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multitude, living in peace and abundance upon the fruits of their labors, has succeeded to the nations of hunters who were always struggling between war and famine. What has produced these wonders? What has renovated the surface of the earth ? What has given to man this dominion over embellished, fruitful, and perfectionated nature ? The benevolent genius is security. It is security which has wrought out this great metamorphosis. rapid have been its operations! It is scarcely two centuries since William Penn reached these savage wilds with a colony of true conquerors; for they were men of peace, who sullied not their establishment by force, and who made themselves respected only by acts of benevolence and justice.


If violent causes—such as a revolution in Government, a schism, a conquest-produce the overthow of property, it is a great calamity; but it is only transitory, it may be softened and even repaired by time. Industry is a vigorous plant, which resists numerous loppings, and in which the fruitful sap rises immediately upon the return of spring. But if property were overthrown with the direct intention of establishing equality of fortune, the evil would be irreparable: no more security-no more industry-no more abundance; society would relapse into the savage state from which it has arisen :

“Devant eux des cités, derrière eux des déserts." Such is the history of fanaticism. If equality ought to reign to-day, for the same reason it ought to reign always. It can only be preserved by the same violence by which it was established. It would require an army of inquisitors and executioners, deat both to favoritism and complaint,-insensible to the seductions of pleasure,-inaccessible to personal interests,-endowed with every virtue,—and engaged in a service which would destroy them all. The level must be in perpetual motion, in order to smooth down whatever would rise above the legal line. Watchfulness must be uninterrupted, to restore the lack of those who have dissipated their portion, and to strip those who by means of labor have augmented, or by care have preserved theirs. In such a state of things, prodigality would be wisdom, and none but the mad would

he industrious. This pretended remedy, so gentle in appearance, would thus be found a deadly poison. It is a burning cautery, which would consume everything till it reached the last principles of life. The sword of the enemy, in its wildest fury, is a thousand times less to be dreaded. It only causes partial evils, which time effaces, and which industry repairs.


CERVANTES. (In our first volume we have given a criticism on “Don Quixote,” by Mr. Hallam. We need therefore only preface an extract from that immortal book, by stating that its author, Miguel D. Cervantes Saavedra, was born in 1547; and that he who stands in the same eminent relation to the literature of Spain that Shakspere does to that of England died on the same day as his great contemporary, the 23rd of April, 1616.]

Sancho, with all his attendants, came to a town that had about a thousand inhabitants, and was one of the best where the duke had any power. They gave him to understand that the name of the place was the Island of Barataria, either because the town was called Barataria, or because the government cost him so cheap. As soon as he came to the gates (for it was walled) the chief officers and inhabitants, in their formalities, came out to receive him, the bells rung, and all the people gave general demonstrations of their joy. The new governor was then carried in mighty pomp to the great church, to give Heaven thanks; and, after some ridiculous ceremonies, they delivered him the keys of the gates, and received him as perpetual governor of the Island of Barataria. In the meantime, the garb, the port, the huge beard, and the short and thick shape of the new governor, made every one who knew nothing of the jest wonder; and even those who were privy to the plot, who were many, were not a little surprised.

In short, from the church they carried him to the court of justice ; where, when they had placed him in his seat, "My Lord Governor,” said the Duke's steward to him, “it is an ancient


custom here, that he who takes possession of this famous island must answer to some difficult and intricate question that is propounded to him; and, by the return he makes, the people feel the pulse of his understanding, and, by an estimate of his abilities, judge whether they ought to rejoice or to be sorry for his coming.'

Al the while the steward was speaking, Sancho was staring on an inscription, in large characters on the wall over against his seat; and, as he could not read, he asked, what was the meaning of that which he saw painted there upon the wall? “Sir," said they, “it is an account of the day when your lordship took possession of this island ; and the inscription runs thus : *This day, being such a day of this month, in such a year, the Lord Don Sancho Panza took possession of this island, which may he long

“ And who is he ?” asked Sancho. “Your lordship,” answered the steward ; “for we know of no other Panza in this island but yourself, who now sit in this chair.” “Well, friend," said Sancho, “pray take notice that Don does not belong to me, nor was it borne by any of my family before me. Plain Sancho Panza is my name ; my father was called Sancho, my grandfather Sancho, and all of us have been Panzas, without any Don or Donna, added to our name. Now do I already guess your Dons are as thick as stones in this island. But it is enough that Heaven knows my meaning; if my government happens to last but four days to an end, it shall go hard but I will clear the island of these swarms of Dons, that must needs be as troublesome as so many fleshflies. Come, now for your question, good Mr. Steward, and I will answer it as well as I can, whether the town be sorry or pleased."

