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the wind. Two more lights shall be placed as follows: one on the leeward side of the aerodrome on the line drawn parallel to the direction of the wind and passing midway between the two lights on the windward side, to show the extent of the aerodrome and the direction of the wind, and the other shall be placed midway between the two lights marking the limits of the neutral zone (see diagram B).
Additional lights may be symmetrically put along the boundary lines of the neutral zone, and on the ends of the taking-off and landing zones on the line through the three lights on the windward side.
47. No fixed balloon, kite, or moored airship shall be elevated in the vicinity of any aerodrome without a special authorisation, except in the cases provided for in paragraph 20.
48. Suitable markings shall be placed on all fixed obstacles dangerous to flying within a zone of 500 metres of all aerodromes.
49. Every aircraft manoeuvring under its own power on the water shall conform to the Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, and for the purposes of these regulations shall be deemed to be a steam-vessel, but shall carry the lights specified in the preceding rules, and not those specified for steam-vessels in the Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, and shall not use, except as specified in paragraphs 17 and 20 above, or be deemed to hear the sound signals specified in the above-mentioned Regulations.
50. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any aircraft, or the owner, pilot or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of the air, or by the special circumstances of the
51. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rule or rules duly made and published relative to navigation of aircraft in the immediate vicinity of any aerodrome or other place, and it shall be obligatory on all owners, pilots, or crews of aircraft to obey such rules.
MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS NECESSARY FOR OBTAINING CERTIFICATES AS
PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS.
SECTION I.–Certificates for Pilots of Flying Machines.
(A.) Private Pilot's Flying Certificate. (Not valid for purposes of public transport.) 1. Practical Tests :
In each practical test the candidate must be alone in the flying machine.
(a) Test for Altitude and Gliding Flight.-A flight without landing, during which the pilot shall remain for at least an hour at a minimum altitude of 2,000 metres above the point of departure. The descent shall finish with a glide, the engines being cut off at 1,500 metres above the landing ground. The landing shall be made without restarting the engine and within 150 metres or less of a point fixed beforehand by the official examiners of the test.
(b) Tests of Skill.-A flight without landing around two posts (or buoys) situated 500 metres apart, making a series of five figureof-eight turns, each turn reaching one of the two posts (or buoys). This flight shall be made at an altitude of not more than 200 metres above the ground (or water) without touching the ground (or water). The landing shall be effected by
(i) Finally shutting off the engine or engines at latest when the aircraft touches the ground (or water).
(ii) Finally stopping the flying machine within a distance of 50 metres from a point fixed by the candidate before starting. 2. Special Requirements:
Knowledge of rules as to Lights and Signals, and Rules of the Air. Rules for Air Traffic on and in vicinity of Aerodromes. A practical knowledge of international air legislation. (B.) Pilot's Flying Certificate for Flying Machines used for Purposes
of Public Transport. 1. Practical Tests:
In each practical test the candidate must be alone in the flying machine,
(a.) The tests for altitude and gliding flight and for skill are the same as those required for a private pilot's flying certificate. Candidates already in possession of the latter certificate are not required to pass these tests again.
(6.) Test of endurance consisting of a cross-country or oversea flight of at least 300 kilometres, after which the final landing shall be made at the point of departure. This flight shall be made in the same flying machine within eight hours. It shall include two obligatory landings (during which the machine must come to rest), which shall not be at the point of departure, but at points which shall be fixed by the judges.
At the time of departure the candidate shall be informed of his course and furnished with the appropriate map. The judges will decide whether the course has been correctly followed.
(c.) Night Flight.-A thirty minutes' flight made between two hours after sunset and two hours before sunrise, at a height of at least 500 metres. 2. Technical Examination:
After satisfactory practical tests have been passed, candidates will, when summoned, submit themselves to examination on
(a.) Flying as achines.-Theoretical knowledge of the resistance of the air as concerns its effects on wings and tail planes, rudders, elevators and propellers; functions of the different parts of the machine and of their controls.
Assembling of flying machines and their different parts.
(b.) Engines. General knowledge of internal combustion engines, including functions of the various parts; a general knowledge of the construction, assembling, adjustment and characteristies of aero engines.
Causes of the faulty running of engines and of breakdown.
(c.) Special Requirements. Knowledge of rules as to lights and signals and rules of the air, and rules for air traffic on and in the vicinity of aerodromes.
Practical knowledge of the special conditions of air traffic and of international air legislation.
Map reading, orientation, location of position, elementary meteorology.
The practical tests shall be carried out within a maximum period of one month.
