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from their nation. But, among the different tribes found in the North of Africa, the Kabyles seem to be the most remarkable. They are otherwise called Berebers. They live in the mountainous districts, independent of the Algerine government, forming a population so numerous, that were they not divided into a great number of small tribes, perpetually at war with each other, they would soon constitute a power too formidable for the Regency to control.

The Kabyles speak a language, called the Showiah, having, as far as has been discovered, no resemblance to those spoken by the other tribes, and which, there are many reasons to believe, is of great antiquity. It is supposed to be identified with that of the Tuaricks, who inhabit the interior parts of Libya to the borders of Egypt. Should this position prove correct, and there are strong grounds for sustaining it, the Tuaricks and Kabyles must be considered people of the same origin. That is, the same people and the same language prevail throughout the whole northern range of Africa, from the Atlantic to Egypt, and this people and language show marked peculiarities, which distinguish them from any other now known. Their origin, therefore, becomes a very curious subject of inquiry. The author devotes a few pages to a discussion of the point, which will be read with great interest by those, who are curious in these matters. His opinion is, and he supports it by considerations not easily to be shaken, that the Showiah is a language of greater antiquity, than any other spoken in northern Africa. It is remarkable, as he states, that every trace of the Roman language appears to have been eradicated by the Saracen conquest.' Nor has it been discovered, that the language in question has any analogy to the Punic, or the Arabic, and of course it must have been formed before the introduction of those tongues into Africa. After a brief, but lucid examination of the question, Mr Shaler concludes, that, from the facts adduced, there appears to be nothing unreasonable in believing, that the Tuaricks are an original, unconquered people, and the depository of an ancient language, which, being identified with that of the Kabyles, the Showiah, naturally leads to the conclusion, that it is one of the most ancient in the world, which has withstood and survived the conquests of the Carthaginians, the Romans, the Vandals, and the Arabs.' In his Appendix the author has inserted a vocabulary of this language, as far as he has been able to collect it, and he is still pursuing this branch of the in

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quiry. A correspondence between him and Mr Du Ponceau, on this subject, is contained in the volume of Philosophical Transactions recently published in Philadelphia.

We should be tempted too far, were we to follow the author in his ingenious speculations, respecting the future destiny of that portion of Africa now subject to Algerine domination. The natural resources of this country, and the prosperity to which it might attain under a mild and equitable government, are set forth by him with a glowing, and we doubt not a judicious pen. His views of colonization seem to us correct; but to what extent his theory, that it would be expedient and conducive to human happiness and improvement for England to take possession of this region and colonize it, may be approved by the wise and prudent, we venture not to pronounce. His reasonings are not without weight, and we have no disposition to confute them, if we could. And in truth, if we should attempt it and succeed, there would still remain one irresistible argument, which is, that it is impossible for the reins of power to be in worse hands than at present, and therefore any transfer would be a gain, both to the general cause of human advancement, and to the immediate and dearest interests of the people themselves. But, after all, we should be loath to witness the scenes of India acted over in Africa ; and we fear the descendants of the Numidians would be little benefited, even by throwing off the yoke of the pirates, if it must be done by such a mode of release.

Mr Shaler's last chapter contains a selection from the Journal, kept in the Consulate of the United States at Algiers. It embraces the chief events in the recent political history of the Regency, particularly in its intercourse with Great Britain, on a threatened abrogation of the treaty, and renewal of hostilities. As the author acted an important part in these events, was himself involved in various intricate and embarrassing circumstances, and personally acquainted with almost every incident he narrates, this selection from his official Journal constitutes at once a most valuable, and highly interesting part of his book. It affords an insight into the details of Algerine diplomacy, which, we venture to say, can be obtained from no other quarter. The account given of the Consul's firmness, in resisting the demands of the Regency to give up the defenceless Kabyles under his protection, when the other consuls submitted to the outrage, will be read with warm approbation by every American. It was a measure, on the Consul's part, as bold as it was just, and not


less creditable to his feelings as a man, than it was honorable to his character as the representative of a free nation.

But we would not point to particular parts of this volume, as worthy of exclusive attention. The whole is written with a dignity, a freedom of remark, an independent tone of opinion and investigation, together with an intimate knowledge of the subjects brought under notice, which give it strong claims to respect and confidence; at the same time it communicates a mass of curious and important facts, not before presented to the reading public. It has not been common for an agent from any country, possessing the author's intelligence, frankness, and talents, to be employed in the diplomatic affairs of the Barbary States; nay, a capacity for low intrigue, chicanery, and artifice, has usually been considered the primary qualification for such a post. And when we consider the principles, on which the respective gove ernments have required their agents to act, and the extraordinary transactions to which this intercourse has uniformly led, it is not surprising, that no one has been found willing to reveal the dark policy, by which his instructions compelled him to be guided, if his own spirit did not prompt him to it. By the concurrent sanction of all the christian powers, growing out of their mutual jealousies, such has been the system adhered to in treating with the Barbary pirates, that no public agent would dare to unfold and spread it out before the world. Concealment and duplicity were essential parts of the system itself. But the mind and pen of the American Consul General were bound by no such ignoble chains as these; he has scrutinized deeply, and declared freely what he discovered, and what he thought. The disclosures he has made, and which others will make, by pursuing the track on which he has entered, will afford a key to many parts of European history that are yet hidden. If all the diplomatic proceedings of the christian governments with the Barbary States, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, could be brought to light, and recorded for the inspection of the world, we doubt whether more signal evidences of the abuse of power, the force of base passions, and the wickedness of rulers, could be collected from the annals of the civilized world.

