves of Civilization with a Special Consideration on the Role of Handling Information
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2 The Science Age 15001800 The rise of theoretical sciences and modern technology maritime led to the inventions of the mechanical arithmometer...
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A huge number of island computers were needed for the online exchange of data and telecommunication technology development was aimed at this ...
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3 The last 500 years of ICT development has transformed the global elite from colonial to information minded which should be promising from a hu...
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Almost every product or service market in the major economies of the World Civilization has foreign competitors Increased foreign competition is in...
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The Informing Systems as Transformers of WesternGlobal Civilization into Virtual Civilization
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These 1635000000 users of global social networks today create the Global Virtual Society GVS which is mostly composed of young and middle age...
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These mindspheres working in universal cyberspace should facilitate the collection and exchange of ideas and solutions which may liberate us from s...
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Table 122 The Classifying Criteria of Virtual Civilization
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Why is the Virtual Wave which is rising in the 2010s due to the huge popularity of smart phones among the young generation considered to have be...
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Informing Systems in Transforming Health Care in the United States
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Nevertheless anything that reduced the death rates such as peace order advances in medicine and better personal hygiene actually reduced living stan...
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From WellBeing to Health Care
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The changes that have been made to ecosystems have contributed to substantial net gains in human wellbeing and economic development but these g...
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a The Declaration of Independence of the US 1776 states that We hold these truths to be selfevident that all men are created equal that they are endo...
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a In particular political wisdom is very important since it leads the whole regions and the nation
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Recent revelations of secure data breaches at centralized data repositories in banking and other financial institutions the retail industry and governme...
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So far The US Department of Health and Human Services takes no action on complaints under HIPAA and medical records are disclosed under court...
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How Informing Systems Will Impact Health Care in the US
344
The Impact of Digitalization on Culture
347
Networked Multitasking Makes Us Smarter but More Intelligent?
348
The development of civilizational wisdom took millennia and just in the 21st century it has become based on practical theoretical global and universa...
350
CONCLUSION
351
1 Overused networking digitalization and virtualization lead to better data better informed users and new knowledge all of which are conducive to hu...
352
d Conclusions should defined in short bullet points
354
Digital Immigrants have good knowledgeskills in handling information but mostly apply OLD ICT standalone computers They only occasionally ap...
355
Reasoning deficit disorders caused by the overuse of informing systems
356
The Impact of Informing Systems on Work and Employment
357
Secretaries now use word processors and not typewriters
358
Conclusion
359
Summary of Part IV
361
5 The impact of informing systems on work and employment is excessive Informing systems destroy some kinds of work and at the same time they c...
362
The Future of Information Technology
363
As a result of the extensive application of the Internet of Things people will be living in an automated and optimized environment as is illustrated in ...
369
In the authors opinion unfortunately business will develop the Internet of Things and uthe Internet of Everything regardless of human happiness as l...
370
the IoP lowers the cost of business operations and the IoT optimizes the use of strategic resources
371
The Future of Information Technology
373
4 Large social turbulences that may lead to social revolution against global companies that are reducing the role of the state and its responsibility for i...
374
What will happen to the 150 million US and 18 million Polish workers? What is to be done with them once business replaces them with intelligent m...
376
The Question of Ethics
377
IT is undergoing an evolution from a tool that supports civilization into one that does away with civilization with a human face Physics has undergon...
378
Computational universality all sorts of household and industrial appliances will be equipped with logical chips which will anticipate user behavior an...
379
Organizing virtual societies and perhaps nations that will choose real presidents and parliamentarians as well as union leaders
380
Summary of Part V
381
APPENDIX
382
In 1958 Nikita Khrushchev became an energetic prime minister and in 1959 Fidel Castro became prime minister in Cuba Meanwhile the US tested th...
384
2 Each network node must have at least two adjacent nodes
385
30 PM In this way the concept of a packet network was tested in practice
386
This process of developing the Internet is illustrated on the model in Figure A4 The Internet was conceived by Paul Baran as a communication syste...
387
Despite the passage of 39 years since the INFOSTRADA initiative Poland does not yet have a similar network since the Internet is not an accurate repl...
388
9 Conclusion
389
Index
391
Staniszkis Kazimierz 241
392
Index of Equipment Software and Systems
393
INFOSTRADA 2 31 32 40 55 174 175 178 206 228 291 298 330 387
394
TRS80 16
395
Index of Countries and Places
396
health care 333
397
Index of Organizations Events and Concepts
398
Remington Rand See RAND
399
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