At the same instant two men came into the court, the one dressed like a country fellow, the other looked like a tailor, with a pair of shears in his hand. “If it please you, my lord,” cried the tailor, “I and this farmer here are come before your worship. This honest man came to my shop yesterday, for, saving your presence, I am a tailor, and, Heaven be praised, free of my company; so, my lord, he showed me a piece of cloth. "Sir,' quoth he, is there enough of this to make a cap? Whereupon I measured the stuff, and answered him, 'Yes, if it like your wor

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ship.' Now, as I imagined, do you see, he could not but imagine (and perhaps he imagined right enough) that I had a mind to cabbage some of his cloth, judging hard of us honest tailors. * Pr’ythee,' quoth he, 'look there be not enough for two caps ?' Now I smelt him out, and told him there was. Whereupon the old knave, (if it like your worship,) going on to the same tune, bid me look again, and see whether it would not make three ? And at last, if it would not make five? I was resolved to humor my customer, and said it might; so we struck a bargain.

“Just now the man is come for his caps, which I gave him ; but when I asked him for my money he will have me give him his cloth again, or pay him for it.”—“Is this true, honest man ?" said Sancho to the farmer. “Yes, if it please you," answered the fellow ; " but pray let him show the five caps he has made me.” "With all my heart,” cried the tailor; and with that, pulling his band from under his cloak, he held up five little tiny caps, hanging upon his four fingers and thumb, as upon so many pins. “ There," quoth he, "you see the five caps this good gaffer asks and

may I never whip a stitch more if I have wronged him of the least snip of his cloth, and let any workman be judge.” The sight of the caps, and the oddness of the cause, set the whole court a-laughing. Only Sancho sat gravely considering awhile, and then, “methinks,” said he," this suit here needs not be long depending, but may be decided without any more ado, with a great deal of equity; and, therefore, the judgment of the court is, that the tailor shall lose his making, and the countryman his cloth, and that the caps be given to the poor prisoners, and so let there be an end of the business."

If this sentence provoked the laughter of the whole court, the next no less raised their admiration. For, after the governor's order was executed, two old men appeared before him, one of them with a large cane in his hand, which he used as a staff. “My lord,” said the other, who had none, some time


I lent this man ten gold crowns to do him a kindness, which money he was to repay me on demand. I did not ask him for it again in a good while, lest it should prove a greater inconvenience to him to repay me, than he labored under when he borrowed it. However, perceiving that he took no care to pay me, I have asked him

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for my due ; nay, I have been forced to dun him hard for it. But still he did not only refuse to pay me again, but denied he owed me anything, and said, 'that if I lent him so much money

he certainly returned it. Now, because I have no witnessess of the loan, nor he of the pretended payment, I beseech your lordship to put him to his oath, and if he will swear he has paid me I will freely forgive him before God and the world.”

What say you to this, old gentleman with the staff ?" asked Sancho. “Sir,” answered the old man, “I own he lent me the gold; and, since be requires my oath, I beg you will be pleased to hold down your rod of justice, that I may swear upon it how I have honestly and truly returned him his money.” Thereupon the Governor held down his rod, and in the meantime the defendant gave his cane to the plaintiff to hold, as if it hindered him, while he was to make a cross and swear over the judge's rod : this done he declared that it was true the other had lent him ten crowns, but that he had really returned him the same sum into his own hands; and that, because he supposed the plaintiff had forgotten it, he was continually asking him for it. The great Governor, hearing this, asked the creditor what he had to reply? He made answer, that since his adversary had sworn it he was satisfied; for he believed him to be a better Christian than offer to forswear himself, and that perhaps he had forgotten he had been repaid. Then the defendant took his cane again, and, having made a low obeisance to the judge, was immediately leaving the court; which, when Sancho perceived, reflecting on the passage of the cane, and admiring the creditor's patience, after he had studied awhile with his head leaning over his stomach, and his forefinger on his nose, on a sudden he ordered the old man with the staff to be called back. When he was returned, “Honest man,” said Sancho, “let me see that cane a little, I have a use for it.” “With all my heart," answered the other; “Sir, here it is," and with that he gave it him. Sancho took it, and giving it to the other old man, “ There,” said he, “ go your ways, and Heaven be with you, for now you are paid." • How so, my lord ?” cried the old man; “ do you judge this cane to be worth ten gold crowns ? “Certainly,” said the Governor, “or else I am the greatest dunce in the world. And now you shall see whether I have not a head

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