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the lowest tail planes or elevators and also on the upper surface of the top tail planes or elevators, whichever is the larger. It shall also be painted on both sides of the rudder, and on the outer sides of the outer rudders if more than one rudder is fitted.
(b.) Balloons.--The nationality mark shall be painted on the basket.
SECTION IV.-Measurements of Nationality and Registration Marks.
(a.) Flying Machines. The height of the marks on the main planes and tail planes respectively shall be equal to four-fifths of the chord, and in the case of the rudder shall be as large as possible. The height of the marks on the fuselage or nacelle shall be fourfifths of the depth of the narrowest part of that portion of the fuselage or nacelle on which the marks are painted.
(b.) Airships and Balloons.- In the case of airships, the nationality marks painted on the tail plane shall be equal in height to four-fifths of the chord of the tail plane and in the case of the rudder the marks shall be as large as possible. The height of the other marks shall be equal to at least one-twelfth of the circumference of the maximum transverse cross section of the airship.
In the case of balloons, the height of the nationality mark shall be four-fifths of the height of the basket, and the height of the other marks shall be equal to at least one-twelfth of the circumference of the balloon.
(c.) General—In the case of all aircraft, the letters of the nationality and registration marks need not exceed 2.5 metres in height.
SECTION V.-Measurement, Type of Letters, &c.
(a.) The width of the letters shall be two-thirds of their height and the thickness shall be one-sixth of their height. The letters shall be painted in plain block type and shall be uniform in shape and size. A space equal to half the width of the letters shall be left between the letters.
(6.) In the case of underlined letters, the thickness of the line shall be equal to the thickness of the letter, and the space between the bottom of the letters and the line shall be equal to the thickness of the line.
SECTION VI.-Spacing between Nationality and Registration Marks.
Where the nationality and registration marks appear together, a hyphen of a length equal to the width of one of the letters shall be painted between the nationality mark and registration mark.
The nationality and registration marks shall be displayed to the best possible advantage, taking into consideration the constructional features of the aircraft. The marks must be kept clean and visible.
SECTION VIII.—Table of Marks. The nationality mark of each State named below applies to the aircraft of its dominions, colonies, protectorates, dependencies, or of countries over which it is the Mandatory State.
All combinations made in accordance with the pro
visions of Section I (1) of this annex, using a group
CERTIFICATES OF AIRWORTHINESS.
The following main conditions govern the issue of certificates of airworthiness :
1. The design of the aircraft in regard to safety shall conform to certain standard minimum requirements.
2. A satisfactory demonstration must be made in flying trials of the actual flying qualities of the type of aircraft examined, provided that machines subsequently manufactured which conform to the approved type need not be subject to such trials. The trials shall conform to certain standard minimum requirements.
3. The construction of every aircraft with regard to workmanship and materials must be approved. The control of the construction and of the tests shall be in accordance with certain standard minimum requirements.
4. The aircraft must be equipped with suitable instruments for safe navigation.
5. The standard minimum requirements of paragraphs 1 to 3 inclusive shall be fixed by the International Commission for Air Navigation. Until they have been so fixed each contracting State shall determine the regulations under which certificates of airworthiness shall be granted or remain valid.
SECTION 1.—Journey Log. This shall be kept for all aircraft and shall contain the following particulars :
(a.) Category to which the aircraft belongs; its nationality and registration marks; the full name, nationality and residence of the owner; name of maker and the carrying capacity of the aircraft, (6.) In addition for each journey :(i.) The names, nationality and residence of each of the
members of the crew. (ii.) The place, date and hour of departure, the route followed and all incidents en route including landings.
SECTION II.-Aircraft Log. This is obligatory only in the case of aircraft carrying passengers or goods for hire, and shall contain the following particulars:
(a.) Category to which the aircraft belongs; its nationality and registration marks; the full name, nationality and residence of the owner; name of maker and the carrying capacity of the aircraft.
(6.) Type and series number of engine; type of propeller showing number, pitch, diameter and maker's name.
(c.) Type of wireless apparatus fitted.
id.) Table showing the necessary rigging data for the information of persons in charge of the aircraft and of its maintenance.
(e.) A fully detailed engineering record of the life of the aircraft, including all acceptance tests, overhauls, replacements, repairs and all work of a like nature.
