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the principal prefixes, which are small words prefixed to roots; then a list of affices, which are appended to roots ; and then a few of the roots most extensively used. My design is rather to suggest inquiry into this subject, than to give the means of pursuing it thoroughly. If a pupil will get interested in it, he will pursue it with eagerness.

The utility of such a study, as is here proposed, may be inferred from the fact, that the understanding of a single prefix or affix inay unlock the meaning of hundreds of other words; the understanding of a single root will also explain many words. The small vocabulary of roots hereafter given, furnishes the basis of several thousand words in our language.

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PREFIXES. A, signifies on, in, to, or at : as, afoot, on foot ; abed', in bed ; afield', to the field; afar, at a great distance.

AB, signifies from or away : as, abbre'viate, to make short from ; absolve', to loose from.

Abs, signifies from or away : as, abstain', to hold from.
AD, and the forms it assumes, signifies to : as, adhere', to stick lo.

Ac, for Ad, signifies to : as, accede', for adcede', to yield lo, to come to, to agree or assent.

AF, for Ad, signifies to : as, affix', for adfix', to fix to:

At, for AD, signifies to : as, attract', for adtract', to draw to ; attest', to bear witness to.

ANTE, signifies before : as, antecedent, going before.

Anti, signifies opposite to, against : as, antichris'tian, opposite to Christianity ; antarc'tic, against, or opposite to, the north, (southern.)

BE, signifies to make : as, becalm', to make calm ; befoul', to make foul ; bedeck', to deck.

CIRCUM, signifies about or round : as, circumvent', to come round about, (to cheat.)

CON (cum), and the shapes it takes, – co, cog, col, com, cor, signifies together or with : as, concussi'on, a shaking together ; conform', to comply with.

Co, for con, signifies together or with : as, coop'erate, for con-operate, to work with or together.

Col, for con, signifies together or with : as, collect', for conlect', to gather together.

Com, for con, signifies together or with : as, commo'tion, for conmo'tion, a moving together ; compassi'on, for conpassi'on, suffering or feeling with (another).

Cor, for con, signifies together or with : as, corrob'orate, for conrob'orate, to make strong together ; correlative, for conrelative, relative with.

CONTRA, signifies against : as, contradict to say or speak against.

COUNTER, for contra, signifies against · as, counterbalance, to balance against.

De, signifies down or from : as, deject', to cast down ; depart', to part or go from.

Þis, signifies take from, away, off, or out ; not, implying privation, negatwn, or undoing : as, disarm', to take arms from ; disorder, to take away

HINTS TO READERS AND SPEAKERS.

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order ; discov'er, to take off the cover ; disinter', to take out of the earth or grave ; disbelieve', not to believe.

Di, for dis, signifies asunder : as, disperse', to scatter asunder.

En,- EM, signifies in, into, or on : to make : as, encamp', to form into a camp ; enthrone', to place on a throne ; ena'ble, to make able.

Em, for En, signifies to make : as embellish, to make beautiful; empower, to give power to.

Ex, signifies out, out of : as, exclude', to shut out ; extend', to stretch out.

E, contracted for Ex, siguifies out, out of : as, emit', lo send out; cduce', to bring out.

EXTRA, signifies beyond : as, extraor'dinary, beyond ordinary.

FORE, signifies before : as, forerun'ner, one who runs before ; foresee', to see before.

HYPER signifies above, over or beyond : as, hypercritsic, a critic exact over or beyond (use or reason.)

Hypo, signifies under : as, hypoth'esis, a placing under, (a system sormed under some principle not proved.)

Im, for in, (Saxon,) signifies to make : as, imbit'ter, to make bitter ; impov'erish, to make poor.

İN, (Latin,) and the forms it assumes, -il, im, ir, before a verb, signifies in or into, on or upon : as inject', to throw in or into ; inoc'ulate, to make an eye on or upon.

Il, for in, signifies in or on : as, illu’minatė, to make or puť light in, (to enlighten.)

