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year 1170: the bones of these personages, of course, performed all sorts of prodigies; the blind by touching them, became astronomers, and the lame, dancing masters. This tomb, before the last war, was uncommonly rich and magnificent; but the French, who have displayed no great respect for living kings, could not be expected to pay much to three dead ones, and accordingly they have stripped their shrine of most of the jewelry, and precious ornaments. The sacrilege committed upon three holy kings, who were transported so far from their native country, reminds me of an anecdote, in which the playful wit of Mr. Hastings, formerly governor-general of India, was eminently displayed. An antiquary having collected in India a considerable number of Hindoo gods, had them well packed up for the purpose of being sent to England, and on the top of the case wrote in large characters "Gods
please to keep these uppermost; the governor-general calling one morning on the collector, observed the package in his library, and remarking the superscription, said, "your direction is a wise one, for when you transport gods into a foreign country, it is ten to one but that they are overturned."
Every street reminds the stranger of the former prevalence of the priesthood. Before the war, the clergy in this city, were divided into eleven chapters, nineteen parishes, nineteen convents for men, and thirty-nine convents for women, besides forty-nine chapels, institutions which supported between two and three thousand persons in useless voluptuousness and sloth.
As the other churches have been striped of their finery, and were not embellished by any striking work of the statuary, I merely took a cursory view of their exterior: the principal are the Jesuits' church, the collegiate church of St. Gerion, that of the Maccabees, and the abbey church of St. Pantaleon: all these and a number of other sacred buildings useless to name, abounded with saints and shrines incrusted with a profusion of jewellery, and all the mummery and mockery of cunning and credulity. With respect to the chapel of St. Ursula, a whimsical circumstance occurred some years since: in this depositary, for a great length of time, have reposed the bones of the immaculate St. Ursula, and
eleven thousand virgins her companions, who came from England in a little boat in the year 640, to convert the Huns who had taken possession of this city, who instead of being moved by their sweet eloquence and cherub-like looks, put an end to their argument by putting them all to death. Some doubts arose many years since whether any country could have spared so many virgins, and a surgeon, somewhat of a wag, upon examining the consecrated bones, declared that most of them were the bones of full grown female mastiffs, for which discovery he was expelled the city. The convents and monasteries are converted into garrisons for the French troops quartered in the city. It is in contemplation to pull down about two-thirds of the churches.
On account of its numerous religious houses Cologne was called the Holy city. Bigotry, beggary, and ignorance disfigured the place in spite of its once flourishing trade and university. When the French seized upon this city, in 1794, they soon removed the rubbish of ages; three-fourths of the priests had the choice of retiring or entering the army, and when withdrawn, the weak minds over which they had exercised sovereign influence recovered their tone, and lived to hail the hour of their delivery from fanatical bondage, and the sturdy beggars were formed into conscripts. One of the most illustrious of the archbishops of Cologne was Theodoric, who was much celebrated in his time for his talents, erudition and morals. An anecdote is related of him, that upon the emperor Sigismund one day asking him how to obtain happiness hereafter, as the possession of it seemed impossible, Theodoric replied, "You must act virtuously, that is, you should always pursue that plan of conduct which you promise to do whilst you are labouring under a fit of the gravel, gout, or stone."
When the Devil was sick
The Devil a Monk would be;
The Devil a Monk was he.
