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the principal prefixes, which are small words prefixed to roots; then a list of affices, which are appended to roots ; and then a few of the roots most extensively used. My design is rather to suggest inquiry into this subject, than to give the means of pursuing it thoroughly. If a pupil will get interested in it, he will pursue it with eagerness.
The utility of such a study, as is here proposed, may be inferred from the fact, that the understanding of a single prefix or affix inay unlock the meaning of hundreds of other words; the understanding of a single root will also explain many words. The small vocabulary of roots hereafter given, furnishes the basis of several thousand words in our language.
PREFIXES. A, signifies on, in, to, or at : as, afoot, on foot ; abed', in bed ; afield', to the field; afar, at a great distance.
AB, signifies from or away : as, abbre'viate, to make short from ; absolve', to loose from.
Abs, signifies from or away : as, abstain', to hold from.
Ac, for Ad, signifies to : as, accede', for adcede', to yield lo, to come to, to agree or assent.
AF, for Ad, signifies to : as, affix', for adfix', to fix to:
At, for AD, signifies to : as, attract', for adtract', to draw to ; attest', to bear witness to.
ANTE, signifies before : as, antecedent, going before.
Anti, signifies opposite to, against : as, antichris'tian, opposite to Christianity ; antarc'tic, against, or opposite to, the north, (southern.)
BE, signifies to make : as, becalm', to make calm ; befoul', to make foul ; bedeck', to deck.
CIRCUM, signifies about or round : as, circumvent', to come round about, (to cheat.)
CON (cum), and the shapes it takes, – co, cog, col, com, cor, signifies together or with : as, concussi'on, a shaking together ; conform', to comply with.
Co, for con, signifies together or with : as, coop'erate, for con-operate, to work with or together.
Col, for con, signifies together or with : as, collect', for conlect', to gather together.
Com, for con, signifies together or with : as, commo'tion, for conmo'tion, a moving together ; compassi'on, for conpassi'on, suffering or feeling with (another).
Cor, for con, signifies together or with : as, corrob'orate, for conrob'orate, to make strong together ; correlative, for conrelative, relative with.
CONTRA, signifies against : as, contradict to say or speak against.
COUNTER, for contra, signifies against · as, counterbalance, to balance against.
De, signifies down or from : as, deject', to cast down ; depart', to part or go from.
Þis, signifies take from, away, off, or out ; not, implying privation, negatwn, or undoing : as, disarm', to take arms from ; disorder, to take away
HINTS TO READERS AND SPEAKERS.
order ; discov'er, to take off the cover ; disinter', to take out of the earth or grave ; disbelieve', not to believe.
Di, for dis, signifies asunder : as, disperse', to scatter asunder.
En,- EM, signifies in, into, or on : to make : as, encamp', to form into a camp ; enthrone', to place on a throne ; ena'ble, to make able.
Em, for En, signifies to make : as embellish, to make beautiful; empower, to give power to.
Ex, signifies out, out of : as, exclude', to shut out ; extend', to stretch out.
E, contracted for Ex, siguifies out, out of : as, emit', lo send out; cduce', to bring out.
EXTRA, signifies beyond : as, extraor'dinary, beyond ordinary.
FORE, signifies before : as, forerun'ner, one who runs before ; foresee', to see before.
HYPER signifies above, over or beyond : as, hypercritsic, a critic exact over or beyond (use or reason.)
Hypo, signifies under : as, hypoth'esis, a placing under, (a system sormed under some principle not proved.)
Im, for in, (Saxon,) signifies to make : as, imbit'ter, to make bitter ; impov'erish, to make poor.
İN, (Latin,) and the forms it assumes, -il, im, ir, before a verb, signifies in or into, on or upon : as inject', to throw in or into ; inoc'ulate, to make an eye on or upon.
Il, for in, signifies in or on : as, illu’minatė, to make or puť light in, (to enlighten.)