IN, for in, signifies in or into, on or upon : as, import', to carry in or into ; impose', to place on or upon.

Ir, for in, signifies in or on : as, irra'diate, to make rays on or upon, (to illuminate.)

In, and the forms it assumes, -ig, il, im, ir, before an adjective, signifies not, implying negation, privation, or want : as in'finite, not finite, (or without bounds.)

Ig, for in, signifies not : as, igno'ble, not noble.
Il, for in, signifies not : as, ille'gal, not legal.

Im, for in, signifies not, implying negation, privation, or want : as, immor'tal, not mortal, (or not liable to death.)

IR, for in, signifies not : as, irrati'onal, not rational.

INTER, signifies between or among : as, interpose', to place between ; intermix', to mix among or between.

INTRO, signifies within : as, introduce', to lead or bring within.

JUXTA, signifies near to : as, juxtapositi'on, the being placed near to (any thing).

Mis, signifies ill, error, or defect, marking an ill, false, or wrong sense: as, miscon'duct, ill conduct ; misbelie'ver, one who holds a false religion, or believes wrongly; misapply, to apply to a wrong purpose.

OB, and the shapes it takes, - oc, of, op, signifies in the way, against, out: as, object', to cast in the way, or against ; obsolete, grown out (of use).

Out, signifies beyond, denoting excess or superiority : as, ouilive', to live beyond.

OVER, signifies above or over, too high or much, implying eminence or superiority, more than enough : as, overflow', to flow over or above ; overcharge', to charge too high or too much.

PARA, signifies side by side, beside, near to, like or similar : as, par'able, a putting a thing side by side, or beside another, (to make a comparison or si militude, or likening spiritual things to temporal or external objects.)

PER, signifies through, or thoroughly : as, pervade', to go through ; peren nial (lasting), through the year ; per' fect, thoroughly done.

Post, signifies after :' as, post'script, a thing written after.

PRE (PRA), signifies before : as, predict to say or tell before ; prefix', to fix before ; precur'sor, one who runs before.

PRETER (PRÆTER), signifies beyond or past : as, preternatural, beyond the course of nature ; pre'terite, past.

Pro, signifies for, forward, forth, or out : as, prox'y (for procuracy), an agent for another (or one wlio acts for another) ; proceed', to go forward ; provoke', to call forth ; proclaim', to cry out.

RE, signifies back or again, anew : as, recall, to call back ; rean'imate to life again ; remorse', a biting back; redeem', to buy back (by paying a price); recommence', to begin anew.

Retro, signifies backwards : as, retrograde, going backwards step by step.

se, signifies aside, apart, or without : as, secede', to go aside or apart ; seduce', to lead aside.

Sine, signifies without : as, sincere', without wax or mixture (honest) ; sim'ple, without a fold.

Sub, and the forms it assumes, - suc, suf, sag, sup, signifies under or after, implying a subordinate degree : as, subscribe', to write under ; sub'sequent, following under or after ; subbea'dle, under beadle.

Suc, for sub, signifies under, up : as, succeed', to go or come under or after (also to prosper) ; suc'cour, to run up (to help.)

SUF, for sub, signifies under : as, insuf'ferable, that cannot be borne under or with.

Sup, for sub, signifies under, up: 'as, suppress', to press under ; support', to bear up.

SUBTER, signifies under or beneath : as, sub'terfuge, a flying under or beneath, (a shift.)

SUPER, signifies above or over, more than enough : as, superadd', to add over or above ; supervi'sor, one who looks over (an overseer) ; superfluous, flowing more than enough, (unnecessary.)

SUR, signifies above, over, upon : as, surmount', to rise above ; survive', to live above or after.

TRANS, signifies across, over, or beyond, through, change from one place to another : as, transgress', to go over or beyond ; transpa'rent, appearing through (clear); transform', to change the form.

ULTRA, signifies beyond : as, ultramon'tane, beyond the mountain.

