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and at least two-thirds of the directors possess such nationality, and unless the company fulfils all other conditions which may be prescribed by the laws of the said State.

ARTICLE 8.

An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one State.

ARTICLE 9.

The contracting States shall exchange every month among themselves and transmit to the International Commission for Air Navigation referred to in Article 34 copies of registrations and of cancellations of registration which shall have been entered on their official registers during the preceding month.

ARTICLE 10.

All aircraft engaged in international navigation shall bear their nationality and registration marks as well as the name and residence of the owner in accordance with Annex (A).

CHAPTER III.

CERTIFICATES OF AIRWORTHINESS AND COMPETENCY.

ARTICLE 11. Every aircraft engaged in international navigation shall, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Annex (B), be provided with a certificate of airworthiness issued or rendered valid by the State whose nationality it possesses.

ARTICLE 12. The commanding officer, pilots, engineers and other members of the operating crew of every aircraft shall, in accordance with the conditions laid down in Annex (E), be provided with certificates of competency and licenses issued or rendered valid by the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses.

ARTICLE 13.

Certificates of airworthiness and of competency and licenses issued or rendered valid by the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses, in accordance with the regulations established by Annex (B) and Annex (E) and hereafter by the International Commission for Air Navigation, shall be recognised as valid by the other States.

Each State has the right to refuse to recognise for the purpose of flights within the limits of and above its own territory certificates of competency and licenses granted to one of its nationals by another contracting State.

ARTICLE 14.

No wireless apparatus shall be carried without a special licence issued by the State whose nationality the aircraft possesses. Such

apparatus shall not be used except by members of the crew provided with a special licence for the purpose.

Every aircraft used in public transport and capable of carrying ten or more persons shall be equipped with sending and receiving wireless apparatus when the methods of employing such apparatus shall have been determined by the International Commission for Air Navigation.

This Commission may later extend the obligation of carrying wireless apparatus to all other classes of aircraft in the conditions and according to the methods which it may determine.

CHAPTER IV.

ADMISSION TO AIR NAVIGATION ABOVE FOREIGN TERRITORY.

ARTICLE 15.

Every aircraft of a contracting State has the right to cross the air. space of another State without landing. In this case it shall follow the route fixed by the State over which the flight takes place. However, for reasons of general security it will be obliged to land if ordered to do so by means of the signals provided in Annex (D).

Every aircraft which passes from one State into another shall, if the regulations of the latter State require it, land in one of the aerodromes fixed by the latter. Notification of these aerodromes shall be given by the contracting States to the International Commission for Air Navigation and by it transmitted to all the contracting States.

The establishment of international airways shall be subject to the consent of the States flown over.

ARTICLE 16.

Each contracting State shall have the right to establish reservations and restrictions in favour of its national aircraft in connection with the carriage of persons and goods for hire between two points on its territory.

Such reservations and restrictions shall be immediately published, and shall be communicated to the International Commission for Air Navigation, which shall notify them to the other contracting States.

ARTICLE 17.

The aircraft of a contracting State which establishes reservations and restrictions in accordance with Article 16 may be subjected to the same reservations and restrictions in any other contracting State, even though the latter State does not itself impose the reservations and restrictions on other foreign aircraft.

ARTICLE 18.

Every aircraft passing through the territory of a contracting State, including landing and stoppages reasonably necessary for the purpose of such transit, shall be exempt from any seizure on the ground of in

fringement of patent, design or model, subject to the deposit of security the amount of which in default of amicable agreement shall be fixed with the least possible delay by the competent authority of the place of seizure.

CHAPTER V.

RULES TO

UNDER WAY AND ON

BE OBSERVED ON DEPARTURE, WHEN

LANDING.

ARTICLE 19.

Every aircraft engaged in international navigation shall be provided with:

(a.) A certificate of registration in accordance with Annex (A); (6.) A certificate of airworthiness in accordance with Annex (B);

(c.) Certificates and licences of the commanding officer, pilots and crew in accordance with Annex (E);

(d.) If it carries passengers, a list of their names;
(e.) If it carries freight, bills of lading and manifest;
If.) Log books in accordance with Annex (C);

(9.) If equipped with wireless, the special licence prescribed by Article 14.

ARTICLE 20.

