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2. NavigationContinued.

Chronometer, chronometer rate, comparisons.
Sextants, adjustments.
Nautical almanac.
Determination of positions by means of bearing and altitude of

Knowledge of great circle navigation.

Aeronautical navigational instruments. 3. General knowledge:

International rules for air and maritime navigation.
International air legislation.
Practical knowledge of meteorology and of weather charts.

SECTION V.Medical Certificates.
International Medical Requirements for Air Navigation.
1. Every candidate before obtaining a licence as a pilot, navi-
gator or engineer of aircraft engaged in public transport will present
himself for examination by specially qualified medical men (flight
surgeons), appointed by or acting under the authority of the con-
tracting State.

2. Medical supervision, both for the selection and the maintenance of efficiency, shall be based upon the following requirements of mental and physical fitness :

(a.) Good family and personal history, with particular reference to nervous stability. Absence of any mental, moral or physical defect which will interfere with flying efficiency;

(6.) The minimum age for pilots and navigators engaged in public transport shall be 19 years;

(c.) General Surgical Examination.—The aeronaut must neither suffer from any wound, injury or operation nor possess any abnormality, congenital or otherwise, which will interfere with the efficient and safe handling of aircraft;

(d.) General Medical Eramination.—The aeronaut must not suffer from any disease or disability which renders him liable suddenly to become incompetent in the management of aircraft. He must possess heart, lungs, kidneys and nervous system capable of withstanding the effects of altitude and also the effects of prolonged flight;

(e.) Eye Examination.--The aeronaut must possess a degree of visual acuity compatible with the efficient performance of his duties. No pilot or navigator shall have more than 2 diopters of latent hypermetropia: muscle balance must be good and commensurate with the refraction. He must have a good field of vision in each eye and must possess normal colour perception;

(f.) Ear Examination. The middle ear must be healthy. The aeronaut must possess a degree of auditory acuity compatible with the efficient performance of his duties;

(9.) The vestibular mechanism must be intact and neither unduly hypersenstive nor hyposensitive;

(h.) Nose and Throat Examination. The aeronaut must possess free nasal air entry on either side and not suffer from serious acute or chronic affections of the upper respiratory tract.

3. Each contracting State shall for the present fix its own methods of examination until the detail of tests and the minimal standard of

requirements have been finally settled by the authorised medical representatives of the International Commission for Air Navigation.

4. The successful candidate will receive a medical certificate of acceptance, which must be produced before the licence can be issued.

5. In order to insure the maintenance of efficiency, every aeronaut shall be re-examined periodically, at least every six months, and the findings shall be attached to his original record. In case of illness or accident also, an aeronaut shall be re-examined and pronounced fit before resuming air duties. The date and result of each re-examination shall be recorded on the aeronaut's flying certificate."

6. No aeronaut who, before the date of the present Convention, has given proof of his flying ability, shall, so long as he retains such ability, be necessarily disqualified because he fails to fulfil all of the above requirements.

7. Each contracting State may raise the conditions set forth above, as it deems fit, but these minimal requirements shall be maintained internationally.



International maps shall be made and ground marks established in accordance with the following general principles

SECTION 1.—Maps.

1. Two types of aeronautical maps shall be used. They are hereafter mentioned as “ general maps" and " local maps.”.

2. The index scheme for the aeronautical maps, both general and local, shall be based on the index scheme adopted for the “International 1:1,000,000 scale map” by the official International Congress convened for the purpose in London in 1909 and in Paris in 1913,

Note.—Extract from the resolutions adopted by the Conferences at London and Paris :

The sheets of the International 1:1,000,000 scale map shall include 6 degrees of longitude and 4 degrees of latitude. The limiting meridians of the sheets shall be at successive intervals, reckoning from Greenwich, of 6 degrees, and the limiting parallels, reckoning from the Equator, shall be at successive intervals of 4 degrees.

The longitudinal sectors, from longitude 180° E. or W. of Greenwich, are given numbers from 1 to 60, increasing in an easterly direction.

The 22 zones of 4 degrees in depth, extending from the Equator on each side to 88° latitude, are given letters from A to V.

The polar areas, extending for 2 degrees, are lettered Z.

In the northern hemisphere each sheet shall bear a descriptive symbol composed of the letter N. followed by the zone letter and sector number corresponding to its position, thus N.K.-12.

In the southern hemisphere the letter S shall replace the letter N. Example, S.L.-28.

3. The metre shall be used as the standard of measurement for lengths, distances, heights and depths, reserving for each nation the right to add figures expressing these quantities in its own units.

1 The equivalent of the latter phrase in the French text is “sur le brevet de pilote ou d'officier navigateur."

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4. The colours, symbols and arrangements for production adopted for the International 1:1,000,000 scale map shall be used as far as practicable on the aeronautical maps.

5. The general maps shall be drawn on Mercator's projection and shall be to a scale of i degree of longitude equals 3 centimetres. The general maps shall have marked on them in fine lines the meridians and parallels of each degree, and the meridians and parallels limiting the unit sections of the 1:1,000,000 map shall be accentuated. The same designation of unit sections shall be used as for the 1:1,000,000 map.

6. Each general (Mercator) map shall bear the French heading “Carte générale aéronautique internationale” (see the conventional sign plate, Fig. 1), and under it a translation of this heading in the language of the country publishing the map. It shall also bear an appropriate geographical name.

Each sheet shall show at least the following: principal physical features and geographical names, wireless stations, marine lighthouses (height and range at sea level, colour and character of the light); national frontiers; prohibited areas; principal air routes; lines of equal magnetic variation; south polar distance; latitude, old and new notation of longitude (see paragraph 7), with an outer margin containing letters and numbers referring to the index of the 1:1,000,000 map; legend of symbols in English or French and in the language of the country publishing the maps; publisher's name, and date of publication and of successive editions.

