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Judea so late as the time of the prophet Jeremiah, as proper vestments were provided by the giver of for we find him recording the circumstances of a the feast. But all the circumstances attending the remarkable bargain and sale.
eating of the Paschal Lamb, were designed to mark urgency and haste. Instead of being divided into joints, and served up with variety of cookery, it was to be roasted whole; its only accompaniment was to be bitter herbs, for it was not an entertainment of luxury, but an acknowledgment of deliverance from the most cruel servitude recorded in the annals of history.
AXCIENT EGYPTIAN BALANCE.
Hanameel, mine uncle's son, came to me in the court of the prison, according to the word of the Lord, and said unto me, Buy my field, I pray thee, that is in Anathoth, which is in the country of Benjamin: for the right of inheritance is thine, and the redemption is thine; buy it for thyself. Then I knew that this was the work of the Lord. And I bought the field of Hanameel my uncle's son, that was in Anathoth, and weighed him the money, even seventeen shekels of silver. And I subscribed the evidence, and sealed it, and took witnesses, and weighed him the money in the balances. (Jeremiah xxxii. 8–10. Bangles, or ring-money, are still employed as a
DIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF AN EGYPTIAN TABLE. medium of exchange in India and the interior of The next circumstance to which our attention is Africa; very little attention is paid to the beauty of directed, is the course pursued by the Israelites after their manufacture, and hence they might well be their departure from Egypt. called kelím by the sacred historians, for that word is
And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people properly applied to articles coarsely made for ordi- go, that God led them not through the way of the land of nary use, but never, we believe, to anything like orna- the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest mental work. It appears from what we have said, peradventure the people repent when they see war, and that the transaction which has so often furnished they return to Egypt: But God led the people about, materials for revilings and objections, to those who the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of
through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea; and "sit in the seat of the scornful," was a mere act of Egypt. And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him : equity, a demand of what was justly due.
for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God The passover was strictly a Hebrew institution, and will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away we cannot expect to find any illustration of it, save
hence with you. (Gen. xiii. 19.) very indirectly on the Egyptian monuments; we The Philistines appear to have been a people of the may, however, see that the directions given respect- same race as the Hyksos, by whose ravages we have ing the manner in which it was to be eaten, are already shown that the Egyptians were very severely directly the reverse of the habits which were adopted harassed. During the period of their bondage, the at meals in the valley of the Nile.
Israelites had not been permitted to learn the use of And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your weapons, they were, therefore, likely to be daunted shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye if immediately brought into collision with the most shall eat it in haste : it is the Lord's passover. (Ex.xii. 11.) warlike nation of antiquity. It was necessary that
The Egyptians were particularly formal at their they should undergo a long course of preparation by dinners, which always commenced at noon, and a
their wanderings in the desert, that they might learn great variety of viands were displayed at their tables. confidence in themselves and in their God. So very formal were they at these entertainments,
Joseph's anxiety to have his bones buried in the that we fiud dresses provided for the guests, a custom sepulchre of his fathers, is a feeling common in most which had not fallen into disuse so late as the coming nations, but it was one likely to be greatly strengthof Christ, as we learn from the parable of the mar
ened by a residence in Egypt, where kings looked riage of the king's son.
upon their tombs as of greater importance than their And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw
palaces. We find from the monuments, that the there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And Egyptians had family cemeteries, and that it was conhe said unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not sidered a great disgrace to be excluded from them; and having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. to ensure that none but the worthy should be admitThen said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and ted there was a solemn judgment of the dead, through foot, and take him away. (Matt. xxii. 11–13.)
which ordeal even the king's corpse should pass before There was no excuse for the disrespect shown, it received interment.
RUSSIA. No. VIII.
ing is of crimson or pink velvet, or cloth, frequently CEREMONIES OF THE GRECO-RUSSIAN CHURCH. of white satin, and the head of the deceased rests upon
suinptuously fringed with gold or silver : the lining is FUNERAL RITES AND CEREMONIES.
a pillow of the same material. At the head and also Tue calm sublimity, the deep and tender pathos, the at the feet are placed two enormous wax tapers, in chastened hopes, that pervade the beautiful and purely massy silver or plated tripods. There formerly existed spiritual service of our national church, must have a practice of hiring mourners, or persons whose sole been deeply felt by all who have once followed to their occupation it was to attend upon funerals, long home the mortal remains of one beloved : and
To feign a woe they could not feel. who is there that has not done so ? and who is there, This repulsive custom, although not extinct, is though he may have bent over the grave with tears, nevertheless banished from the capitals, excepting that has not quitted it with hope, for the time “ among the more ignorant classes. The writer of this wiser and a better man,” beneath the influence of its article has witnessed it repeatedly in the provinces, soothing promises ? Far from repressing the tender- and once or twice in the ancient metropolis of Russia. est emotions of our nature, it encourages, whilst it Not only unauthorized by, but utterly at variance regulates, ennobles, and sanctifies them.