IN, for in, signifies in or into, on or upon : as, import', to carry in or into ; impose', to place on or upon.
Ir, for in, signifies in or on : as, irra'diate, to make rays on or upon, (to illuminate.)
In, and the forms it assumes, -ig, il, im, ir, before an adjective, signifies not, implying negation, privation, or want : as in'finite, not finite, (or without bounds.)
Ig, for in, signifies not : as, igno'ble, not noble.
Im, for in, signifies not, implying negation, privation, or want : as, immor'tal, not mortal, (or not liable to death.)
IR, for in, signifies not : as, irrati'onal, not rational.
INTER, signifies between or among : as, interpose', to place between ; intermix', to mix among or between.
INTRO, signifies within : as, introduce', to lead or bring within.
JUXTA, signifies near to : as, juxtapositi'on, the being placed near to (any thing).
Mis, signifies ill, error, or defect, marking an ill, false, or wrong sense: as, miscon'duct, ill conduct ; misbelie'ver, one who holds a false religion, or believes wrongly; misapply, to apply to a wrong purpose.
OB, and the shapes it takes, - oc, of, op, signifies in the way, against, out: as, object', to cast in the way, or against ; obsolete, grown out (of use).
Out, signifies beyond, denoting excess or superiority : as, ouilive', to live beyond.
OVER, signifies above or over, too high or much, implying eminence or superiority, more than enough : as, overflow', to flow over or above ; overcharge', to charge too high or too much.
PARA, signifies side by side, beside, near to, like or similar : as, par'able, a putting a thing side by side, or beside another, (to make a comparison or si militude, or likening spiritual things to temporal or external objects.)
PER, signifies through, or thoroughly : as, pervade', to go through ; peren nial (lasting), through the year ; per' fect, thoroughly done.
Post, signifies after :' as, post'script, a thing written after.
PRE (PRA), signifies before : as, predict to say or tell before ; prefix', to fix before ; precur'sor, one who runs before.
PRETER (PRÆTER), signifies beyond or past : as, preternatural, beyond the course of nature ; pre'terite, past.
Pro, signifies for, forward, forth, or out : as, prox'y (for procuracy), an agent for another (or one wlio acts for another) ; proceed', to go forward ; provoke', to call forth ; proclaim', to cry out.
RE, signifies back or again, anew : as, recall, to call back ; rean'imate to life again ; remorse', a biting back; redeem', to buy back (by paying a price); recommence', to begin anew.
Retro, signifies backwards : as, retrograde, going backwards step by step.
se, signifies aside, apart, or without : as, secede', to go aside or apart ; seduce', to lead aside.
Sine, signifies without : as, sincere', without wax or mixture (honest) ; sim'ple, without a fold.
Sub, and the forms it assumes, - suc, suf, sag, sup, signifies under or after, implying a subordinate degree : as, subscribe', to write under ; sub'sequent, following under or after ; subbea'dle, under beadle.
Suc, for sub, signifies under, up : as, succeed', to go or come under or after (also to prosper) ; suc'cour, to run up (to help.)
SUF, for sub, signifies under : as, insuf'ferable, that cannot be borne under or with.
Sup, for sub, signifies under, up: 'as, suppress', to press under ; support', to bear up.
SUBTER, signifies under or beneath : as, sub'terfuge, a flying under or beneath, (a shift.)
SUPER, signifies above or over, more than enough : as, superadd', to add over or above ; supervi'sor, one who looks over (an overseer) ; superfluous, flowing more than enough, (unnecessary.)
SUR, signifies above, over, upon : as, surmount', to rise above ; survive', to live above or after.
TRANS, signifies across, over, or beyond, through, change from one place to another : as, transgress', to go over or beyond ; transpa'rent, appearing through (clear); transform', to change the form.
ULTRA, signifies beyond : as, ultramon'tane, beyond the mountain.