SECTION III.—Engine Log. This is obligatory only in the case of engines installed in aireraft carrying passengers or goods for hire, and in such cases a separate log book shall be kept for each engine and shall always accompany the engine. It shall contain the following particulars :
(a.) Type of engine, series number, maker's name, power, normal maximum revolutions of engine, date of production and first date put into service;
(6.) Registration mark and type of aircraft in which the engine has been installed;
(c.) A fully detailed engineering record of the life of the engine, including all acceptance tests, hours run, overhauls, replacements, repairs and all work of a like nature.
SECTION IV.-Signal Log. This is obligatory only in the case of aircraft carrying passengers or goods for hire, and shall contain the following particulars:
(a.) Category to which the aircraft belongs; its nationality and registration marks; the full name, nationality and residence of the owner;
(V.) Place, date, and time of the transmission or reception of any signal.
(c.) Name or other indication of the person or station to whom a signal is sent or from whom a signal is received.
SECTION V.--Instructions for Use of Log Books. (a.) The constructor shall fill in and sign the original entries in the log books, as far as he is in a position to do so. Subsequent entries shall be made and signed by the pilot or other competent person;
(6.) A copy of the certificate of airworthiness shall be kept in the pocket of the aircraft log book;
(c.) All entries to be in ink, except in the case of journey and signal log books; the entries for these may be made in pencil in a rough note book, but_shall be entered in ink in the log book every twenty-four hours. In the event of any official investigation, the rough note book may be called for;
(à.) No erasures shall be made in, nor pages torn from, any log
(e.) A copy of these instructions shall be inserted in each log book.
RULES AS TO LIGHTS AND SIGNALS.
RULES OF THE AIR.
The word “aircraft” comprises all balloons, whether fixed or free, kites, airships and flying machines.
The word “ balloon,” either fixed or free, shall mean an aircraft using gas lighter than air as a means of support, and having no means of propulsion.
The word “airship” shall mean an aircraft using gas lighter than air as a means of support, and having means of propulsion.
The words “ flying machine" shall mean all aeroplanes, seaplanes, flying boats, or other aircraft heavier than air, and having means of propulsion.
An airship is deemed to be under way” within the meaning of these rules when it is not made fast to the ground or any object on land or water.
SECTION 1.-Rules as to Lights. The word “ visible” in these rules when applied to lights shall mean visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere. The angular limits laid down in these rules as shown in the sketch (attached) shall be determined when the aircraft is in its normal attitude for flying on a rectilinear horizontal course.
1. The rules concerning lights shall be complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such time no other lights which may be mistaken for the prescribed lights shall be exhibited. The prescribed navigation lights must not be dazzling.
2. A flying machine, when in the air or maneuvering on land or water under its own power, shall carry the following lights:
(a.) Forward, a white light visible in a dihedral angle of 220 degrees bisected by a vertical plane through the line of Hight, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 8 kilometres;
(6.) On the right side, a green light so constructed and fixed as to show an unbroken light between two vertical planes whose dihedral angle is 110 degrees when measured to the right from dead ahead, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 5 kilometres;
(c.) On the left side, a red light so constructed and fixed as to show an unbroken light between two vertical planes whose dihedral angle is 110 degrees when measured to the left from dead ahead, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 5 kilometres;
(d.) The said green and red side lights shall be fitted so that the green light shall not be seen from the left side, nor the red light from the right side;
(e.) At the rear, and as far aft as possible, a white light shining rearwards and visible in a dihedral of 140 degrees bisected by a vertical plane through the line of flight and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 5 kilometres;
(f.) In the case where, in order to fulfil the above conditions, the single light has to be replaced by several lights, the field of visibility of each of these lights should be so limited that only one can be seen at a time.
3. The rules determined for the lighting of flying machines shall apply to airships subject to the following modifications :
a.) All lights shall be doubled; the forward and aft lights vertically, and the side lights horizontally in a fore and aft direction;
(6.) Both lights of each pair forward and aft shall be visible at the same time.
The distance between the lights comprising a pair shall not be less than 2 metres.
4. An airship, when being towed, shall carry the lights specified in paragraph 3, and, in addition, those specified in paragraph 6 for airships not under control.
5.-(a.) A flying machine, or airship, when on the surface of the water, and when not under control, that is to say, not able to manæuvre as required by the Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea, shall carry two red lights not less than 2 metres apart one over