They may be carried out in any order, and each may be attempted twice. They shall be witnessed by properly accredited examiners, who will forward the official reports to the proper authorities.
The official reports will give the different incidents, especially those of landings. The candidates shall furnish before each test proper identity forms.
A barograph shall be carried on all practical tests, and the graph, signed by the examiners, shall be attached to their report.
Pilots who hold the military pilot's certificate shall be entitled to the private pilot's flying certificate, but, in order to obtain the pilot's flying certificate for purposes of public transport, it will be necessary to pass the technical conditions for navigation as required by (B),
SECTION II.--Certificates for Pilots of Balloons. 1. Practical Tests :
The candidate must have completed the following certified ascents:
(1.) By day: Three ascents under instruction; one ascent in control under supervision; one ascent alone in the balloon;
(2.) By night: One ascent alone in the balloon.
Each ascent shall be of at least two hours' duration. 2. Theoretical Tests :
Elementary aerostatics and meteorology,
3. Special Requirements:
General knowledge of a balloon and its accessories; inflation; rigging; management of an ascent; instruments; precautions against cold and high altitudes.
Knowledge of rules as to lights and signals and rules of the air; rules for air traffic on and in the vicinity of aerodromes.
Practical knowledge of international air legislation. Map reading and orientation.
SECTION III.—Certificates for Airship Officer Pilots. Every airship officer pilot shall have qualified as pilot of a free balloon.
There shall be three classes of airship officer pilots.
The holder of a first-class certificate is qualified to command any airship.
The holder of a second-class certificate is qualified to command airships under 20,000 cubic metres capacity.
The holder of a third-class certificate is qualified to command airships under 6,000 cubic metres capacity.
All military and naval airship officer pilots are entitled to a thirdclass certificate.
All military and naval airship officer pilots who have commanded airships over 6,000 cubic metres capacity are entitled to a first-class certificate.
QUALIFICATIONS FOR THIRD-CLASS CERTIFICATE.
1. Practical Tests:
(a.) Twenty certified flights (three of which shall be by night) in an airship, each flight being of at least one hour's duration. In at least four of these flights the candidate must have handled the airship himself, under the supervision of the commanding officer of the airship, including ascent and landing.
(6.) One cross-country flight on a predetermined course of at least 100 kilometres, terminating with a night landing, and made with a duly authorised inspector on board. 2. Theoretical Examination:
Aerostatics and meteorology. (Density of gases, laws of Mariotto and of Gay-Lussac; barometric pressure, Archimedes principle; confinement of gases; interpretation and use of meteorological information and of weather charts.)
Physical and chemical properties of light gases, and of materials used in the construction of airships.
General theory of airships.
Dynamic properties of moving bodies in air. 3. General Knowledge:
Elementary knowledge of internal combustion engines. Elementary navigation; use of the compass; location of position. Inflation; stowage; rigging; handling; controls and instruments.
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QUALIFICATIONS FOR SECOND-CLASS CERTIFICATE.
1. Practical Tests:
To be eligible for a second-class certificate a candidate must be holder of a third-class certificate and have at least four months' service as a third-class officer on an airship, and also have completed at least ten flights as third-class officer on an airship of capacity above 6,000 cubic metres, in which he has handled the airship himself, including ascent and landing, under the supervision of the commanding officer of the airship. 2. Theoretical Examination:
Advanced knowledge of the subjects required for the third-class certificate.
QUALIFICATIONS FOR FIRST-CLASS CERTIFICATE.
1. Practical Tests :
To be eligible for a first-class certificate a candidate must be holder of a second-class certificate, have at least two months' active service as a second-class officer on an airship, and also have completed at least five flights as second-class officer of an airship of capacity above 20,000 cubic metres, in which he has handled the airship himself, including ascent and landing, under the supervision of the commanding officer of the airship. Each flight must be at least of one hour's duration with a minimum of 15 hours for the five flights. 2. Theoretical Examination: As required for a second-class certificate.
SECTION IV.–Certificate for Navigators. Aircraft used for public transport carrying more than 10 passengers and having to make a continuous flight between two points more than 500 kilometres apart overland, or a night flight, or a flight between two points more than 200 kilometres apart over sea, must have on board a navigator who has been granted a certificate as such after passing a theoretical and practical examination in the following: 1. Practical Astronomy:
True and apparent movements of the celestial bodies. Different
aspects of the celestial sphere.
Method of determining latitude, longitude, time and azimuth. 2. Navigation:
Maps and charts—how to read them.