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has none of those overcharged gloomy pictures of the present, and still gloomier pictures of the future, which, since the days of that spirit of darkness, Lord Byron, have settled over this region of poetry. The whole is animated by sincere and commendable affections, and if there is no great expenditure of wit, or fancy, lavished upon them, they are at least not wanting in feeling, which is esteemed by many no less essential to good poetry.
We will select one piece as a specimen of the poet's execution. It is not much better than the average of the verses, which pretty generally attain the level of that aurea mediocritas, so often celebrated in prose and verse. .
A SONG AT SEA.
Our sails are spread before the wind,
And onward, onward swift we fly;
No prospect now invites the eye,
Save the blue sea, and cloudless sky.
To parents, friends, and Mary dear,
This heart ne'er felt a thrill of fear
It was affection caus'd the tear.
Our vessel dashes proudly on,
With wealth and honors bravely won,
That is the hope I live upon.
Destroy these soothing dreams of glory,
And Mary, when she hears my story,
Will shed love's holiest tribute o'er me. If these little effusions are not enriched with much poetical imagery, there is at least none of that desperate straining after it, which is apt to make the hobbling gait of an author more apparent; none of that poor taste for tawdry ornament, which betrays at once the inclination and the inability to be fine. Touching the expediency of uttering another volume, respecting which our author seems to hesitate, we should advise him, if it be not impertinent, to be governed entirely by the returns of his publisher. Verse making is an innocent, and if not too expensive, doubtless an agreeable method of killing the dull hours of a sailor's life. But should he again favor us, we hope he will talk less of things on shore, and more of those around him. The sea, with its thousand brilliant perils and accompaniments, is rich in materials for poetry, (at least Lord Byron thought it so, as may be seen in his letter to the Rev. W. L. Bowles); and it is so seldom that we find the Muse aboard a man of war, that we are anxious she should make the most of her situation.
We believe there are not more than three pieces in our naval author's collection, which have any relation to his profession, and one of those we have quoted.
I. ware 6.-An Epitome of Chymical Philosophy, being an extended Syl
bus of the Lectures on that Subject delivered at Dartmouth College, and intended as a Text Book for Students. By James Freeman Dana. Concord. New Hampshire. Isaac
Hill. 1825. 8vo. pp. 231. The author of this Epitome was an early, and has been for many years, an assiduous cultivator and teacher of chemistry. The volume, which he has now published, contains in a condensed form the substance of the Lectures, which he has been accustomed to deliver as Professor in this department at Dartmouth College, and it does ample credit to the industry and acquirements of the author. It will be found a very intelligible and useful manual to those, who are attending courses of chemical lectures, and contains, within a narrow space, a large amount of matter clearly expressed, and generally well arranged. The work consists of two parts.
The first contains the general principles of the science, and the chemistry of inorganic substances; the second, the chemistry of organic'substances, or a chemical examination of nature.
The first division of the first part relates to those general laws or powers of matter, upon which chemical phenomena are supposed to be dependent, namely, attraction, cohesion, affinity, electricity, electromagnetism, caloric, and light. Of these the account is brief, but considering the space allowed them, very comprehensive and perspicuous. Then follows in order an examination of the different elementary substances, to the number of fiftytwo, and of their most interesting compounds. The metals are subdivided into four orders, the metals producing alkalies, the metals producing acids, the metals producing oxides, and the supposed metals producing earths. This is a good and satisfactory arrangement. The second part, relating to organized matter, is very short, but contains as much perhaps as is desirable in a work of this character.
7,—The Claims of the Citizens of the United States on Denmark
eramineil. First published in the Boston Monthly Maga
zine. By CALEB Cushing. Boston. 8vo. pp. 18. On different occasions we have recently called the attention of our readers to the large amount of Claims, which our government holds against several of the powers of Europe; and we have especially explained the nature of these claims on Holland, France, and Naples, and exhibited the strong grounds on which they rest. We are glad to see in this pamphlet a similar course pursued, by Mr Cushing, in regard to Denmark. It is time for this whole subject to be sifted, and it is moreover time, that the demands of our citizens should be urged in a manner, which shall demonstrate that the American government will not patiently wait much longer for the tardy exercise of justice. Nothing is gained by delay, but on the contrary much is lost. Every year will increase the reluctance on the part of the foreign powers, to investigate the subject; and it is quite certain, that time will not have the effect to make them see more clearly the force of right, or to pay more willingly an honest debt, already of long standing. Our government and citizens, therefore, cannot be awake to the subject too soon, nor enforce their just demands too earnestly.
• The capture of the American vessels by the Danes,' says Mr Cushing, began in 1809. Denmark was at that time an ally of Napoleon's, and engaged in active hostilities against Great Britain, stimulated thereto by the recollection of the two successive attacks of the British on Copenhagen. Friendly relations between the Danish and American governments had existed uninterruptedly down to this period. But in this year thirtysix American vessels were taken and carried into Norwegian ports, and twentyfive into the ports of Holstein, Sleswick, and the Danish Islands. The captors were sailing under commission from the king of Denmark. Their depredations continued in 1810, during which year the number of captures increased to one hundred and four, which induced the government of the United States to despatch Mr George W. Erving to Copenhagen for the special purpose of arresting the progress of these illegal proceedings, and of reclaiming the property captured. His presence and his remonstrances to the Danish ministry had the desired effect in part, as the enterprises of the privateers were gradually restrained, and of many American vessels, which passed the sound in 1811, only about twentyfive were captured or interrupted in their progress. p. 4.
