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ON WIGS AND HEAD-DRESSES.

lands or chaplets of flowers; it was also bound with

fillets and ribands of various colours. The ribands No, I.

appropriated to the head-dresses of virgius differed Tue custom of wearing false hair is of much more from those of the married women. ancient date than is usually imagined ; several of the With the decline of the Roman empire the practice nations of antiquity, when their riches and luxury of employing artificial hair fell into disuse, and we were at the highest, were in the habit of adorning hear no more on the subject until about the year their persons by the addition of artificial tresses. It | 1600; at which time it became the fashion in France is likely that the ancient Babylonians employed the to supply the deficiencies of a natural bead of bair assistance of art in the arrangement of their hair, by artificial tresses, which were on to thin and perhaps wigs were not unknown to the fashion sheep-skin, pared down to the pelt; then thin silk ables of that day. That the art of wig-making had was used for the same purpose ; and at last a commade considerable progress among the ancient Egyp- plete peruke was formed. The word wig is evidently tians we are led to infer from the accounts of to be derived from the French name pérruque, which ancient historians, and the remains of Egyptian art in some old dictionaries is spelt perwicke, thence which have been from time to time discovered; but periwig and wig. The peruke was, in the first inthe matter is now beyond all doubt, a perfect wig, stance, intended to supply a natural deficiency of which once belonged to an Egyptian lady, perhaps hair; but, in the end, this article of dress became so three thousand years ago, having been found in a necessary to all who aspired to the name of fashiontomb in the small temple of Isis at Thebes, in Egypt, able, that the most beautiful head of hair was freThis curious relic of antiquity, of which we give an en- quently sacrificed for the purpose of covering the graving (No. 1,) is now to be seen among the remains bead with a peruke. of Egyptian art in the British Museum, its work- The court of Louis the Fourteenth of France was manship is excellent, and would not disgrace a modern looked up to, as the “glass of fashion,” by the rest pérruquier. The crown of the wig, as low as the ears, on Europe, and this affair of perukes was considered is entirely covered with small curls, while those por- of so much moment, that the king licensed fortytions which fall down over the shouldees are formed eight barbiers-pérruquiers to make this important of a great number of small plaits of hair, each article for the court, and, at the same time, two hunresembling the thong of a child's whip; the colour dred others to serve the commonalty. The business is nearly black, but it has a tinge of brown, which, increased to such an extent, that the Minister of perhaps, may be attributed to age.

Finance became alarmed at the quantity of money Long hair appears to have been bighly prized in which left the kingdom to purchase hair in foreign the times we are alluding to, by the Jews in parti- countries, and it was gravely deliberated, whether cular; but the habit of shaving the head, and sup- wigs should not be abolished by law, and caps estaplying its place by artificial means, was one of the blished ja their place; but the pérruquiers having Egyptian customs, which they did not adopt during proved, by statistical details, that the export of matheir bondage ; on the contrary, they held it in utter nufactured perukes produced a greater profit to the contempt.

nation than the purchase of hair did loss, the wigs The Greeks and Romans, the latter people in par- gained the day, and the manufacture increased so ticular, resorted to the use of artificial hair

, although rapidly, that the number of licenses were increased they did not exactly wear wigs. No. 2 represents to eight hundred and fifty, and the members were the head-year of a Roman lady; the men in general known under the title of barbiens-perruquiers-baigneurswore their hair short. The Roman ladies, says Strutt, etuvistes. They received letters patent, and their not only anointed their hair, and used rich perfumes, ofiicers were hereditary; these consisted of a provost

, but sometimes they painted it; they also made it wardens, and syndics. To this body of men, so appear of a bright yellow colour, by the assistance of essential to the members of fashionable life

, the washes and compositions made for the purpose, but king gave the sole right of dealing in hair, either by they never used powder, which is a much later inven- wholesale or retail

, of making and selling powder tion. They frizzled and curled the hair with hot and pomatum, preparations to remove the hair, drops irons, and sometimes they raised it to a great height for the cure of the toothache, in fact, every applica

