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the brewers and wine merchants with pictures. Although he might have lived in great affluence by his masterly pencil, he was frequently reduced to the most deplorable penury by indolence and dissipation; his faces alone completely indicated the rank and condition of the person depicted. Great prices are now given for the works of this artist, though they sold for small sums in his life time, on account of his being obliged to sell upon the pressure of necessity. A characteristic anecdote is related of this singular artist. In a picture of the crucifixion, having introduced a numerous group of figures, consisting of monks, old women, and dogs, at the foot of the cross, he was asked to explain the reason of such an assemblage; to which he replied, "the clergy and the old women are always the most eager in their inquiries, when any thing curious occurs." Some years since, another instance of his eccentric turn of mind was sold for a considerable sum at Amsterdam, viz. a painting of the deluge, which he had delineated by introducing a large Dutch cheese, with the word Leyden inscribed upon it, floating in the centre of a sheet of water, which, he said, would încontestably prove that all the world was drowned. The name of Jan Steen naturally introduces that of his great friend Francis Mieres, who was born here in 1635, and was a pupil of Gerard Douw, who, from the rapid progress he made in his studies, used to call him the Prince of his Disciples: in rich transparency, an unusual sweetness of colouring, and an elaborate but delicate touch, he nearly approached his illustrious master. Mieres was generally paid a ducat an hour for his works, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany paid him no less than a thousand rix dollars for one picture. Unfortunately for this artist, he conceived an uncommon friendship for the drunken, droll Jan Steen, which frequently involved him in inconvenience, and disgrace. An anecdote is related of Mieres, in consequence of this association, which in its result did much honour to his feelings; being accustomed to pass whole nights with his friend in the most joyous manner at a tavern, he was returning home very late one evening from his company, when he fell into a common sewer, which had been left open in order to cleanse it, where he must have perished, had not a cobler

and his wife, who were in a neighbouring stall, heard his cries, and instantly ran to his relief; having extricated him, although they were total strangers to him, they took care of him for the night, and treated him with all the kindness in their power: the next morning their guest returned to his lodgings, strongly impressed with the humanity and hospitality of his new friends, whom he resolved to reward in a manner worthy of their conduct; and accordingly having painted a picture in his best manner, he returned to his preservers and presented them with it, telling them it was the production of a person whose life they had preserved, and directed them to go and offer it to his friend and patron Cornelius Plaats, who would give the full value for it. The woman, unacquainted with the real value of the present, expected only a moderate gratuity for the picture, and was overwhelmed with surprise when the liberal purchaser paid her eight hundred florins for it. The grand Duke of Tuscany offered three thousand florins for a picture of Mieres, representing a lady fainting, and a physician relieving her. Francis Mieres left two sons and a grandson, all of whom were distinguished artists. John Van Goyen the father-inlaw of Jan Steen, was also an artist of great celebrity: he painted a great number of pictures, and his execution was marvellously rapid, of which the following curious anecdote is recorded as a memorable instance: Hoogstraten relates that Van Goyen, Knipbergen, and Parcelles, had agreed each to paint a picture in one day, in the presence of several other artists, their friends, to whose judgment was left the disposal of a considerable sum of money subscribed for that purpose by the contending artists, to be bestowed upon the person who produced the best picture within that period. As soon as Van Goyen took the pencil, without making any previous sketch, he first laid on the light colour of the sky, then he rubbed on several different shades of brown, next masses of light on the foreground in several spots; out of this chaos, he produced trees, buildings, water, distant hills, vessels lying before a sea-port, and boats filled with figures, with almost magical celerity, and exquisite spirit, and finished the whole within the limited time, to the astonishment of the beholders. Knipbergen proceeded with his work

