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public safety and order, and for other necessities of the work of civilisation and colonisation; but the regulations shall not admit of any differential treatment between vessels or between nationals of the Signatory Powers and of States, Members of the League of Nations, which may adhere to the present Convention.

ARTICLE 10.

The Signatory Powers recognise the obligation to maintain in the regions subject to their jurisdiction an authority and police forces sufficient to ensure protection of persons and of property and, if necessary, freedom of trade and of transit.

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The Signatory Powers exercising sovereign rights or authority in African territories will continue to watch over the preservation of the native populations and to supervise the improvement of the conditions of their moral and material well-being. They will, in particular, endeavour to secure the complete suppression of slavery in all its forms and of the slave trade by land and sc::.

They will protect and favour, without distinction of nationality or of religion, the religious, scientific or charitable institutions and undertakings created and organised by the rationals of the other Signatory Powers and of States, Members of the League of Nations, which may adhere to the present Convention, which aim at leading the natives in the path of progress and civilisation. Scientific missions, their property and their collections, shall likewise be the objects of special solicitude.

Freedom of conscience and the free cereise of all forms of religion are expressly guaranteed to all nationals of the Signatory Powers and to those under the jurisdiction of States, Members of the League of Nations, which may become parties to the present Convention. Similarly, missionaries shall have the right to enter into, and to travel and reside in, African territory with a view to prosecuting their calling

The application of the provisions of the two preceding paragraphs shall be subject only to such restrictions as may be necessary for the maintenance of public security and order, or as may result from the enforcement of the constitutional law of any of the Powers exercising authority in African territories.

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ARTICLE 12.

The Signatory Powers agree that if any dispute whatever should arise between them relating to the application of the present Convention which cannot be settled by negotiation, this dispute shall be submitted to an arbitral tribunal in conformity with the provisions of the Covenant of the League of Nations.

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ARTICLE 13.

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Except in so far as the stipulations contained in Article 1 of the present Convention are concerned, the General Act of Berlin of 26th February, 1885, and the General Act of Brussels of 2nd July,

1890, with the accompanying Declaration of equal date, shall be considered as abrogated, in so far as they are binding between the Powers which are Parties to the present Convention.

ARTICLE 14.

States exercising authority over African territories, and other States, Members of the League of Nations, which were parties either to the Act of Berlin or to the Act of Brussels or the Declaration annexed thereto, may adhere to the present Convention. The Signatory Powers will use their best endeavours to obtain the adhesion of these States.

This adhesion shall be notified through the diplomatic channel to the Government of the French Republic, and by it to all the Signatory or adhering States. The adhesion will come into force from the date of its notification to the French Government.

ARTICLE 15.

The Signatory Powers will reassemble at the expiration of ten years from the coming into force of the present Convention, in order to introduce into it such modifications as experience may have shown to be necessary.

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. Each Power will address its ratification to the French Government, which will inform all the other Signatory Powers.

The ratifications will remain deposited in the archives of the French Government.

The present Convention will come into force for each Signatory Power from the date of the deposit of its ratification, and from that moment that Power will be bound in respect of other Powers which have already deposited their ratifications.

On the coming into force of the present Convention, the French Government will transmit a certified copy to the Powers which, under the Treaties of Peace, have undertaken to accept and observe it. The names of these Powers will be notified to the States which adhere.

In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention.

Done at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the 10th day of September, 1919, in a single copy, which will remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the French Republic, and of which authenticated copies will be sent to each of the Signatory Powers.

(L. S.) TASKER H. Bliss.
(L. S.) HYMANS.
(L. S.) J. VAN DEN HEUVEL,
(L. S.) E. VANDERVELDE.
(L. S.) ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR.
(L. S.)
(L. S.) MILNER.
(L. S.) G. N. BARNES.
(L. S.) A. E. KEMP.
(L. S.) G. F. PEARCE.

(L. S.) MILNER.
(L. S.) Thos. MACKENZIE.
(LS.) SINHA OF RAIPUR.
(L. S.) G. CLEMENCEAU.
(L. S.) S. PICHON.
(L. S.) L. L. KLOTZ.
(L. S.) ANDRÉ TARDIEU.

L. S.) JULES CAMBON.
(L. S.) Tom. TITTONI.
(L. S.) VITTORIO SCIALOJA.

L.S.) MAGGIORINO FERRARIS.
(L. S.) GUGLIELMO MARCONI.
(L.S.) S. CHINDA.
(L. S.) K. MATSUI.
(L. S.) H. IJUIN.
(L. S.) AFFONSO Costa.
L. S.) AUGUSTO SOARES.

1919.

CONVENTION RELATING TO THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC IN AFRICA, AND

PROTOCOL.

Signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye September 10, 1919.1

ARTICLES.

