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ALTHOUGH a brief account of the Castle of Heidelberg | resided at this fortress, which we will distinguish as has already appeared in this work *, yet the great the old Castle, and possessing large estates on the beauty, both picturesque and architectural, of this Rhine, was created by his brother Pfalzgraf of the far-famed ruin, and its long period of historical im- | Rhine. He added largely to the Castle, built the portance, authorize the insertion of a further descrip- Benedictine monastery at Schönau, and converted a tion; which, being chiefly drawn from the ancient cloister of the same order, situated at Neuburg, about archives of the place, will embrace a summary of its a mile up the Neckar, into a convent for ladies of entire history.

rank. (This building still exists under its original In order to commence from the earliest known name of the Stift Neuburg, and is occupied as a date, we must relate that the appellation Heidelberg Summer residence by a gentleman of large fortune.) Castle was originally borne by a fortress situated Conrad died at Heidelberg, 1195, leaving an only about half a mile above the present magnificent daughter Agnes, who married Henry of Brunswick, structure, which, both according to tradition, and the to whom devolved the government. By her he had nature of the foundations still visible, was built by two children, Henry and Agnes, and residing chiefly the Romans as a defence against the native hordes on his patrimonial lands, in no way contributed to infesting the valley of the Neckar. They were fur- the prosperity of Heidelberg. His son and successor ther protected by a wall leading from this fortress survived him but three years, dying childless at the down to the river, which, terminating in a tower, age of twenty. Upon this event the Emperor, Frederic controlled any attack by water. This tower, with a the Second, (the Emperors of Germany having, in portion of the wall, are still discernible in an old those times, the arbitration of such matters, and building called the Marstall, now used as a lying-in appointing and deposing the lesser powers as they hospital. After the retreat of the Romans, from pleased,) nominated Louis the First of Bavaria, Germany, this upper fortress was maintained as of the house of Wittelsbach, successor to the Palastronghold, and subsequently became the residence tinate lands. The people, however, resisted this of the earlier Pfalzgrafen, or Palatinate Counts. The choice, took their appointed sovereign prisoner, and first historical notice of these potentates, which can only released him at a high ransom. By a marriage be safely quoted, relates that Conrad von Hohen- of policy between Otho, son of Louis, and Agnes, staufen, (born 1127,) Duke of Suabia, and half- daughter of the late count, matters were seemingly brother of Frederic Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany, adjusted, and Louis permitted to reside in comparative See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 139.

peace at the old Castle, but his bloody murder, which Vol. XII.


took place six years later, in 1231, proves that there | 1401. He built that part of the Castle called to this were still powerful malcontents around him. His day the Rupert building, and which forms one of the son Otho succeeding, the hereditary line was con most ancient and picturesque portions still remaining. tinued. This prince is the first whom we find styled In his regal capacity he resided chiefly at Oppenheim, Pfalzgraf and Churfürsta title derived from the old but was buried at Heidelberg, having equally divided German word kuren, to choose, and fürst, a prince, the Palatinate lands among his four sons. and borne as a distinction by those reigning sove- Louis the Third, the Bearded, or Pious, received, reigns who possessed the privilege of electing the as eldest son, Heidelberg for his portion, and may be emperors of Germany; we render it fitly by the term considered as the founder of the Heidelberg line. Elector. Otho united the Palatinate and Bavarian He married in 1402, Blanche, daughter of Henry the estates, purchased additional lands, and is supposed Fourth of England; the first connexion of this state to have laid the foundation of the lower Castle, of with our country, to which it has subsequently been which this account especially treats.