; by rows of curls, one above the other, into the form tion which was intended for the benefit of the head of a helmet; and such as had not suflicient hair of and face. The only parties who interfered with their their own, used false hair to complete the lofty pile, exclusive privileges were the surgeons ; to these mene and these curts appear to have been fastened with the newly-constituted company could not deny the hair-pins. Persons of rank had slaves to perform for them strument, but to prevent their intermeddlóng with the

use of the razor in shaving, for it was a surgical inthe offices of the toilet ; they held the mirror (spe- art of hair-cutting, it was decided that the insignia culum,) in their hands themselves, to give directions; of their callings should be different. The surgeon and Martial tells us, that if the slave unfortunately was to hang up for his sign a copper basin, and could misplaced a hair-pin, or omitted to twist the curls only paint the front of his house either red or black; exactly as they were ordered, the mirror was thrown on the other hand, the perruquier was to exhibit at the offender's head, or, according to Juvenal, the basin of white metal, and could paint the front of whip was applied with much severity. It appears, bis shop of any colour he chose, except red or black indeed, that a number of women attended on these The use of powder was not at first allowed, occasions, for no other purpose than to direct the monarch had an antipathy to it, but at length.be operation. The married women used a kind of bod- yicided to the wishes of his courtiers, and permitted kin, which they managed very dexterously, to adjust a trifling quantity to be sprinkled and divide their hair into two portions, one turning perukes. to the right and the other to the left, and by this The expense of perukes in these days was so enor, line of separation the married ladies were distin

mous, that some of the fraternity commenced dealing guished from those who were unmarried. The hair in second-hand articles, which they manufactured to was adorned with ornaments of gold, with pearls, look like new, and were able to sell at a reduced

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THE THERMOMETER-STOVE. service to individuals whose fortunes were small."

A book has lately been published by Dr. Arnoit, But to prevent abuse in selling second-hand wigs for

On Warming and Ventilating, the principal design of new, the dealers were prohibited from establishing which is to communicate to the public instructions themselves in any other part of Paris except the for making and using what is called by the inventor Quai de l'Horloge du Palais.

A Thermometer-stove. This stové possesses many Nos. 3 and 5 are from portraits of the queen of valuable properties, and will, unquestionably, be the Henry the Fourth of France, and No. 4 from a

means of effecting some extraordinary changes in head of the queen of Charles the First of England. the domestic habits of the people of this country. During this period, and until the beginning of the As it stands associated with one of the most ordinary, eighteenth century, the men wore amazingly long but at the same time important, operations on which heads of hair, spreading over the head and shoulders ; | individual and social health and comfort depend, we but at this time hair-powder was used. Towards the present to our readers the following particulars. close of the century, perukes of the strangest form Dr. Arnott is well known as an eminent physician, came into fashion. To illustrate the subject we a popular writer, and a practical philanthropist. He have selected six examples from French engravings, has already gained the thanks of the medical profesnamely :

sion by permitting the unrestricted use of his waterNo. 6, la perruque à deux queues, is evidently in bed, and in the present instance is equally entitled to tended for a man of fashion ; No. 7, la pérruque the respect and gratitude of all classes. The Thernaissante, half wig and half natural in its appearance, mometer-stove is equally adapted for the cottage and we may suppose worn by a young man; No. 8, la the mansion, and with a liberality which does him pérruqué à la brigadière, was only worn by military honour, its inventor has given to the public the full men ; No. 9, la pérruque de l'abbé, was worn by the benefit of his labours. lay clergy of France, who mixed more with society Before we describe Dr. Arnott's stove, let us offer than the priests themselves; No. 10, la pérruque à a few brief observations on the two modes of heating, bonnet, intended more for comfort than show; No. 11, which, for domestic purposes, are those generally la pérruque à næuds, would become an elderly gentle- adopted in our own country. And first of all, we man, but is more assuming than the last.

refer to the open fire-place, in which peat, wood, or coal, are used as fuel.

For the sake of more simple illustration, we limit

our remarks to an open coal fire; the kindling of COINCIDENCES RESPECTING THE HARMONY OF which is a somewhat tedious and wasteful process. INHARMONIOUS SOUNDS.