The log books shall be kept for two years after the last entry.

ARTICLE 21.

Upon the departure or landing of an aircraft, the authorities of the country shall have, in all cases, the right to visit the aircraft and to verify all the documents with which it must be provided.

ARTICLE 22.

Aircraft of the contracting States shall be entitled to the same measures of assistance for landing, particularly in case of distress, as national aircraft.

ARTICLE 23.

With regard to the salvage of aircraft wrecked at sea the principles of maritime law will apply in the absence of any agreement to the contrary.

ARTICLE 24.

Every aerodrome in a contracting State, which upon payment of charges is open to public use by its national aircraft, shall likewise be open to the aircraft of all the other contracting States.

In every such aerodrome there shall be a single tariff of charges for landing and length of stay applicable alike to national and foreign aircraft.

ARTICLE 25.

Each contracting State undertakes to adopt measures to ensure that every aircraft flying above the limits of its territory, and every aircraft wherever it may be, carrying its nationality mark, shall comply with the regulations contained in Annex (D).

Each of the contracting States undertakes to ensure the prosecution and punishment of all persons contravening these regulations.

CHAPTER VI.

PROHIBITED TRANSPORT.

ARTICLE 26.

The carriage by aircraft of explosives and of arms and munitions of war is forbidden in international navigation. No foreign aircraft shall be permitted to carry such articles between any two points in the same contracting State.

ARTICLE 27.

Each State may, in aerial navigation, prohibit or regulate the carriage or use of photographic apparatus. Any such regulations shall be at once notified to the International Commission for Air Navigation, which shall communicate this information to the other contracting States.

ARTICLE 28.

As a measure of public safety, the carriage of objects other than those mentioned in Articles 26 and 27 may be subjected to restrictions by any contracting State. Any such regulations shall be at once notified to the International Commission for Air Navigation, which shall communicate this information to the other contracting States.

ARTICLE 29.

All restrictions mentioned in Article 28 shall be applied equally to national and foreign aircraft.

CHAPTER VII.

STATE AIRCRAFT.

ARTICLE 30.

The following shall be deemed to be State aircraft:(a.) Military aircraft;

(6.) Aircraft exclusively employed in State service, such as posts, customs, police.

Every other aircraft shall be deemed to be a private aircraft.

All State aircraft other than military, customs, and police aircraft shall be treated as private aircraft and as such shall be subject to all the provisions of the present Convention.

ARTICLE 31.

Every aircraft commanded by a person in military service detailed for the purpose shall be deemed to be a military aircraft.

ARTICLE 32.

No military aircraft of a contracting State shall fly over the territory of another contracting State nor land thereon without special authorisation. In case of such authorisation the military aircraft shall enjoy, in principle, in the absence of special stipulation the privileges which are customarily accorded to foreign ships of war.

A military aircraft which is forced to land or which is requested or summoned to land shall by reason thereof acquire no right to the privileges referred to in the above paragraph.

ARTICLE 33

Special arrangements between the States concerned will determine in what cases police and customs aircraft may be authorised to cross the frontier. They shåll in no case be entitled to the privileges referred to in Article 32.

CHAPTER VIII.

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR AIR NAVIGATION.

ARTICLE 34.

There shall be instituted, under the name of the International Commission for Air Navigation, a permanent Commission placed under the direction of the League of Nations, and composed of:

Two representatives of each of the following States: The United States of America, France, Italy and Japan;

•One representative of Great Britain and one of each of the British Dominions and of India;

One representative of each of the other contracting States.

Each of the five States first named (Great Britain, the British Dominions and India counting for this purpose as one State) shall have the least whole number of votes which, when multiplied by five, will give a product exceeding by at least one vote the total number of votes of all the other contracting States.

All the States other than the five first named shall each have one vote.

The International Comunission for Air Navigation shall determine the rules of its own procedure and the place of its permanent seat, but it shall be free to meet in such places as it may deem convenient. Its first meeting shall take place at Paris. This meeting shall be convened by the French Government, as soon as a majority of the signatory States shall have notified to it their ratification of the present Convention.

The duties of this Commission shall be:

(a.) To receive proposals from or to make proposals to any of the contracting States for the modification or amendment of the provisions of the present Convention and to notify changes adopted;

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