so vitally allied. In 1414 and 1417, Louis attended This splendid structure stands upon a platform of the church convocations at Constance, where John the rock about three hundred feet above the river, ori- | Twenty-second, the deposed Pope, was committed to ginally called the Jettenbühl; from a tradition of one his charge, and confined for some time at Heidelberg, Jettà, a heathen prophetess who dwelt in a chapel and ultimately at Manheim. This Prince conupon this site, and to whom, being in high repute for tributed much to the progress of the university and her miracles and oracles, the people flocked from all improvement of the Castle and town. He completed countries. This personage was seldom visible, but the fine church of the Holy Ghost in the marketthe prophetic words emanated from a window of the place, which had been commenced under Rupert chapel, and were caught by the crowd assembled the First, and dying in his sixtieth year, was inbeneath. One of her prophecies which have been terred within its walls. To him succeeded his son handed down to the present generation, testifies that Louis the Fourth, who becoming entangled in some palaces in which kings should reside, should cover petty wars, died, it is said, of chagrin, in his thirtieth her lowly hill, and that numerous buildings should year, leaving an only son, Pbilip, in the cradle. His occupy the valley beneath. And truly, if all her brother, Frederic the First, surnamed the Conqueror, peeps into futurity proved as clear-sighted, she duly was appointed regent to the infant prince, and subearned her reputation. Further, the tale goes, that sequently reigned conjointly with him. In those having wandered one day through the woods till she times the law of primogeniture was but partially reached a certain fountain, and a cloud, we conclude, enforced, and in several instances we find brothers being drawn over her prophetic vision, she was sur: wielding the Palatinate sceptre together. Frederic prised by a savage she-wolf, who quickly put an end was an excellent Regent; he strengthened and ento the prophetess of the Jettenbühl. The scene of this larged the Castle, and although engaged in a succestragic event still bears the name of the Wolfsbrunnen, sion of wars, contrived that they should all conduce or Wolf's Fountain. It lies in a picturesque hollow to the prosperity and aggrandizement of his states. about a mile from the town, and is to this day re- He was connected in a left-handed marriage with sorted to, without any apprehension of a similar fate, the beautiful Clara Dettin, of Augsburg, and dying by the youth and beauty of Heidelberg.

in 1476, was buried by his own desire in the dress of But to return to the Pfalzgrafen. To Otho succeeded a monk, in a Carmelite Cloister he had founded at Louis the Severe, who, in his connubial transactions, Heidelberg; leaving Philip the First, or the Sincere, somewhat resembled our Henry the Eighth, having to govern alone. This prince united to a chivalrous married three wives, one of whom he beheaded. nature, a great taste for the politer arts.

By his This count dying in 1295, was succeeded by his son summons, many of the literati of that period resorted Rudolph the First, whose administration is marked to his court, and were detained in the service of the as a period of much suffering to the Castle and university. surrounding dominions. He was driven from his

In the year 1484, a high tournament was held in possessions by the Emperor Albert, and is supposed the great court of the Castle, to which all the titled to have died in Austria. The succession, nevertheless, and gentle blood, far and near, were bidden. This was bestowed upon his son, Adolphus the Simple, who, period calls forth all our liveliest conceptions of chipreferring a life of indolence to the government of valrous magnificence, and never, perhaps, was this broad lands, surrendered the sceptre to his brother lordly Castle worthier tenanted than in good Count Rudolph the Second, not, however, till he had restored Philip's time. Tradition still tells of the valour of the Castle to a habitable condition. Tenth on the the knights, the beauty of the dames, and the wine line of succession now appears Rupert the First, and wassail which flowed around; and, although the brother of Rudolph, born 1309, whose name is con- great tun* was not then in being, there was, doubtless, spicuous as the author of numerous benefits to the as little lack of mouths to drain, as of vessels to country, and especially as the founder of the Heidel- contain the produce of the Neckar vineyards. A berg university, whose flourishing schools still remain few years later, the Emperor Maximilian honoured a monument of his enlightened liberality. He it was this Pfalzgraf with a visit, and was received with all who first resided regularly at Heidelberg, and added the pomp of the times. About this period, also, as Jargely to both town and Castle. He died without the story goes, a pike was caught in the royal ponds issue at the advanced age of eighty-one, and the at Kaiserslautern, weighing 350 lbs. From an inscripgovernment devolved upon Rupert the Second, son tion upon a ring round its neck, it appeared that it of Adolphus the Simple, who, however, seems to had been placed there in 1230, by the Emperor have inherited less of his father's than of his uncle's Frederic the Second; having thus enjoyed the good nature, for we find him seeking the advancement of things of this life during an interval of 267 years his people, driving the Jews out of the town, an act and upwards. This is, fortunately, the only instance considered meritorious in those times, and presenting on record of a fresh-water fish of these majestic thirteen of the deserted houses to the university. dimensions, otherwise a race of sharks weighing This Pfalzgraf was succeeded, after a reign of eight twenty-five stone, might have been rather an awkyears, by his son Rupert the Third, elected, in 1400, ward addition to our annals of natural history. King of Rome, and crowned as such at Cologne, in

