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sess the property of stopping the progress of wine to acidity, and also of clarifying white wines after they have become muddy; and in the metropolis, which seems to be the head-quarters of all those shameful abuses, it is freely used by the wine-merchants for this purpose. In Graham's Treatise on Wine-making, under the article of Secrets, there are directions how to use lead for the purpose either of recovering bad wine, or of preventing wine from turning acid. It is stated, in defence of this practice, that the quantity of lead used is so small, that it can produce no bad effects; and that, besides, the lead does not remain in the wine. The contrary, however, is proved by chemical analysis; and as lead taken into the stomach is highly deleterious, and occasions the most afflicting diseases, wine, with the smallest quantity of it intermixed, becomes a slow but sure poison; and Mr Accum therefore justly observes, that the “ merchant or dealer who practises this dangerous sophistication, adds the crime of murder to that of fraud, and deliberately scatters the seeds of disease and death among those customers who contribute to his emolument.' The effects of lead in improving wine were,
it appears, well known to the ancients, who made use of it for this purpose long before they were aware of its pernicious effects.
Spirituous liquors, which in this country form one of the chief articles of consumption, would, we have every reason to imagine, be the subject of equally extensive frauds with wine, were it not that the great quality of spirits, namely, the strength, admits of being fixed by such easy and accurate tests. Spirits being subject to a heavy tax, it became necessary, for the sake of the revenue, that some certain method should be adopted for ascertaining their strength; and several very accurate instruments have accordingly been contrived for this purpose. The deceptions, therefore, which are practised by the dealers in this article, are chiefly confined to fraudulent imitations of the peculiar flavour of different sorts of spirits; and as this flavour constitutes, along with the strength, the value of the spirit, the profit of the dealer consists in imitating this quality at a cheaper rate than it is produced in the genuine spirit. The flavour of French brandy is imitated, by distilling British molasses spirit over wine lees; previous to which, however, the spirit is deprived of its peculiar disagreeable flavour, by rectification over fresh-burnt charcoal and quicklime. This operation is performed by those who are called brewers' druggists, and forms the article in the prices-current called Spirit Flavour. Wine lees are imported into this country for the purpose, and they pay the same duty as foreign wines. Another method of iniz
tating the flavour of brandy, which is adopted by brandy merchants, is by means of a spirit obtained from raisin wine, after it has begun to become somewhat sour. « Oak saw-dust,' (Mr Accum observes), and a spirituous tincture of raisin stones, are likewise used to impart to new brandy and rum a ripe taste, resem bling brandy or rum long kept in oaken casks, and a somewhat oily consistence, so as to form a durable froth at its surface, when strongly agitated in a vial. The colouring substances are burnt sugar, or molasses ; the latter gives to imitative brandy a luscious taste, and fulness in the mouth. Gin, which is sold in small quantities to those who judge of the strength by the taste, is made up for sale by fraudulent dealers with water and sugar; and this admixture rendering the liquor turbid, several expedients are resorted to, in order to clarify it; some of which are harmless, while others are criminal. A mixture of alum with subcarbonate of potash, is sometimes employed for this purpose; but more frequently, in place of this, a solution of subacetate of lead, and then a solution of alum,--a practice reprobated by Mr Accum as highly dangerous, owing to the admixture of the lead with the spirit, which thereby becomes poisonous. After this operation, it is usual to give a false appearance of strength to the spirit, by mixing with it grains of paradise, guinea pepper, capsicum, and other acrid and aromatic substances.
In the manufacture of Malt liquors, a wide field is opened for the operations of fraud. The immense quantity of the article consumed, presents an irresistible temptation to the unprincipled dealer; while the vegetable substances with which Beer is adulterated, are in all cases difficult to be detected, and are frequently beyond the reach of chemical analysis. There is, accordingly, no article which is the subject of such varied and extensive frauds. These are eommitted in the first instance by the brewer, during the process of manufacture, and afterwards by the dealer, who deteriorates, by fraudulent intermixtures, the liquor which he sells to the consumer. The brewer is prohibited by act of Parliament from using any other ingredients than malt and hops ; and, according to the evidence of the most experienced judges, the best malt liquor can be made out of these materials, and out of these only. The art then of the fraudulent brewer, consists in the discovery of other and cheaper ingredients, by which he contrives to imitate the qualities of genuine beer or porter. In a practical treatise on Brewing, which has run through eleven editions, the author observes, that malt, to produce intoxication, must be used in such large quantities as would very much diminish, if not totally exclude, the brewer's profit.' Recourse must therefore be had to less costly materials; and though this
practice is prohibited by several acts of Parliament, the same author affirms, from his own experience, that he could never produce the present flavoured porter without them.' * intoxicating qualities of porter' (he continues) are to be aseribed to the various drugs intermixed with it;' and, as some sorts of porter are more heady than others, the difference arises, according to this author, “from the greater or less quantity of stupefying ingredients' contained in it. These consist of various substances, some of which are highly deleterious. Thus, the extract disguised under the name of black extract, and ostensibly destined for the use of tanners and dyers, is obtained by boiling the berries of the cocculus indicus in water, and converting, by a subsequent evaporation, this decoction into a stiff black tenacious mass, possessing in a high degree the narcotic and intoxicating quality of the poisonous berry from which it is prepared. Quassia is another substance employed in place of hops, to give the beer a bitter taste; and the shavings of this wood are sold in a half torrefied and ground state, in order to prevent its being recognised. An extract is also prepared of quassia and liquorice juice, which is used in place of hops, and is technically called multum. Quassia is, however, in every respect, an inferior article to hops, for the purpose of being used in beer; the latter possessing an agreeable aromatic flavour, and rendering the beer also less liable to spoil. Wormwood has been used by fraudulent brewers, for the purpose of giving a bitter taste to their beer. The other substances with which beer is adulterated, are molasses, honey, vitriol, grains of paradise, opium, extract of poppies, copperas, Spanish liquorice, hartshorn shavings, caraway and coriander seeds, mixed with a portion of nux vomica, orange powder, ginger, &c.