ART. IX.-Miscellaneous Poems selected from the United States

Literary Gazette. Boston. Cummings, Hilliard, and Co; and Harrison Gray. 18mo. pp. 172. This little volume, as the title imports, is composed of a selection from the poetical department of the United States Literary Gazette, embracing the period from the beginning of that work down to the end of the past year. When originally published, these pieces appeared as anonymous contributions, but in the present collection the names of the authors, except in a few instances, are prefixed. The principal contributors are Bryant and Percival; in addition to whom are Longfellow, Mellen, Jones, and Dawes; and, without invidious comparison or exaggerated praise, it may with great truth be said, that there are from each of these writers specimens of much poetical beauty, and that the volume itself is a rich acquisition to the elegant literature of the country. We know not but our partiality for whatever excellence is of American growth, may cause us to feel the more gratified with a work like this, but we would not bestow on it extravagant praise, merely because it is American. Such praise would be injurious to the cause of letters among us. We would not that our poets be easily satisfied, but rather that they aspire to rival the richest strains, which have been breathed from the country of Shakspeare and of Milton. We would have them strictly American; their productions should retain a flavor of the soil in which they were formed. The feelings they express, and the outward forms they portray, should partake of something of the air of the place. But we would not have them pleased with a low measure of excellence; nor would we have our men of genius remain content with moderate merit, because, possibly, moderate merit may be sufficient to meet the immediate and coarser der

nds of the public. Mr Bryant, who has contributed the largest number of pieces to the volume before us, has been for several years a favorite with the American public. We have, on former occasions, expressed our opinion of his genius and writings. As a poet, he possesses rare gifts. His poetry has truth, delicacy, and correctness, as well as uncommon vigor and richness; he is always faithful to nature ; his delineations are accurate, vivid, and forcible ; he selects his groups and images with judgment, and sketches with spirit and exactness. He writes as one, who,



in the love of nature, holds communion with her visible forms.' Nothing is borrowed, nothing artificial ; his pictures have an air of freshness and originality, which could come from the student of nature alone. He is alive to the beautiful forms of the outward world. These forms hold a language to his heart. Nature to him is not an inert mass, mere dead matter ; it is almost a feeling, and a sentiment. His poetry is always refreshing; the scenes of stillness and repose, into which he introduces us, seem fitted to exclude care and sorrow; he draws us from haunts of men, where we become familiar with loathsome forms of vice and misery, where our hearts are torn with anxiety, or wounded by neglect and ingratitude, and makes us 'partake of the deep contentment,' which the mute scenes of earth breathe. He is less the poet of artificial life, than of nature, and the feelings. There is something for the heart, as well as for the understanding and fancy, in all he writes; something, which touches our sensibility, and awakens deep toned, sacred reflections. ,

Again, Mr Bryant charms us by his simplicity. Like all true lovers of nature, he is fond of those chaste beauties, which strike on the heart at once, and are incapable of being heightened by any extraneous ornament. His pictures are never overcharged. Nothing is turgid or meretricious, strange or fantastic. His heart is open to the healthful influences of nature; he muses among her gay and beautiful forms, and throws out upon the world his visions and feelings in a garb of attractive simplicity and grace. His strains, moreover, are exquisitely finished. He leaves nothing crude and imperfect; he throws off no hasty sketches, no vague, shadowy, and ill assorted images. His portraits have a picturesque distinctness; the outlines are accurately traced, and the colors laid on with delicacy and skill. We are never disgusted with grossness; nothing appears overstrained or feeble, deformed, misshapen, or out of place.

To write such poetry at any time would be no trifling distinction. Mr Bryant deserves the greater praise, as he has exhibited a pure and classical standard in an age, the tendency of which is, in some respects, towards lawless fanaticism and wildness. There is a fashion in literature, as in everything else. The popular style is now the rapid, the hasty, the abrupt, and unfinished. The age is certainly not a superficial one. It is distinguished beyond any former period for habits of deep, earnest thought. But one of its characteristics seems to be an impatience of restraint. It is fond of strong excitement, however produced.

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