But let us suppose the fire to be perfectly alight and somne perchance,

burning briskly. It surely cannot escape observation Rude singly, yet with sweeter notes combined

that a valuable portion of the fuel is passing away In unison harmonious.GISBORNE.

unconsumed, namely, that which ascends the chimney But cawing rooks, and kites that swim sublime

in the form of smoke. At certain intervals, the fire In still repeated circles, screaming loud,

of which we speak requires poking, trimming, and The jay, the pie, and e'en the boding owl

refreshing, by additional supplies of fuel. If it hapThat hails the rising moon, have charms for me.

pen that we have a good fire, when fresh fuel is laid Sounds in harmonious in themselves and harsh,

on, the waste will bear some proportion to the quanYet heard in scenes where peace for ever reigns, And only then, please highly for their sakes. -Cowpen.tity of ignited fuel already in the grate as compared

with the fresh supply. Sometimes the latter will be The jay, the rook, the daw, And each harsh pipe, discordant heard alone,

speedily vaporized, as when we have a blazing fire ; Aid the full chorus.-THOMSON.

at other times waste will occur by coal falling through The screams of the jay and the woodpecker, however

the grate before it is properly ignited; whilst it not discordant in themselves, or when out of place, accord unfrequently happens, that by fuel injudiciously apadmirably with the forest. - White of Selborne.

plied, either as respects the mode or the quantity, Sounds do not always give us pleasure according to their a good fire is suddenly converted into a dull one, sweetness and melody; nor do harsh sounds always dis- which, unless carefully tended, will soon be extinplease. We are more apt to be captivated or disgusted guished. with the associations which they promote, than with the On a moderate calculation, it is estimated that, notes themselves. Thus the shrilling of the field-cricket, from the causes just mentioned, one-fifth part of all though sharp and stridulous, yet marvellously delights some

the coal used for domestic purposes is lost to the hearers, filling their minds with a train of Summer ideas of

consumer. And this is unavoidable even with careful everything that is rural, verdurous, and joyous. The same,

management. Where cinders and small coal are thrown on the ash-heap, the proportion is, of course,

much greater. THE FOOT OF A HORSE is one of the most ingenious and unexpected pieces of mechanism in the animal structure,

But the waste of fuel is a trifling consideration in and scarcely yielding to any in regularity, and in com- comparison with that of heat. The abundant supply plexity of parts, under simplicity of design. The hoof of coal with which in this country we are favoured, contains a series of vertical and thin laminæ of horn, so and its consequent cheapness, is one of the principal numerous as to amount to about five hundred, and forming

causes of the long-continued use of an open fire. a complete lining to it. Into this are fitted as many laminæ Far be it from us to undervalue the comforts of an belonging to the coffin bone; while both sets are elastic and adherent. The edge of a quire of paper, inserted, leaf by English fire-side, or to appear insensible to the many leaf, into another, will convey a sufficient idea of this ar- delightful associations connected with it. The existrangement. Thus the weight of the animal is supported ence of these we admit, as we do also their influence by as many elastic springs as there are laminæ in all the

upon the national character.

But dismissing our feet, amounting to about four thousand; distributed in the prejudices on this subject, we believe it will be found most secure manner, since every spring is acted on in an

that the advantages of an open fire are not so great oblique direction. Such is the contrivance for the safety of an animal destined to carry greater weighis than that

as we imagine, and that even its comforts are pretty of its own body, and to carry those also under the hazard equally balanced by its inconveniences. Hence we of heavy shocks. -MACCULLOCH.

cannot but venture the opinion, that, by and by, we

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(or at any rate our successors) shall become equally in contact with it being thereby impaired, whilst an attached to more rational and more economical modes odour peculiarly disagreeable is diffused throughout of warming as we are now to those in common use. the apartment in which it is placed. There is dan