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 140.

In spite of the hospitality which had been shown his taste for architecture; and being furnished with to the Emperor, Count Philip was not secured from designs from Raphael and Julio Romano, applied hostilities ; for a year later, on his claiming the Bava. them in the erection of that splendid portion, called rian succession for his son, Maximilian declared him to this day, Otho Henry's building. This forms the under the ban, and sent a numerous army against the west side of the Tournament Court, and contains the Palatinate. Both the town and Castle, however, Ritter Saal, or Knight's Hall, and a princely suite of were so well manned and fortified, and the inhabit- apartments, the façade of which, adorned with cologants so devoted to their count, that the enemy only sal figures from Scripture and Pagan history, offers a caused a temporary annoyance, and soon evacuated unique specimen of the florid and gorgeous architecthe land. Philip died 1508, and was buried in the ture of those times. All these improvements were church of the Holy Ghost.

effected in the marvellously short space of three Louis the Fifth succeeded to the government, and years, for we find the death of this spirited sovereign pursued his father's plans of improvement. He en- recorded in 1559, who dying without issue, the couraged learning, protected the university, and states devolved to Frederic the Third, of the house of greatly added to the size and strength of the Castle. Simmern, also connected by no consanguinity that He it was who commenced that formidable bulwark we can discover, either with his immediate or more round the entire building, part of which, towards the remote predecessors. west, is still standing, a monument of strength. This Prince introduced the Calvinistic doctrines in Besides this, the so called Thick-tower, overlooking opposition to those of Luther, which is the first menthe town, of which only a section now remains; the tion we have obtained of religious disputes in the square-tower, still in good preservation, the bridge, history of the Palatinate. His controversial occupathe bridge-house, the Stückgarten, &c., &c., were all tions, probably left him no time for more secular purerections of his reign. In 1524, this Elector pro- suits,-at any rate we perceive no additions or alteclaimed a trial of cross-bow shooting, at which many rations to the Castle recorded in this reign. He died German potentates attended. This, however, appears in 1576, and was buried in the church of the Holy the pretext rather than the object of their meeting ; Ghost, succeeded by his son Louis the Sixth, who which was, in reality, to concert some means of differing on doctrinal points from his father, revived arresting the progress of those intestine or peasant the religion of Luther, and dismissed the entire Calwars, which at that time ravaged Germany. In 1537, vinistic court. This Elector also appears to have we read of a tremendous thunderstorm which broke left the Castle as he found it, and dying in 1583, was over Heidelberg, when the lightning striking the gathered to his forefathers. He left a young son, older Castle above, which had been maintained but was succeeded by his brother, John Casimir, merely as a fortress and magazine for powder, the styled Pfalzgraf and Administrator, who officiated as whole structure was rent into the air, with an explo- Regent to the young prince. This former is celebrated sion audible for miles around. Nor did the damage as the founder of the first great tun, and of the end here, for the huge masses of masonry falling on building containing it. A small chapel in the upper the town and Castle beneath, crushed whole buildings, part communicated with the cellar below, a circumand occasioned much loss of life and property. stance which savours somewhat of the monkish habits