7. The local maps shall be drawn to a scale of 1:200,000. NOTE.--For local aeronautical maps of sparsely inhabited countries, the scale of 1:500,000 or 1:1,000,000 as appropriate, may be used.

In addition to the customary latitude and longitude notations, the local aeronautical maps shall bear numbers enclosed in rectangles, corresponding to a new system of co-ordinate reckoning based on the antimeridian of Greenwich and the South Pole. The new grid reckoning, with regard to latitude, shall commence with the South Pole as zero and increase northward by degrees and minutes to 180° at the North Pole, and with regard to longitude shall commence with the antimeridian of Greenwich as zero and run eastward by degrees and minutes to 360°.

8. Each unit sheet of the local aeronautical maps shall bear the French heading “Carte normale aéronautique internationale (see the conventional sign plate, Fig. 2),' and under it a translation of this heading in the language of the country publishing the map. It shall comprise one degree of latitude and one degree of longitude, and shall be designated by a locality name and by the new coordinates (described in paragraph 7) of the south-west corner of the sheet, the unit digits being accentuated. In these designating coordinates, the figures referring to the South Polar distance shall invariably be written first.

EXAMPLES.—The sheet whose southern boundary is 49° N. (i. e., 139° south polar distance) and western boundary 2° E. (i. e., 182o from the antimeridian of Greenwich) will be numbered 139_182.

Or the sheet whose southern boundary is 36° S. (i, e., 54° south polar dis tance) and western boundary 7° W. (i. e., 173° from the antimeridian of Greenwich) will be numbered 54–173.

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9. The local aeronautical unit sheets shall show, as far as the data are known, the following:

(a.) Within the limiting Meridians and Parallels.—Twenty-minute projection grid; roads divided into two classes according to their relative visibility from the air; railways of all kinds; cities and towns in outline and the plan of the principal public roads crossing them (villages similarly if practicable, otherwise their positions indicated); principal features of the surface water system; woodlands and other areas unsuitable for landing; aerodromes; hangars for airships; plants for balloon inflation; permanent landing places on ground and water; aeronautical ground marks (beacons and fixed navigational lights); marine lighthouses (height range at sea level, colour and character of the light); wireless stations; meteorological stations; overhead electric power lines; remarkable objects; national frontiers; the frontier crossings for customs purposes prescribed by Annex (H) (Art. 2); prohibited areas; principal air routes; names of important bodies of water; towns, and important villages; the topographical relief by shading and figures indicating heights, the most important of which to be surrounded by an oval ring as

, (6.) Outside the limiting Meridians and Parallels.-A title, consisting of the name designating the locality and the index numbers of the sheet; a border scale graduated to minutes; the names of the neighbouring sheets; latitude, south polar distance, old and new notation of longitude (see paragraph 7); scale of kilometres; legend of symbols in English or French and in the language of the country publishing the map; magnetic variation diagram; key map showing abridged numbers of the sheet concerned and the eight surrounding sheets; frontiers and the names of the countries, parts of which are embraced by the key map; publisher's name and date of publication.

10. The forms of the general and local maps, titles, marginal notations, diagrams and legends shall be as shown by the accompanying illustrations.

11. The general and local aeronautical maps and guide books of the areas traversed by the most important routes which may be established by international agreement shall be prepared first.

NOTE.—On account of the inadequacy of the usual methods of topographic mapping for making aeronautical maps, it is strongly recommended that steps be taken to survey from the air the areas along the most important international routes. Such surveys would furnish indispensable informat'on regarding the features necessary to be shown on the maps the aviator is to use,

SECTION II.-Universal System of Ground Marks.

1. All ground marks shall conform with the scheme of numbering adopted for the unit sheets of the local international aeronautical maps. For this purpose each mark shall show (see the diagrams) :

(a.) The abridged number which designates the sheet within which it lies;

(6.) An open rectangle, whose short sides shall be oriented northsouth; the frames shall be open towards the opposite half of the unit sheet;

(c.) A dot indicating the approximate position of the mark on the north or south half of the corresponding unit sheet.

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Arrangement of mark for south half of 1 Arrangement of mark for north half of unit sheet. The short sides of the frame unit sheet having the same orientation of shall be oriented true north-south.

short sides. The numbers shall be placed close to the frame at the top, bottom or sides, but not inside.

Where marks are placed so close to each other as to admit of possible confusion, the round dot may be replaced by a square, triangular or star-shaped dot.

It is recommended that the minimum dimensions of the marks be those indicated in the sketches.

2. Special attention shall be given to the distribution of marks along chosen international routes.

NOTE.—Steps to establish suitable marks for landing at night shall be eventually taken in accordance with the decision of the International Commission for Air Navigation.



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1. Nature and object of meteorological information to be furnished

by Contracting States.

(A.) “ Statistical ” is required for the purpose of indicating the
degree of safety and convenience of different routes or aerodromes
for different types of aircraft.
It consists of:-
(a.) Analysis and summaries of past meteorological records.
(6.) Summaries of current observations.
(B.) “ Current ” is required for the purpose of:-
(a.) Keeping a current record of the weather.
(6.) Making forecasts.
It consists of:--
(1.) The results of daily observations.
(2.) Lists of active stations at which these observations are taken.
(C.) “Forecasts” are for the purpose of telling all concerned
when and where flying is possible and the best conditions for the
same. They are statements of conditions anticipated :

(a.) “Short period ” during the next three or four hours.
(6.) “Normal” during the next twenty to thirty hours.
(c.) Long period” during the next two or three days.

(d.) “Route” for particular region or route during the next six hours.

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