We have said that the waste of heat by an open ger attending the use of this stove, unless the pipes fire greatly exceeds that of fuel. In an ordinary by which it communicates with a chimney or the fire-place, whatever be its form, the quantity of air external air are fixed at a proper distance from wood which passes by, or over, the fire is much greater and other inflammable materials. To the neglect of than that which passes through it. We need hardly this necessary precaution, in conjunction with careremark that the combustion of the fuel depends on lessly over-heating stoves of this kind, we may attri. an uninterrupted supply of air, and the more rapidly bute some of the most extensive fires of recent the air circulates amongst the ignited fuel, the greater occurrence, is the quantity of heat liberated in a given time. The stove invented by Dr. Arnott differs essentially

A condition essential to the operation of an open from the common hot-air stove, and still more from fire is, that it be placed almost immediately under a an open fire-place. But let us describe it; and in flue communicating with a chimney, which fue must, doing that we shall find that the following sketch will in some respects, correspond with the size of the fire- materially assist us. It represents the stove with place. To insure sufficient draught in the flue to one of its sides removed, so as to exhibit its interior make the fire burn, and to carry off the smoke, a arrangements. current of hot air must be constantly ascending it. Any defect in this part of the process occasions what is very justly considered a nuisance, namely, a smoky apartment. To the situation of the fire, and the quantity of air permitted to pass over it, may be attributed the loss of heat of which we complain. Under the circumstances just described, the heat which enters the room is only what is radiated from the front of the fire. By its means the air immediately surrounding the fire has its temperature raised, but the moment the door of the apartment is opened, the air thus warmed is propelled into the chimney, and several minutes must elapse before the air which gained admittance will be warmed to the same temperature as that which was so suddenly driven out. Hence it is, that however comfortably an apartment

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Da. may be fitted up, if it be warmed by an open fire, the temperature of the air within it is partial and The outlines of the figure, a a a a, represent the unequal. We naturally turn towards the fire for case or body of the stove, which might be formed warmth; but who can deny that the nearer they either of cast or sheet iron. It is divided into two approach the fire the more difficult is it to keep warm chambers by the partition, bb; but in such a way that that part of the body which is turned away from it ? there may be a free communication at the top and

In the best constructed houses, the crevices in bottom. c is a small furnace, or, as it is called by floors and around doors and windows permit the the inventor, a fire-box, made of iron, and lined entrance of more air than, under ordinary circum- with fire-bricks. The fire-box is not in contact with stances, is sufficient for all the purposes of warming the exterior case of the stove. It communicates at and ventilating. The quantity of air required for the bottom with an ash-pit, the door of which is at d, the combustion of fuel, when that fuel is economically —that of the stove, by which the fuel is introduced, employed, is almost inconceivably small. But in an is at ď. Both these doors must fit very accurately. open fire-place, in proportion that the fire is enlarged, Above the door of the ash-pit is a bent pipe e, by so much the more rapid will be the motion of the which air gains admittance to the fire. hot air in the chimney; a process which necessarily A fire being kindled and the doors at d d' shut

, implies the access of an equal quantity of cold air to the only way in which air has access to the fuel is by the room. Thus we may often notice when there is

the pipe e;

the air so admitted, passing through a large fire in a room, the air will make a whistling the fire before it enters the upper part of the stove. sound in passing through a key-hole; but the sound That portion of the air not required to aid the com. ceases when the intensity of the fire has abated. It bustion of the fuel having reached the main body of can be satisfactorily proved, that by an open fire, at the stove, and there mixing with the smoke and other least three-fourths, and in many cases, seven-eighths, products, they circulate slowly in the directions indiof the heat produced from a given quantity of fuel cated by the arrows, and at length pass into the are absolutely wasted by being permitted to ascend chimney by the pipe f. the chimney.