Un, before a verb, siguifies to take off, deprive of, implying undoing or destroying : as, undress', to take off clothes ; uncrown', to deprive of a crown.

Un, before an adjective, signifies not, implying negation or privation : as, una'ble, not able ; unbleın'ished, not blemished, or free from reproach.

UNDER, signifies beneath or under, denoting subordination or inferiority :

un'der-clerk, beneath, or subordinate to, the principal clerk.
With, signifies from or against : as, withdraw', to draw from.

AFFIXES.
Ac, signifies of or belonging to : as, demo'ninc, belonging to the devil.

ANCE, denotes being, or state of being, or (simply), ing': as vigʻilance, state of being vigilant, or watching ; sub'stance, standing under, or state of Leing substantial.

ANT, denotes one who, or the person that : as, assist'ant, one who, or the person that assists ; va'grant, one who wanders.

Ant, signifies being, or ing : ' as, abun'dant, abound'ing ; dor'ınant, sleeping; pleas'ant, plea'sing.

ARD, denotes one whɔ: as, drunk'ard, one who is drunken.

as,

HINTS TO READERS AND SPEAKERS.

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.

ARY, denotes one who, or the person that : as, em'issary, one who is sent out (secretly) ; vo'tary, one devoted, or the person that is devoted (to any thing).

ARY, denotes the place where, or the thing that : as, li'brary, the place where books are kept ; a'viary, the place where birds are kept, (or the thing that keeps birds in.)

ARY, signifies belonging, relating, or pertaining to, befitting : as, arborary, belonging to trees ; literary, relating to literature or letters ; parliamen'tary, pertaining to parliament.

ATE, denotes one who, or the person that : as, grad'uate, one who obtains a degree (at college) ; advocate, one who, or the person that pleads (the cause of another).

ATE, denotes having, being : as, inan'imate, having no life ; affec'tionate, having affection ; ad'equate, being equal to ; sit'uate, being placed (on).

ATE, denotes to make, to give, to put, or to take : as, ren'ovale, to make new again; frus’trate, to make vain ; an'imate, to give life ; invigʻorate, to put vigor in or into ; exon'erate, to take the burden from or out.

EE, denotes one who : as, absentee', one who is absent ; patentee', one who has a patent.

EER, signifies one who, or the person that : as, mountaineer', one who dwells on or amid mountains, (a Highlander.)

ENCE, denotes being or state of being, or “ing': as, abhor'rence, state of being abhorrent, or abhorring ; adhe'rence, sticking to, or state of being adherent.

Ent, denotes one who, or the person that : as, depo'nent, one who puts or lays down (evidence); pa'tient, one who, or the person that suffers.

ER, denotes one who, or the person that : as, ba'ker, one who bakes ; vis'iter, one who, or the person that visits ; wid'ower, one who, or the person that has lost his wife.

Ful, denotes full of : as, hope'ful, full of hope ;. aw'ful, full of awe ; plen'tiful, full of plenty.

Fy, denotes to make : as, mag'nify to make great ; sanc'tify, to make holy, pu’rify, to make pure.

Hood, denotes the state of : as, boy'hood, the state of a boy.

Ic, denotes of, belonging, relating, or pertaining to : as, academ'ic, of or belonging to an academy ; angelic, relating to angels ; ocean'ic, pertaining to the ocean.

ILE, denotes belonging to, may or can be, easily : as, pu'erile, belonging to a boy ; fex'ile, that may or can be bent, or easily bent.

INE, denotes of or belonging to : as, ma'rine, of or belonging to the sea ; ca'nine, belonging to dogs ; fem'inine, of or belonging to the female.

Ion, denotes act of, stale of being, or "ing': as, contribu'tion, the act of contributing or giving together ; collis'ion, the act of striking together ; subordina'tion, state of being subordinate or inferior; dissolu'tion, a dissolving (a loosing asunder); cohesion, a sticking together ; commo'tion, a moving together, (a tumult.)