Louis the Fifth, dying 1544, was buried in the of his predecessors. In this reign, the doctrines church of the Holy Ghost, and succeeded by his of these two reformers again changed places, John brother, Frederic the Second. This prince, although Casimir being a zealous disciple of Calvin, and again he had blamed his predecessor for his expensive love the court and state were cleared of all obnoxious of building, continued, nevertheless, the improve- dependants. ments on a large scale; and among other additions, raised the octagon-tower, which still forms one of the most beautiful features of the ruin. He rendered ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE great services to the Emperor, and was permitted in

MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY. requital, to bear the Reich's Apfel or imperial crown

No. VI. in his arms, which, after this date, repeatedly occurs in the escutcheons about the Castle. Frederic ap


THE LAND OF GOSHEN. pears to have been a gay bachelor; he always purposed marrying into some royal family, and for this The Egyptians had long been exposed to the ravages end entered into successive negotiations with different of the wandering tribes, who possessed the Arabian courts, but did not finally take upon himself the yoke of peninsula, and who were sometimes robbers and matrimony till he had completed his 50th year, when sometimes merchants. Though commercial interhis choice fell on Dorothea, daughter of the deposed

was maintained with these tribes, as king of Sweden, by whom he had no children. He found exemplified in the history of Joseph, who was died in 1556, and was buried with his forefathers. brought into Egypt by one of their mercantile caraWith him expired the Heidelberg line, and we can vans, yet they were always viewed with jealousy and discover no connexion either immediate or collateral, suspicion. When the brethren of Joseph, therefore, with Otho Henry, of the house of Neuburg, who came down to Egypt for the purchase of corn, it was succeeded to the Palatinate states.

by no means an improbable charge to accuse them This prince, although bound by no hereditary ties, of being spies, come “ to see the nakedness of the proved an excellent parent to his newly acquired land.” Nakedness here does not allude to the barrendominions, and by the height of architectural splen- ness produced by the seven years of famine, but to dour to which he raised the Castle, has established a

the want of natural or artificial defences on the claim on the reverence of all artists and antiquarians. eastern frontier of Egypt, through which most inHaving, during his youth, visited the Holy Land, and vaders have entered that land from the days of the collected a number of Greek and Arabian manu- Hycsos down to those of the Ayubite sultans. Though scripts, he presented them to the university, and the sons of Israel denied the charge, we find that thereby founded the famous library which was sub- | they did not deem it improbable or unnatural, for sequently nearly destroyed during the thirty years they refute it by showing that they did not belong to war. During his travels in Italy he also cultivated a wandering tribe, but to a stationary family. “Thy



we was

servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in | mark of honour to give some eminent guest a tray or the land of Canaan.” (Gen. xlii. 13). And Joseph's table to himself. There are even now no removes or proof of their integrity, “ send one of you, and let changes of courses at these entertainments; all the him fetch your brother," manifestly shows that it viands are piled together on the tray or table, and

a means of determining whether they were the number, variety, and delicacy of the dishes are wanderers, like the Hycsos, or settled, and, therefore, usually proportioned to the rank of the guest. peaceful agriculturists.

Hereafter we shall have occasion to notice, that a Now the monuments abound with proofs that such similar plan was followed in making offerings to the suspicions were not unfounded, for they exhibit the gods ; indeed, it is exceedingly probable, that the Egyptians as engaged in constant war with the pre- Egyptians derived their first notion of an altar from datory tribes on their eastern frontier, and the cruelty the banquetting tables of their kings and princes. with which the captives were treated, proves that the This custom of ranging separate trays or tables hostility engendered by these wars was more deep for groups of guests, greatly facilitated the arrangeand deadly than was usual, even in the most savage ment of the company according to rank, a circumfeuds of other nations.