The slow movement just mentioned as taking place Another mode of heating, and which is adopted within the stove may well be contrasted with what very generally in entrance-halls, shops, offices, and happens in an open fire-place. public buildings, is by means of the hot-air stove, greater part of the heat produced is rapidly carried which consists of an enclosed fire-place surrounded off by a current of air ascending the chimney-by at the back and sides by an iron case, between which the Thermometer-stove it is detained until almost the and

the fire-place air is permitted to circulate, and whole of it has been diffused throughout the apartconsequently becomes heated. By this stove less ment. heat is wasted than in an ordinary fire-place, but The bent tube g terminating in a cup-shaped openia there are several objections to its use, of which we ing at g, is a self-regulating valve. mention the following.

closed at the end g within the stove. g represents The hot-air stove requires a good deal of attention : mercury which occupies the bend of the tube. When almost as much as an open fire. It is liable to be the fire in the stove burns too briskly, the air in the heated red-hot ; the salubrity of the air which comes tube occupying

the space between gʻand g" is exo

In one case the

The tube is

OF THE SENSES-CAUSES BY WHICH THE

EYE-SIGHT IS IMPAIRED.

panded, and by expelling some of the mercury from ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE the tube at g" into the cup at g, it closes the aperture

EYE-SIGHT. of the pipe e; thus cutting off the supply of air to

No. II. the fire. In a few minutes (the fire in the mean time

FUNCTIONS OF THE EYE-ABUSE OF THE ORGANS having abated its energy,) the air in the tube will return to its former dimensions, and the mercury subsiding in the cup, air is again permitted to enter Having already described the chief parts and functhe ash-pit.

tions of the eye, and its appendages, we come now to The stove, of which we have thus attempted to consider how it is that this apparently elaborate apconvey a general idea, may be made of any required paratus performs its office. A pencil of light, that is, form or size. Instead of the self-regulating air valve

a bundle, or collection, of rays proceeding from any just described, it is fitted up with others of a very luminous object, falling upon the cornea, enters it, simple construction, and which admit of being and is refracted or bent in its passage through the adjusted with the greatest accuracy by the hand.

aqueous humour, by which means the rays of the We have seen Thermometer-stoves of various forms, pencil are brought nearer to parallelism ; such of the some of them very beautifully designed, in operation. rays as

can pass through the pupil are further We have attentively watched the process going on refracted by the crystalline lens, and the rays are within them, and have made ourselves acquainted now no longer divergent, that is, they do not spread with their capabilities as heating agents. The result out from a point, but begin, in passing through this of our observations leads to this conclusion ; that if lens, to converge or proceed to a point, and this conthe Thermometer-stove be made in strict conformity vergency is perfected by means of the vitreous huwith the plain and simple rules which are so per mour, which brings the converging rays to a point spicuously laid down by Dr. Arnott, it will prove one

exactly when they reach the retina. This process is of the most economical as well as most useful inven- undergone by every pencil of rays proceeding from tions of this rapidly improving age.

any object to which the eye is directed, and an exact Among the advantages of the Thermometer-stove, image of such object is depicted on the retina. If we may mention that it maintains an uniform tem- this convergent point do not quite fall upon the perature if required at night as well as by day, but retina, but before it, in the vitreous humour, the eye which can be increased or diminished in a few is said to be short-sighted ; if, on the contrary, these minutes. The fire within it may be kept alight with convergent points fall beyond the retina, the eye is out requiring attendance or any additional fuel for then long-sighted; but these and other defects to ten, or even a greater number of, successive hours. which the eye is subject, will be discussed at greater To warm a moderate-sized room, the cost of fuel will

length hereafter. not exceed a penny a day. No smoke, dust, vapour,

What we have above stated is the grand and imor other products of combustion, can possibly escape portant element in distinct vision ; the convergence into the room.

The air is warmed, not heated, and of the rays of a pencil to a point on the retina. An hence it is not deprived of its health-preserving pro-admirable adjustment of parts and of degrees of perties. There is no danger attending the use of the refractive power in the different humours of the eye Thermometer-stove ; it is more easily managed than produce this perfect convergency, and the mind can an open fire ; and there is no waste either of fuel or sufficiently appreciate and understand the mechanism of heat.