This city is celebrated for having given birth to Agrippina the mother of Nero, but it has derived more lustre from the immortal Rubens having been born here in 1640: the house in which he
resided is still preserved and exhibited with great pride to strangers. This illustrious man was no less a scholar than a painter, and hence his allegorical works are more purely classical than those of any other master: of this the gallery of the Luxembourg and the banqueting-room at Whitehall bear ample testimony. Whilst he painted he used to recite the poems of Homer and Virgil, which he knew by heart, by which he infused the divine spirit of poetry into the productions of his pencil. After having studied a few years in Italy, his renown as an artist spread through Europe, whilst his learning, amenity of manners, elegant accomplishments, and amiable mind, secured to him the esteem and regard of all whom he approached. He was particularly cherished by the kings of England, Spain, and other monarchs: he was even employed upon a very delicate occasion to communicate proposals from the cabinet of Spain to that of London, and Charles I. was so delighted with his various talents, that he conferred upon him the honour of knighthood. The number of his paintings is prodigious. Sir Joshua Reynolds said that the most grand, as well as the most perfect piece of composition in the world, was that of Rubens's picture of the Fall of the Damned, formerly in the gallery of Dusseldorf; that it combined such a varied, heterogeneous and horrible subject, in such a wonderful manner, that he scarcely knew which most to admire, the invention or the composition of the master. The last of Rubens's paintings was the Crucifixion of St. Peter, with his head downward, which he presented to St. Peter's church in this city one day after taking a copy of the register of his birth from its archives: the tasteless and mercenary heads of the church received this invaluable present with little expressions of gratitude, and were disappointed that the donor had not given them money in lieu: when Rubens heard of their dissatisfaction, he offered them 28,000 crowns for the picture, which, merely in consequence of the offer, they considered to be worth infinitely more, and therefore refused to sell him the work of his own hands, and it was preserved with great veneration in the church, where it continued till Cologne became one of the cities of the French empire. Rubens, to the powers and graces before ascribed to him, united the virtue
of a christian: from motives of piety and benevolence he adorned many churches and convents with his matchless productions; which, as if the hallowed purpose to which they were devoted had inspired him, whilst he painted, were generally the most masterly efforts of his pencil.
Thomas à Kempis, so celebrated for his extraordinary piety, was born in the neighbourhood of this city in 1380. The last edition of his works is that of Cologne 1660, 3 vols. folio; his most celebrated work was entitled 'De Imitatione Christi;' which, on account of its great piety and merit, has been translated into almost every living language. This work has been attempted to be ascribed to an abbot of the name of Gerson, of the order of St. Benedict, which for many years produced severe controversies between the canons of St. Augustine, to which Thomas à Kempis belonged, and the Benedictines.
The celebrated William Caxton opened his printing office here in 1471, and printed the work of Le Fevre, which was three years afterwards published in London, where he had the honour of being the first to introduce the invaluable art of printing. Adam Schule the mathematician, who died at Pekin, was a calendar here. Vondel the Dutch Virgil was born here, as was the wonderful Maria Schurman, who was well versed in twelve languages, and wrote five classically, besides excelling in every accomplishment then known. Excess of genius and learning made her melancholy mad, and she died from an inordinate debauch in eating spiders.
The Town House is a very ancient edifice, and contains the only specimen of Grecian architecture in the city. There were three ecclesiastical electorates in Germany, viz. Cologne, Mayence, and Treves, which have been abolished by Napoleon. The revenues of the elector of Cologne amounted to upwards of two hundred thousand pounds. Cologne must have been declining for some centuries, for in the year 1200 it was capable of furnishing thirty thousand men for the field, a number which its present population is said not to exceed. The whole of the trade of this town was extensive before the last war, and at one period, in spite
of its bigotted rulers, it was one of the richest and most flourishing cities in Germany: its traders carry outward annually large quantities of salted provisions from Westphalia, iron from the forges of Nassau, wood from the Upper Rhine and the Neckar, wine, hemp, tobacco, brass, tufo stone, tobacco-pipe clay, millet, gins, dried fruits, potash, copper, ribbands, stockings, and lace and they purchase of the Dutch paper, oil, cottons, groceries, spices, medicinal drugs, also for dyeing, and English lead and tin.
The policy of the French government since it has assumed a settled form, has very much directed its attention to the depressed state of the manufactures of Cologne, which formerly employed eleven thousand children, and under its auspices there are several fabrics in a very flourishing condition, particularly those for manufacturing stuffs and ribbands, and a great deal of iron is now wrought in this city. The university is at a very low ebb, in consequence of so many young men having embraced the profession of arms. This university was once very celebrated, and was the most ancient in Germany, having been founded in 1380. Pope Urban the Sixth paid if the following compliment, in allusion to its having given birth to the college of Louvaine:
Matre pulchra filia pulchrior.
This maternal university was divided into theology, law, medicine, and philosophy; but has not the only celebrity of having sent into the world many enlightened men.
In the department of Cologne the vineyards began first to appear. The vines in the garden grounds of the city are said to have yielded seven hundred and fourteen thousand gallons of wine. The wines are not attempted to be cultivated higher north.
During my stay at Cologne I visited the French parades every morning and evening. As the parades in France used to be confined to the morning, it was natural to conjecture that some new and great political storm was collecting, for which the French emperor was preparing by redoubled activity and energy. At these parades the conscripts, after having undergone a brief drilling, were incorporated with the veteran troops: to wheel, to form