The practice of adulterating beer appears to be of ancient date; and there is an act of Queen Anne, prohibiting the brewer from the use of cocculus indicus, other unwholesome ingredients. For nearly a century, however, few instances of any convictions are to be met with under this act. It is in modern times that this fraud appears chiefly to have flourished, and, more especially, during the period of the late French war. From this time, great quantities of cocculus indicus began to be imported from the Continent, although an additional duty was laid on it; so that the quantity brought into the country for five years subsequent to the period alluded to, exceeds that imported for the twelve preceding years. The price of the drug has also risen from 2s. to 7s. per pound; which affords the most un
* Child on Brewing, p. 16.
equivocal proof of an increased demand for the article. The progress of this nefarious trade is described by Mr Accum in the following passage.
• It was at the period to which we have alluded, that the preparation of an extract of cocculus indicus first appeared, as a new saleable commodity, in the price.currents of brewers'-druggists. It was at the same time also that a Mr Jackson, of notorious memory, fell upon the idea of brewing beer from various drugs, without any malt and hops. This chemist did not turn brewer himself; but he struck out the more profitable trade of teaching his mystery to the brewers for a handsome fee. From that time forwards, written directions, and receipt-books for using the chemical preparations to be substituted for malt and hops, were respectively sold; and many adepts soon afterwards appeared everywhere, to instruct brewers in the nefarious practice first pointed out by Mr Jackson. From that time, also, the fraternity of brewers'-chemists took its rise. They made it their chief business to send travellers all over the country with lists and samples exhibiting the price and quality of the articles manufactured by them for the use of brewers only. Their trade spread far and wide; but it was amongst the country brewers chiefly that they found the most customers ; and it is amongst them, up to the present day, as I am assured by some of these operators, on whose veracity I can rely, that the greatest quantities of unlawful ingredients are sold, pp. 158-160.
Not only is the use of all these deleterious substances strictly prohibited to the brewer under severe penalties; but all druggists or grocers convicted of supplying him with any of them, or who have them in their possession, are liable to severe penalties; and Mr Accum gives a list of twenty-nine convictions for this offence, from the year 1812 to 1819. From the year 1813 to 1819, the number of brewers prosecuted and convicted of using illegal ingredients in their breweries, amounts to thirtyfour. Numercus seizures have also been made during the same period at various breweries and in the warehouses of brewers'druggists, of illegal ingredients, to be used in the brewing of beer, some of them highly deleterious.
Malt liquors, after they are delivered by the brewer to the retail-dealer, are still destined to undergo various mutations before they reach the consumer. It is a common practice with the retailers of beer, though it be contrary to law, to mix tablebeer with strong beer; and, to disguise this fraud, recourse is had to various expedients. It is a well known property of
genuine beer, that when poured from one vessel into another, it bears a strong white froth, without which professed judges would not pronounce the liquor good. This property is lost, however, when table-beer is mixed with strong beer; and to restore it, a mixture of what is called beer-heading is added, composed of common green vitriol, alum, and salt. To give a pungent taste to weak insipid beer, capsicum and grains of paradise, two highly acrid substances, are employed; and, of late, a concentrated tincture of these articles has appeared for sale in the prices-current of brewers’-druggists. To bring beer forward, as it is technically called, or to make it hard, a portion of sulphuric acid is mixed with it, which, in an instant, produces an imitation of the age of eighteen months; and stale, half-spoiled, or sour beer, is converted into mild beer, by the simple admixture of an alkali or an alkaline earth; oyster-shell powder, and subcarbonate of potash, or soda, being usually employed for that purpose. In order to show that these deceptions are not imaginary, Mr Accum refers to the frequent convictions of brewers for those fraudulent practices, and to the seizures which have been made at different breweries of illegal ingredients-a list of which, and of the proprietors of the breweries where they were seized, he has extracted from the Minutes of the Committee of the House of Commons, appointed to Inquire into the Price and Quality of Beer. It may be observed, that while some of the sophistications of beer appear to be perfectly harmless, other substances are frequently employed for this purpose which are highly deleterious, and which must gradually undermine the health of those by whom they are used.
Many others of the most ordinary articles of consumption, are mentioned by our author as being the object of the most disgusting and pernicious frauds. Tea, it is well known, from the numerous convictions which have lately taken place, has been counterfeited to an enormous extent; and copper, in one form or another, is the chief ingredient made use of for effecting the imitation.
The practice of adulterating coffee, has also been carried on for a long time, and to a considerable extent; while black and white pepper, Cayenne pepper, mustard, pickles of all sorts, have been all of them debased by an ad. mixture of baser, and, in many cases, poisonous ingredients. Ground pepper is frequently sophisticated by an admixture from the sweepings of the pepper warehouses. These sweepings are purchased in the market under the initials P. D., signifying pepper dust. • An inferior sort of this vile refuse (Mr Accum observes), ' or the sweepings of P. D., is distinguished
among venders by the abbreviation of D. P. D., denoting • dust, or dirt of pepper dust.'
Of those various frauds so ably exposed in Mr Accum's work, and which are so much the inore dangerous, as they are