1. Control in Africa.
2. Prohibition of trade spirits.
3. Prohibition of distillationg con-

taining injurious products.
4. Import duty; restriction of use.
5. Manufacture of distilled bever-

ages prohibited. 6. Pharmaceutical apparatus per

mitted.

7. Central International Office. 8. Disputes. 9. Revision. 10. Adhesions. 11. Abrogation of prior provisions;

ratification.

(League of Nations, Treaty Series, VIII, p. 13.)

[Translation.)

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, JAPAN AND PORTUGAL;

Whereas it is necessary to continue in the African territories placed under their administration the struggle against the dangers of alcoholism which they have maintained by subjecting spirits to constantly increasing duties;

Whereas, further, it is necessary to prohibit the importation of distilled beverages rendered more especially dangerous to the native populations by the nature of the products entering into their composition or by the opportunities which a low price gives for their extended use;

1 Ratifications have been deposited by the British Empire, Belgium, and France.

Whereas, finally, the restrictions placed on the importation of spirit would be of no effect unless the local manufacture of distilled beverages was at the same time strictly controlled ;

Have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA :

The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under-Secretary of State;
The Honourable Henry WHITE, formerly Ambassador Extraor-

dinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome

and Paris: General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United

States on the Supreme War Council; His MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS:

M. Paul HYMANS, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of

State;
M. Jules VAN DEN HEUVEL, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister

Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of the Belgians,

Minister of State;

M. Emile VANDERVELDE, Minister of Justice, Minister of State; His MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN

AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS,
EMPEROR OF INDIA:
The Right Honourable Arthur James BALFOUR, O.M., M.P., His

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs;
The Right Honourable Andrew BONAR LAW, M.P., His Lord

Privy Seal;
The Right Honourable Viscount MILNER, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., His

Secretary of State for the Colonies;
The Right Honourable George Nicoll BARNES, M.P., Minister

without portfolio;

And:
For the DOMINION OF CANADA:

The Honourable Sir Albert Edward KEMP, K.C.M.G., Minister

of the Overseas Forces; For the COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA :

The Honourable George Foster PEARCE, Minister of Defence; For the UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA:

The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.; For the DOMINION OF NEW ZEALAND:

The Honourable Sir Thomas MACKENZIE, K.C.M.G., High Com

missioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom; For INDIA:

The Right Honourable Baron SINHA, K.C., Under-Secretary

of State for India; THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:

M. Georges CLEMENCEAU, President of the Council, Minister

of War;
M. Stephen PICHON, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
M. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance;
M. André TARDIEU, Commissary-General for Franco-American

Military Affairs;
M. Jules CAMBON, Ambassador of France;

His MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:

The Honourable Tommaso TITTONI, Senator of the Kingdom,

Minister for Foreign Affairs;
The Honourable Vittorio SCIALOJA, Senator of the Kingdom;
The Honourable Maggiorino FERRARIS, Senator of the Kingdom;
The Honourable Guglielmo MARCONI, Senator of the Kingdom;

The Honourable Silvio CRESPI, Deputy;
His MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:

Viscount CHINDA, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten

tiary of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at London; M. K. MATSUI, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary

of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris; THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC:

Dr. Affonso da Costa, formerly President of the Council of

Ministers;
Dr. Augusto LUIZ VIEIRA SOARES, formerly Minister for For-

eign Affairs; Who, having communicated their full powers found in good and

due form, Have agreed as follows:

ARTICLE 1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to apply the following measures for the restriction of the liquor traffic in the territories which are or may be subjected to their control throughout the whole of the continent of Africa, with the exception of Algiers, Tunis, Morocco, Libya, Egypt and the Union of South Africa.

The provisions applicable to the continent of Africa shall also apply to the islands lying within 100 nautical miles of the coast.

ARTICLE 2. The importation, distribution, sale and possession of trade spirits of every kind, and of beverages mixed with these spirits, are prohibited in the area referred to in Article 1. The local Governments concerned will decide respectively which distilled beverages will be regarded in their territories as falling within the category of trade spirits. They will endeavour, as far as possible, to establish a uniform nomenclature and uniform measures against fraud.

ARTICLE 3.

The importation, distribution, sale and possession are also forbidden of distilled beverages containing essential oils or chemical products which are recognised as injurious to health, such as thujone, star anise, benzoic aldehyde, salicylic esters, hyssop and absinthe.

The local Governments concerned will likewise endeavour to establish by common agreement the nomenclature of those beverages whose importation, distribution, sale and possession according to the terms of this provision should be prohibited.

ARTICLE 4. An import duty of not less than 800 francs per hectolitre of pure alcohol shall be levied upon all distilled beverages, other than those indicated in Articles 2 and 3, which are imported into the area re

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