and purposes of all this exquisite arrangement,—but

here we have attained the utmost limit of our knowHe who can imagine the universe fortuitous or self-created, ledge,—we have traced upon the retina a picture of is not a subject for argument, provided he has the power the forms presented to the eye,—we see that this of thinking, or even the faculty of seeing. He who sees no design, cannot claim the character of a philosopher : for retina is an expansion of a nerve called the optic philosophy traces means and ends. He who traces no

nerve, which proceeds from the retina into the brain, causes, must not assume to be a metaphysician; and if he

the seat of the mind ;-but how the mind receives its does trace them, he must arrive at a First Cause. And impressions of light through the medium of this he who perceives no final causes, is equally deficient in optic nerve, is a question that has never been anmetaphysics and in natural philosophy; since, without this, swered, and probably never will be answered. The he cannot generalize,-can discover no plan, where there is student in science is constantly presented with certain no purpose. But if he who can see a Creation, without barriers beyond which he may not pass,—with cerseeing a Creator, has made small advances in knowledge, so he who can philosophize on it, and not feel the eternaltain limits to the inquiring powers of his mind, when presence of its Great Author, is little to be envied, even as subjects such as these are presented to him, which a mere philosopher; since he deprives the universe of all admit neither of demonstration or of analogical inits grandeur, and himself of the pleasures springing from ference, and are therefore beyond the purposes of those exalted views which soar beyond the details of tangible physical inquiry. Let him not, therefore, deal in forms and common events. And if, with that presence around him, he can be evil, he is an object of compassion, vague conjectures, which, however ingenious, must for he will be rejected by Him whom he opposes or rejects. still be unprofitable; but rather let him turn to the -MACCULLOCH.

immense field which has already been cultivated so

successfully, and from whence rich harvests of COMPASSION.-Compassion is an emotion of which we knowledge have been gathered. We cannot join ought never to be ashamed. Graceful, particularly in youth, in the utterance of the querulous opinion, which, is the tear of sympathy, and the heart that melts at the tale because there is much that is unknown, denies the of woe; we should not permit ease and indulgence to contract our affections, and wrap us up in a selfish enjoyment. But existence of any knowledge at all; nor could we we should accustom ourselves to think of the distresses of ever assent to the conclusion of the philosopher, buman life, of the solitary cottage, the dying parent, and who said that his long life of study had taught him the weeping orphan. Nor ought we ever to sport with pain that he knew nothing ; on the contrary, we can and distress, in any of our amusements, or treat even the assure the reader, that the arena of modern science meanest insect with wanton cruelty.—DR. BLAIR.

is so extensive, that a very long life and untiring Honour.—He is worthy of honour, who willeth Che good of industry, would be inadequate to a fair investigation erery man; and he is much unworthy thereof, who seeketh of its contents. his own profit, and oppresseth others. — CICERO.

The reader will now have some idea of the me

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chanical structure of the eye, and how, as far as we winking, as also by moving it about towards different know, this structure assists the powers of vision. We objects : if the eye be kept open and rigidly fixed come, therefore, to the more direct purpose of our upon one object, its visual power rapidly declines. subject, namely, the consideration of those employ- There is so much sympathy between various phy. ments of the eye by which its powers are impaired siological structures, that it often happens that a or destroyed. And here we must remind the reader morbid or diseased action of one structure will seri. of another law of nature as remarkable and beau- ously interfere with the functions of other structures tiful as any one in her code, if we may be allowed which are healthy. In the healthy eye, the retina, such an expression, where all appear alike beautiful the crystalline lens, the ciliary nerves, and the pupil, and remarkable when we are quite sure that we read must harmonize in their action: the many diseased and interpret them correctly; it is this—that the affections of the organ which include weakness or perfect action of all the faculties, whether mental or indistinctness of vision, result from a weak state of physical, can be assured and perpetuated only by the retina, from the disordered action of the iris allowing them certain periodical intervals of perfect and ciliary apparatus ; this is brought about mainly repose. Now this may appear to be a truism, so by inflammation of the eye or its appendages, resultperfectly well known, that the necessity for its enun- ing from injudicious use of the organs. ciation in this place may be questioned by some : To discuss all the diseases of the eye resulting but we must remind our readers, that a principle from abuses of its function, is manifestly a subject as important in its nature as it is unbounded in its for a large medical volume, the study of which application ; that it is the business of science not belongs to the medical pupil alone :-our purpose is only to discover principles, but to trace them to more confined : we intend to point out some of the effects where their presence is, perhaps, in no way cases of every-day occurrence, wherein the organ is suspected; that we often recognise the action of a injured by an habitual irritable treatment. We do principle in a few effects to which we are most obvi- not intend to employ technical terms, except a few, ously exposed, but we are often slow to recognise the which may be necessary to the comprehension of our same principle in effects which afford us a larger subject, and still less do we pretend to direct remeamount of pleasure or profit on the one hand than of dies, except by pointing out causes of injury to the pain on the other, which minister to our cupidity, our eye. In most cases our purpose will be effected, when, pride, our vanity; or which flatter one of those having clearly traced an ill effect to its cause, we say, is sins which do most easily beset us ;” and, indeed, remove or mitigate the cause, and the effect will pro. we are frequently unable, from ignorance of the ex- bably cease. tent of a principle, to apply it as a cause to effects, In the pathology of the eye the term amaurosis is which we often think have no cause at all, or at least employed, in which is comprehended all those imper: a very remote one, which, if discovered, we pro- fections of vision resulting from a morbid action of nounce to be irremediable. But this sort of argu- the sentient apparatus belonging to this organ. The ment is unjust and unreasonable : in nature there term amaurosis is derived from a Greek word signi. are only a few principles or first causes; some of fying to darken, and implies partial or total loss of these we are cognizant of—to all of them we are vision, according as the optic nerve, or retina, is parsubject : our business, therefore, is to study the code tially or totally paralyzed. This injury, or paralysis