There were other captures, called convoy cases, which were marked with a still higher degree of injustice, and of hardship to the owners.
• A number of American ships went up the Baltic in the spring of 1810, when they paid their Sound dues, were examined by the Danes, and pronounced to be neutral. On their passage down, they were arrested by British force, and compelled to accept convoy. This of course they had no motive to do for protection against Danish cruisers, because they had already passed the ordeal of an examination. When the convoy was attacked by Danish gun brigs, the Americans made no attempts to escape, feeling secure in the ascertained legality of their voyages, and were captured and carried into port, and condemned as good prize. When Mr Erving commenced his negotiations, ten of these cases were still pending, and he made the strongest efforts to procure their release, but without effect. p. 7.
Suffice it to say, that although Mr Erving succeeded in preventing a few condemnations, yet he obtained no indemnity for losses sustained by our merchants, in consequence of the unjust and high handed conduct of Denmark, in making captures under the circumstances mentioned above. Nor has any restitution whatever been made up to the present day.
Another thing the author thinks it quite time for the American government to look into, which is the duty, or tribute, levied by the Danes on all our ships passing into the Baltic. Since we have shaken off the yoke of the Barbary pirates, it may at least be deemed a question, whether it comports with our character, as an independent nation, to pay tribute to any government, and especially where no quid pro quo is received, as would seem to be the case in the present instance.
• The Sound duties are paid in the shape both of a tonnage duty and of a duty on commodities. They are regulated by treaty between the Danes and Dutch, the British, Russians, Swedes, French, Prussians, and other nations. The basis of the rate of duty as paid by them, and more especially as paid by Americans, is the tariff established by the States General, in their treaty concluded with Denmark, in 1645, and known as the treaty of Christianopel. The tariff is qualified, however, and sundry additions are made to it, distinguished by the name of usances, and the whole is published in the common form of a tariff of duties on goods. It is not easy to ascertain the precise amount paid by us, because the cargoes of our ships, which ascend the Baltic, are not generally made up at home, and therefore cannot be collected from our custom house books. Indeed, the ships engaged in the Baltic trade do not, for the greater part, sail direct for Denmark, Russia, or Sweden. For instance, the American shipping cleared out for Russia between October the first, 1823, and September the thirtieth, 1824, was only 2,201 tons, while the amount entered from Russia in the same period, rose up to 16,051 tons. Our ships generally take a cargo to some other port, and carry the proceeds, in cash or bills, to Russia, or take cash or bills to some intermediate port, and thore purchase cargo to be carried to Russia, and exchanged for a homeward cargo. Of course, no records here enable us to calculate with exactness the amount of duty paid at Elsinore upon cargoes collected out of the country. But persons conversant in the Russia trade, estimate the number of American vessels, which have annually ascended the Baltic, one year with another, the last three years, to be about one hundred, and the duty paid by each to average from 1507 to 2002 sterling, making in all from 15,0001 to 20,0001 per annum.' pp. 10, 11.
• Danish writers carry back the establishment of the Sound dues to the time of the ancient Norsemen and the vikings of Norway. It matters not, for the purpose of this argument, if they were ordained by Runic Odin himself, amid the revelries of Valhalla. Suffice it for us, that the reason of the thing seems now to have ceased, and cessanti ratione cessat ipsa ler. The dues are said to have originated in a voluntary payment made by vessels entering the sound, as a consideration for the privilege of partaking in the fisheries on the coast, or as a stipend to the vikings to obtain defence against the northern pirates who abounded at that period, or as the price of pilotage, lighthouses, and other helps to navigation, or as a compensation to the Danes for the risk they incurred in suffering foreign ships to approach so near to their shore. But, with the exception of light and beacon money, which is now paid by the ship, in addition to the dues on the cargo, all these reasons for the tribute, supposing them to be the true ones, have passed away with the sea robbers and vikings, in whose barbarous usages they had their birth. But in truth, it is not to be believed, that the Sound dues can boast any such respectable origin. It is altogether improbable, that there ever was an equivalent received by those who paid them, either in protection or in anything else. This may have been the pretext under which they were demanded, but the lawless character of the marauding Norsemen would have prompted them to seize upon less valid pretexts than even this, as aa apology for making exactions from the defenceless merchantmen or fisherman, who hazarded a voyage into the northern seas. Nevertheless, whether justly or unjustly demanded in the beginning, is quite immaterial to us Americans. All we have to regard is, not whether the antiquated customs of an uncivilized age impose the duty, nor whether this or that people has subsequently chosen to pay it, but whether there is now an adequate existing reason by which, according to the eternal and