Un, before a verb, siguifies to take off, deprive of, implying undoing or destroying : as, undress', to take off clothes ; uncrown', to deprive of a crown.
Un, before an adjective, signifies not, implying negation or privation : as, una'ble, not able ; unbleın'ished, not blemished, or free from reproach.
UNDER, signifies beneath or under, denoting subordination or inferiority :
un'der-clerk, beneath, or subordinate to, the principal clerk.
ANCE, denotes being, or state of being, or (simply), ing': as vigʻilance, state of being vigilant, or watching ; sub'stance, standing under, or state of Leing substantial.
ANT, denotes one who, or the person that : as, assist'ant, one who, or the person that assists ; va'grant, one who wanders.
Ant, signifies being, or ing : ' as, abun'dant, abound'ing ; dor'ınant, sleeping; pleas'ant, plea'sing.
ARD, denotes one whɔ: as, drunk'ard, one who is drunken.
HINTS TO READERS AND SPEAKERS.
ARY, denotes one who, or the person that : as, em'issary, one who is sent out (secretly) ; vo'tary, one devoted, or the person that is devoted (to any thing).
ARY, denotes the place where, or the thing that : as, li'brary, the place where books are kept ; a'viary, the place where birds are kept, (or the thing that keeps birds in.)
ARY, signifies belonging, relating, or pertaining to, befitting : as, arborary, belonging to trees ; literary, relating to literature or letters ; parliamen'tary, pertaining to parliament.
ATE, denotes one who, or the person that : as, grad'uate, one who obtains a degree (at college) ; advocate, one who, or the person that pleads (the cause of another).
ATE, denotes having, being : as, inan'imate, having no life ; affec'tionate, having affection ; ad'equate, being equal to ; sit'uate, being placed (on).
ATE, denotes to make, to give, to put, or to take : as, ren'ovale, to make new again; frus’trate, to make vain ; an'imate, to give life ; invigʻorate, to put vigor in or into ; exon'erate, to take the burden from or out.
EE, denotes one who : as, absentee', one who is absent ; patentee', one who has a patent.
EER, signifies one who, or the person that : as, mountaineer', one who dwells on or amid mountains, (a Highlander.)
ENCE, denotes being or state of being, or “ing': as, abhor'rence, state of being abhorrent, or abhorring ; adhe'rence, sticking to, or state of being adherent.
Ent, denotes one who, or the person that : as, depo'nent, one who puts or lays down (evidence); pa'tient, one who, or the person that suffers.
ER, denotes one who, or the person that : as, ba'ker, one who bakes ; vis'iter, one who, or the person that visits ; wid'ower, one who, or the person that has lost his wife.
Ful, denotes full of : as, hope'ful, full of hope ;. aw'ful, full of awe ; plen'tiful, full of plenty.
Fy, denotes to make : as, mag'nify to make great ; sanc'tify, to make holy, pu’rify, to make pure.
Hood, denotes the state of : as, boy'hood, the state of a boy.
Ic, denotes of, belonging, relating, or pertaining to : as, academ'ic, of or belonging to an academy ; angelic, relating to angels ; ocean'ic, pertaining to the ocean.
ILE, denotes belonging to, may or can be, easily : as, pu'erile, belonging to a boy ; fex'ile, that may or can be bent, or easily bent.
INE, denotes of or belonging to : as, ma'rine, of or belonging to the sea ; ca'nine, belonging to dogs ; fem'inine, of or belonging to the female.
Ion, denotes act of, stale of being, or "ing': as, contribu'tion, the act of contributing or giving together ; collis'ion, the act of striking together ; subordina'tion, state of being subordinate or inferior; dissolu'tion, a dissolving (a loosing asunder); cohesion, a sticking together ; commo'tion, a moving together, (a tumult.)
Ish, denotes belonging to, like or resembling, little of or somewhat : as, Engʻlish, belonging to England ; child'ish, like or resembling a child ; green'ish, little of or somewhat green.