Ish, denotes belonging to, like or resembling, little of or somewhat : as, Engʻlish, belonging to England ; child'ish, like or resembling a child ; green'ish, little of or somewhat green.

Ism, (Gr.) denotes state of being, an idiom, or doctrine of : as, par'allelism, state of being parallel ; Lat'inism, a Latin idiom ; Calvinism, doctrine of Calvin.

Ist, denotes one who, or the person that : as, botanist, one who studies bot. any or plants ; the’orist, one who, or the person that theorizes or speculates ; oc'ulist, one who cures eyes.

ITE, denotes one whı, or the person that : as, Le'vite, one who is descended from Levi ; fa'vorite, one who, or the person that is favored.

Ive, denotes having power, that can, or "ing,' implying power, ability, or activiy: as, persua'sive, having power to persuade ; correc'tive, that can correct ; progres'sive, going forward.

Ize, - ise, denotes to make, to give : as, civ'ilize, to make civil ; fertilize, to make fruitful; characterize, to give a character ; au'thorize, to give authority.

Less, denotes without, having no, or wanting : as, arı'less, without art ; fath'erless, without a father ; helpless, having no power, or wanting power.

LIKE, denotes like or resembling : as, man'like, like or resembling inan. Ling, (sometimes LiN,) denotes lilile, young : gos'ling, a young goose.

Ly (contraction for LIKE), postfixed io nouns, denotes like or resembling : as, broth'erly, like or resembling a brother ; eartlı’ly, like or resembling earth; win'terly, like winter.

MENT, denotes being or state of being, act of, the thing that : as, abase'. ment, being abased, or state of being abased ; cuncealment, act of concealing ; refreslı'ment, the thing that refreshes.

NESS, denotes a being or state of being, or quality of being : as, barrenness, a being barren ; bles'sedness, state of being blessed ; soft'ness, the quality of being soft.

Or, denotes one who, or the person that : as, doc'tor, one who or the person that is learned ; interces'sor, one who intercedes or goes bel ween.

ORY, denotes of, belonging, relating or pertaining to, 'ing': as, pref'atory, of or belonging to a preface ; pis'catory, relating to fish ; consoľatory, pertaining to consolation (tending to give comfort) ; ad’ulatory, flattering.

Ose, denotes full of : as, operose, full of labor ; verbose, full of words.

Ous, denotes full of, having, consisting of, of or belonging to, given to, ing', as, dan'gerous, full of danger ; pop'ulous, full of people ; longim'anous, having long hands ; cartilag'inous, consisting of gristles ; bil'ious, consisting of bile ; co-eta'neous, of the same age ; conten'tious, given to contention ; lanig'erous, bearing wool ; graminiv'orous, eating grass.

Ry, denotes a being, the art of, the place where, or property of : as, bra'very, a being brave ; cas'uistry, the art or science of a casuisi ; nur'sery, the place where young children or trees are reared.

SHIP, denotes office of, state af : as, rec'torship, office of a rector ; copart'nership, state of having equal shares.

SOME, denotes somewhat, full of : as, glad'some, somewhat glad ; frol'icsome, full of frolics or pranks.

TUDE, or UDE, denotes being or state of being : as multitude, being many; solic'itude, state of being anxious.

Ty, denotes being or state of being : as, brev'ity, a being short or concise ; lax'ity, a being loose ; nov'élty, state of being new (or unknown before) ; probability, state of being probable.

URE, denotes the thing, state, power, or art of: as, scripture, the thing written ; crea'ture, the thing created ; leg'islature, the power that makes laws; ag'riculture, the art of cultivating fields.

WARD, denotes in the direction of, or, looking toward : as, down'ward, in the direction of, or looking down ; in'ward, looking toward the inside.

Y, denotes the being, state of being, oring': as, har'mony, the being harmonious ; jealousy, the being jealous, or state of being jealous ; con'stancy, a standing together, or state of being constant.

Y, denotes full of, covered with, made of : as, knot'ty, full of knots; flow'ery, full of, or covered with flowers ; horn'y, made of horn.

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