stance to which the orientals have ever attributed We find indeed that the Egyptians extended their considerable importance. In the narrative of the hatred of the wandering races even to the innocent; entertainment given by Joseph to his brethren, we when the honesty and amicable disposition of the are told “they sat before him, the first-born accordchildren of Israel were so fully recognised, that they ing to his birth-right, and the youngest according to were invited to dine with the prime minister, we find his youth; and the men marvelled one at another." it recorded that “the Egyptians would not eat bread (Gen. xliii. 33). Their surprise was occasioned not with the Hebrews, for that is an abomination to the by the circumstance of seeing a distinction made, Egyptians." This passage serves to explain a cir- but by the accuracy with which they were arranged cumstance which has been the cause of much con- in their proper order, as they supposed there were no troversy among the commentators,—the reason why means of determining their relative seniority. A the descendants of Abraham were named Hebrews. similar circumstance occurs in an ancient Chinese tale, Some assert that they were thus called from Heber, where the order in which an apparent stranger salutes one of their ancestors,—an untenable hypothesis, as the members of his family, leads to the discovery of his there is no circumstance recorded respecting Heber, identity. Benjamin's portion was probably served on which would entitle him to give his name to a tribe; a separate tray or table; we are told that “his mess others, with more probability, derive the name from was five times so much as that of any of his brethren;" a llebrew verb, which signifies “ to pass over;" but whence some persons have very absurdly inferred, they restrict the allusion to Abraham's having "passed that he ate five times so much as they did, which, of over” the Euphrates, when he came from the land of course, would be impossible, unless they were very his fathers to dwell in Canaan. But since the word niggardly supplied; but from what we have already Hebrew signifies " a passenger," it is evident that it said, the meaning is clear, the expression simply indimay be received as a designation of the wandering and cates that a greater variety of delicacies were offered pastoral life of the early patriarch. Abraham, Isaac, for his selection. and Jacob were “dwellers in tents," not inhabitants The monuments show us that, in the very earliest of cities; the Egyptians had no cause for hating the ages, Egyptian luxury had led to the invention of descendants of Heber, or the offspring of any one countless forms of pastry and confectionary, as we who had come from beyond the Euphrates, but they had occasion to remark in noticing the history of had every reason to detest nomades, or wanderers, Pharaoh's baker. and the very name of Hebrew intimated that those When his brethren were about to depart, Joseph so called led a wandering life.

directed his steward to conceal his silver-cup in the The circumstances of the entertainment given by sack of Benjamin. We have more than once noticed Joseph to his brethren, can only be understood by a the early use of ornaments formed from the precious reference to the oriental customs at feasts, which metals among the Egyptians; extraordinary attention have varied very little since the days of the Pharaohs. was paid to the form and decorations of their drinking The guests did not, as with us, sit down to the same cups, and we find that some of the richest tributes table, but a separate tray or table was provided for which the Pharaohs received from the southern every two, or at most every three guests, from provinces, especially Meroe and Nubia, were gold

and siver vases. Joseph's steward declares that this cup was not only used for drinking, but also for divination. “Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he divineth ?” (Genesis xliv. 5.) Divination by the cup is only one form of the divination by a fluid mirror, which, from the earliest ages, has prevailed in the East, and which, after the Crusades, became a popular form of witchcraft in modern

Europe. Indeed, the credulous and ignorant in some 1997

of the remoter districts of England, still believe that fortune-tellers can predict future events by inspecting

the accidental arrangement of the grounds in a tea1999

cup or a coffee-cup. We cannot identify this form ។ 30

of divination on the monuments, but the most ancient DE MED

traditions bear testimony to its prevalence; one of these intimates that those who conjure indiscreetly

with the magic cup expose themselves to great danger, AN ALTAR-TABLE, WITH FOWLS, BREAD, FRUITS, &ć. and it is possible that the circumstance was mentioned

in order to terrify the sons of Jacob. It must be which they furnished themselves, without paying any recollected, too, that it is Joseph's steward, not Joseph attention to their neighbours. It was a distinguished himself, who speaks of conjuring with the cup.