Ism, (Gr.) denotes state of being, an idiom, or doctrine of : as, par'allelism, state of being parallel ; Lat'inism, a Latin idiom ; Calvinism, doctrine of Calvin.
Ist, denotes one who, or the person that : as, botanist, one who studies bot. any or plants ; the’orist, one who, or the person that theorizes or speculates ; oc'ulist, one who cures eyes.
ITE, denotes one whı, or the person that : as, Le'vite, one who is descended from Levi ; fa'vorite, one who, or the person that is favored.
Ive, denotes having power, that can, or "ing,' implying power, ability, or activiy: as, persua'sive, having power to persuade ; correc'tive, that can correct ; progres'sive, going forward.
Ize, - ise, denotes to make, to give : as, civ'ilize, to make civil ; fertilize, to make fruitful; characterize, to give a character ; au'thorize, to give authority.
Less, denotes without, having no, or wanting : as, arı'less, without art ; fath'erless, without a father ; helpless, having no power, or wanting power.
LIKE, denotes like or resembling : as, man'like, like or resembling inan. Ling, (sometimes LiN,) denotes lilile, young : gos'ling, a young goose.
Ly (contraction for LIKE), postfixed io nouns, denotes like or resembling : as, broth'erly, like or resembling a brother ; eartlı’ly, like or resembling earth; win'terly, like winter.
MENT, denotes being or state of being, act of, the thing that : as, abase'. ment, being abased, or state of being abased ; cuncealment, act of concealing ; refreslı'ment, the thing that refreshes.
NESS, denotes a being or state of being, or quality of being : as, barrenness, a being barren ; bles'sedness, state of being blessed ; soft'ness, the quality of being soft.
Or, denotes one who, or the person that : as, doc'tor, one who or the person that is learned ; interces'sor, one who intercedes or goes bel ween.
ORY, denotes of, belonging, relating or pertaining to, 'ing': as, pref'atory, of or belonging to a preface ; pis'catory, relating to fish ; consoľatory, pertaining to consolation (tending to give comfort) ; ad’ulatory, flattering.
Ose, denotes full of : as, operose, full of labor ; verbose, full of words.
Ous, denotes full of, having, consisting of, of or belonging to, given to, ‘ing', as, dan'gerous, full of danger ; pop'ulous, full of people ; longim'anous, having long hands ; cartilag'inous, consisting of gristles ; bil'ious, consisting of bile ; co-eta'neous, of the same age ; conten'tious, given to contention ; lanig'erous, bearing wool ; graminiv'orous, eating grass.
Ry, denotes a being, the art of, the place where, or property of : as, bra'very, a being brave ; cas'uistry, the art or science of a casuisi ; nur'sery, the place where young children or trees are reared.
SHIP, denotes office of, state af : as, rec'torship, office of a rector ; copart'nership, state of having equal shares.
SOME, denotes somewhat, full of : as, glad'some, somewhat glad ; frol'icsome, full of frolics or pranks.
TUDE, or UDE, denotes being or state of being : as multitude, being many; solic'itude, state of being anxious.
Ty, denotes being or state of being : as, brev'ity, a being short or concise ; lax'ity, a being loose ; nov'élty, state of being new (or unknown before) ; probability, state of being probable.
URE, denotes the thing, state, power, or art of: as, scripture, the thing written ; crea'ture, the thing created ; leg'islature, the power that makes laws; ag'riculture, the art of cultivating fields.
WARD, denotes in the direction of, or, looking toward : as, down'ward, in the direction of, or looking down ; in'ward, looking toward the inside.
Y, denotes the being, state of being, oring': as, har'mony, the being harmonious ; jealousy, the being jealous, or state of being jealous ; con'stancy, a standing together, or state of being constant.
Y, denotes full of, covered with, made of : as, knot'ty, full of knots; flow'ery, full of, or covered with flowers ; horn'y, made of horn.