in quite a different manner, for instead of beginning to colour his canvass he sketched on his palette the design he had formed in his imagination, and took much pains to give it all imaginable correctness, every rock, tree, water-fall, and other object, was disposed in the manner it was intended to be finished in the painting, and he attempted nothing more than to transfer the sketch upon the canvass; this picture was also finished in the time, and was allowed by the observers to possess much merit. The method observed by Parcelles differed from both, for when he took up his palette and pencils, he sat a long time in deep meditation upon his subject, and having arranged his thoughts, he executed within the time also, a sea-piece, admirably designed and delicately finished. The judges were unanimous in deciding for Parcelles, observing, that though the pictures of Van Goyen and Knipbergen were full of spirit, taste, and good colouring, yet in the picture by Parcelles there was equal merit as well in the handling as the colouring, and more truth, as being the result of great thought and judicious premeditation. William Vandervelde, the celebrated marine painter, was also born here in 1610: the love of his art induced him to remove with his family to England, on account of the superior elegance in the construction of British ships; and he was successively patronised by King Charles II. and King James II. Such was his enthusiasm, that, in order to unite fidelity with grandeur and elegance in his compositions, he would boldly advance in a small light vessel into the very heat of a naval engagement, and make his sketches, in undaunted tranquillity, whilst the balls were flying about him in all directions. Of this bold spirit he exhibited two very memorable instances, before he came to England; one was in the severe battle between the Duke of York and Admiral Opdam, in which the Dutch admiral and 503 men were blown up; and the other, in that great battle, which lasted three days, between Admiral Monck and Admiral de Ruyter, during which engagements Vandervelde plied between the fleets, so that he was enabled to represent every movement of the ships, and every material circumstance of the action, with astonishing minuteness and truth. There were formerly some good

private collections of paintings in this city, but the political storms of the country have dispersed them.

About a mile from Leyden there is a very valuable collection by some of the most distinguished Dutch and Flemish masters, belonging to Mr. Gevers, who has a noble mansion, and grounds very tastefully disposed; and who upon all occasions is happy to permit strangers to visit his cabinet, and to show them every hospitality.

Near this city, in the village of Rhynsburg, the assembly of a very singular and equally liberal religious association is held, the members of which are called after the name of the place, Rhynsburgians: this meeting was established by three peasants, who were brothers, of the name of John, Adrian, and Gilbert Van Code, who to an excellent and profitable acquaintance with farming, which they followed, singularly united a profound knowledge of languages, for which they were so celebrated, that Prince Maurice, and Monsieur de Maurier, the then French ambassador, honoured them with several visits, and conversed with them in Latin, Greek, Italian, and French, in each of which they astonished their visitors by their fluency and pronunciation: another brother, William, filled the professorship of the oriental languages in the university of Leyden. In consequence of the churches being left without their pastors, on the expulsion of the remonstrant clergy in the year 1619, the three first-mentioned brothers determined to supply their places, and undertook to explain the Scriptures: they set an example of genuine christianity which has been rarely displayed; and they taught that every one had a right to worship God according to his own form of faith, taking the Bible for his guide. This association meet every Saturday, for the purpose of digesting the discourses of the ensuing Sunday, when, with the sincerest humility, one of the fraternity distributes the bread and wine. After the morning duties of the Sabbath are passed, they reassemble in the evening to return thanks to the Almighty for his favours, and at the same time particularize the instances of his goodness. On Monday morning they part to attend to their different temporal concerns, and at their taking leave, solemnly impress upon each other the

sacred obligation, and the blissful result of a perseverance in the pious course which they have hitherto pursued. Such benevolent and exalted principles attract persons of various persuasions to the meeting, who assist in its solemnities, and partake in the pure spirit of its devotion. The religion most followed previous to the revolution, was the presbyterian and calvinistical; before the revolution, none but presbyterians were admitted into any office or post under government, except in the army. The republic, in its early stages, displayed its wisdom in making the calvanistical persuasion predominant, for the country at that period was too poor to erect mag`nificent temples of worship, and support a train of prelates in the splendor bestowed upon them in other countries, which were more rich, and had a population adequate to the cultivation of the soil. It was of the highest consequence to Holland to encourage population, and they could not more effectually do it, than by a policy equally generous and enlightened, which offered an asylum to all foreigners persecuted for their religion, and discouraged all monastic institutions.

As I was one day roving in this city, I was struck with the appearance of a small board ornamented with a considerable quantity of lace, with an inscription on it, fastened to a house; upon inquiry, I found that the lady of the mansion, where I saw it, had lately lain in, and was then much indisposed, and that it was the custom of the country to expose this board, which contained an account of the state of the invalid's health, for the satisfaction of her inquiring friends, who were by this excellent plan informed of her situation, without disturbing her by knocking at the door, and by personal inquiries: the lace I found was never displayed but in lying in cases, but without it, this sort of bulletin is frequently used in other cases of indisposition amongst persons of


It is a painful task not to be able to close my account of this beautiful and celebrated city, without lamenting with the reader the dreadful accident which befel it on the 12th of January last, more terrible and destructive than all the horrors of its siege, the intelligence of which was communicated to me very soon after

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