, of laws by which we are governed, to conform with is not generally manifested by external symptoms, the strictest obedience, since rebellion meets with and is therefore clearly distinguished from cataract

, certain punishment, which, if ever it can be removed, opacity of the cornea, and closed pupil. This disease is removed only by a return to obedience.

is due to a variety of causes which it is not our The senses, then, require perfect repose in order business to discuss ; such as disorganization of the to their perfect action, and this repose implies a retina, vascular turgescence, injury of certain nerves, removal of every cause which excites them to action. &c.

Our purpose is, as we have already stated, to By the perfect action of an organ, we mean its legi- point out those common causes, of every day occurtimate use and employment; the snuff-taker abuses

rence, which the exercise of many arts and prohis organ of smell, and its functions are manifestly fessions is calculated to induce, and these causes may impaired. The manufacturer of perfumes is a bad be conveniently arranged into five heads, namely: 7 judge of odour from the same cause. A nauseous

1st. Sedentary employments in which the head is smell ceases to be nauseous unless it is judged of at bent over work of various kinds; including those intervals. The sense of hearing is subject to loss of cases in which the eye is customarily employed on power from abuse of its functions : a man accus- minute objects. tomed to the din of noisy factories, and who sits down 2nd. Where the eye is employed upon too strong undisturbed by and even unconscious of the presence or too little light : upon polished or reflecting surfaces. of that disturbance, which to a stranger is, at first, in- 3rd. The habitual exposure of the organ to high sufferable, is scarcely conscious of delicate sonorous temperatures. impulses. Blacksmiths hear soft tones with difficulty, 4th. The habitual exposure of the eye to acrid and examples have been abundant of old artillery- fumes. men who have become quite deaf from the long 5th. The customary employment of optical glasses. practice of their profession. The sense of touch is less perfect in the ploughman than in the watchmaker, and most perfect, perhaps, in the blind man, By the light of Divine revelation, Christianity enables us who by its means supplies in a great measure the

accurately to discriminate between good and evil, right and loss of sight.

wrong: it teaches us to see things according to their own Taste also may be abused: the excited reveller

nature and in their proper colours: to behold those qualities scarce distinguishes the favour of his “ liq-vid fire," ness, wherewith reason, impaired by passion, had invested as the banquet approaches its end, and the pampered epicure is gratified only by allowing to his palate in

cumbered from the clouds of worldly prejudice, and arrayed tervals of repose. The eye exhibits this principle in

in their native beauty. In a word, it teaches us to see a beautiful manner. In its healthy state its function

things, as they are in the sight of’God, and not as they is being constantly intermitted in the process of Bishop MẠNT.

appear according to the erroneous conception of men.

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