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After Joseph made himself known to his brethren, speak of each other with a virulence and affected he sent "wagons" to bring his father and family down contempt which could only have been engendered by into Egypt; it appears that such vehicles were un- centuries of mutual hatred and mutual injury. But known, or, at least, uncommon, for the moment that with the Egyptians this natural enmity was systemaJacob saw them, he recognised the land from which tized by the exertions of the priestly caste, who they came. On the monuments, the only wheel- sanctified policy by religion, and forbade their folcarriages usually seen, are the war-chariots; but lowers even to partake of a social meal with the it is manifest that the use of these conveyances objects of their jealousy and their animosity. must have led to the employment of wagons and The defenceless land of Goshen was, therefore, similar vehicles for the transport not only of goods, worse than useless to the Egyptians; it was the high but of women, children, and sick persons. Indeed, road for the invasion of the pastoral tribes with whom, Joseph expressly intimates that such was the use for then, as now, a foray was esteemed an honourable which these vehicles were intended. Take you enterprize, and it could not well be used as pasture, Fagons out of the land of Egypt, for your little ones for the Egyptians employed to tend cattle in that and for your wives.” (Gen. xLv. 19.) Within a very region must have, in some degree, adopted the usages recent period the representation of a four-wheel of their enemies. This sufficiently appears from the vehicle, extremely like a farming wagon, or wain, has words which Pharaoh addressed to Joseph, “if thou been discovered among the paintings in a tomb, at knowest any men of activity among them, then make Thebes, wherein the mummy of a person of high them rulers over my cattle.” (Gen. xlvii. 6.) The rank was found.

Hebrew words translated “men of activity," more The policy which induced the reigning Pharaoh to properly signify "men of military habits," such as give the land of Goshen to the colony of the Israelites, the Israelites were likely to acquire by a nomade life, may readily be understood by a reference to the map and of which they were certain to need the exercise of Egypt, and to what we have already said respect- in guarding the royal herds of a frontier province. ing the inveterate hostility between the Egyptians The policy of Pharaoh is now intelligible; as Dr. and the wandering tribes of Arabia and Syria. Goshen Hales very properly remarks, “Goshen formed the was the name of the rich pasturage districts between eastern barrier of Egypt towards Syria and Palestine the eastern bank of the Nile, and the upper shores of the quarters from which they most dreaded invathe Red Sea. It was a frontier province exposed sion-whose nakedness was now covered in a short to the ravages of the Arabians and Syrians, and time, by a numerous, a brave, and an industrious was almost useless to the Egyptians, whose habits people: amply repaying, by the additional security and customs were utterly at variance with the usages and resources which they gave to Egypt, their hosof a nomade life. When we read that every pitable reception and naturalization.' And thus shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians," (Gen. Joseph, while he provided for the comfort of his xlvi. 34,) we must not imagine with many commen- family, conferred an inestimable advantage on the tators that they had any religious objection to the monarch whom he served. mere occupation of tending flocks and herds; indeed, Two years of the famine alone had expired when so far was this from being the case, that we find an Jacob and his posterity came down to colonize the entire caste of herdsmen among the Egyptians, and land of Goshen. Five years yet remained during flocks of sheep and goats, droves of black cattle, and which the Egyptians had no resources but the royal herds of other tamed animals are frequently depicted granaries, which had been amply stored by the proon the monuments. The prejudice was against those vident care of Joseph during the seven years of restless tribes, from whose incursions they suffered plenty. Nor is there any difficulty in supposing that so severely, and they probably feared that, if any the granaries could contain a sufficient supply for the Dative Egyptians settled in Goshen, they might gra- entire population of Egypt during the space of seven doally acquire a taste for a wandering life, and, per years. The monuments contain ample proofs of the haps, in the end, favour an invasion.

care that the Egyptians bestowed on the storing and This enmity between agricultural and pastoral preservation of corn, and the great extent of their populations brought into close contact, is still exem- granaries. pufied on the north-eastern frontiers of Persia. No. Some persons, indeed, have insinuated rather than thing can exceed the mutual contempt and rancorous expressed a doubt, of the possibility of preserving hatred between the Turcomans and Tartars, who lead corn for so long a time; but in a climate so remarka nomadic life in the steppes and deserts north of the ably dry as that of Egypt, there is no limit to the Oxus, and the settled agriculturists of Persia. They period durinr which grain may be kept sound We

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