with, the form prescribed by the Greek church, it has The whole of the Greco-Russian church-service for in all probability been adopted in imitation of the the burial of the dead is highly impressive, but at the customs of the Jews and Romans, among the latter same time much too exciting. They have a singular of whom, as with the Russians, only women, called form, peculiar to themselves, of making known the præficæ, were employed. death of a person. The individual sent round to the According to the laws of Russia, the body must friends and relatives to convey the tidings, would, be deposited in the church, there to remain until supposing the name of the deceased to be John, and the final ceremonies, which are as follows:that of his father James, announce it thus :-—Ivan The streets from the house to the church, and thence Jakovitch vam jelaët dolgo jcet ;-" John, the son of to the cemetery, through which the hearse passes, are James, wishes you to live long," adding generally the strewed with sprigs of the aromatic juniper. First family name of the individual.
come ten or twelve torch-bearers, in long black cloaks, The last struggle over, and the filmed eye closed by the collars and narrow capes of which are bound with the hand of the nearest relative, the body, having first white, and wearing round hats with enormous brims, been washed, in accordance with the practice of eight or nine inches in width, that hang upon the ancient and modern times, is habited in its ordinary shoulders and back, and flap over the face. Each bears apparel, as is the practice of most countries on the a flambeau of resinous gum. As the interments invaContinent. The hands are crossed on the breast, riably take place in the morning, in the full blaze of and above them is laid a picture of the patron day, the effect is most absurd. Although the funerals saint. If the individual had been in the service of of private individuals were always performed by torchthe crown, the corpse is generally arrayed in full dress light and at night, yet the Romans it is well known uniform. The priest is then summoned: after fumi- celebrate all public obsequies in the forenoon; and it gating the apartment with incense, and blessing it by is generally imagined, from a passage in Plutarch, also the aspersion of holy water, he reads a short formula : with torches. From thence, in all probability, the a few verses are then sung by the attendant choir, in a custom has descended through the early Greek mislow impressive tone, and the service is then concluded sionaries in the first ages of Christianity; at any with prayers for the soul of the deceased. It is gene- rate, the high antiquity of the practice is unquestionrally the practice among the wealthier classes to retain able. Next come the clergy habited in their sacer. a deacon or other inferior member of the ecclesiastical dotal robes, usually, on these occasions, of black body, to read night and day selections from the Gos- velvet, embroidered with silver, the priests bearing pel, whilst the body remains in the house: this, how- tapers, the deacons censors with incense, and repeat. ever, is not ordained by the church.
ing at intervals, in recitative, short prayers for the Receiving intimation of the event, in the terms we repose of the soul of the deceased, the responses
and have mentioned, the friends and relatives of the de- the chorus to which are chanted by the choir which ceased throng to the house of death, to offer their follows next in succession. Should the deceased condolence. The custom of paying a visit of this have obtained any marks of distinction in the service, kind in mourning is not observed in Russia : indeed the badges of his orders, and the insignia of his on entering the saloon the assemblage might almost office, are borne before the hearse on cushions of be mistaken for one gathered on some ordinary occa- crimson velvet, carried by persons as nearly as may sion. The sombre attire, the quiet subdued tone of be of his own rank; a custom decidedly of classic manners, the suppressed voice, the noiseless tread, origin. To these succeeds the corpse, the coffin exare wanting. The rustling of silks, the jingling of posed to view on an open hearse, and supported by spurs, the unstified laugh, the elevated tone of voice, servants attired in mourning. In some cases the lid are little in harmony with the solemnity of the occa- is carried before, the body being covered as far as sion. The wreaths of fragrant incense that curl the chest by a rich pall of coloured velvet, gorgeously through the opened door of the adjoining room, the embroidered. In the obsequies of persons of rank monotonous sound of the reader's voice as he recites or wealth, a canopy of crimson velvet, fringed with the Gospels in low and hurried tones, the sob of the gold lacings, is placed over the coffin. Then follow bereaved, heard perhaps at intervals of silence, alone the mourners and friends in carriages, whilst the tell that the hand of the spoiler has been there. slaves and supernumerary servants on foot, flank and
By turns the visitors are introduced into the apart-terminate the procession. ment, where the body lies in state. The coffin, placed After a brief halt in the narthex of the church upon a trestle covered with crimson embroidered vel- when the lid, if it have remained on, is removed, the vet, differs altogether in shape and ornament from coffin is borne into the nave, and deposited on a bier those used in England, rather resembling the ancient of embroidered velvet, before the steps of the chancel. sarcophagi, but accommodated in length to the human Large wax tapers are placed round it, and each of figure. It also stands in the same way upon four the attendant friends is also furnished with one of claws : these are generally plated or gilt The cover- smaller size. These kindled, and the choristers sta.
tioned at each end of the chancel, the service begins | Lord's and the fulness thereof, the round world and with the 91st Psalm, which is sung in an under they that dwell therein." He then dismisses the voice; afterwards follows the 119th Psalm, chanted assembly with the doxology and benediction. in louder tones. At the end of each verse the Hal- Services are performed, and the absolution and lelujah Chorus is sung by the whole choir, invocations remission read at the church, or at the grave, on the to the Virgin, and prayers for the dead, are then third, ninth, and fortieth day, on the birthday, and offered up, accompanied by the chanted response of the on the anniversary of the demise of the individual. choristers. Among the hymns sung on the occasion The two last are continued for an indefinite length of is the following, attributed to Joannas Damascenas. time. These services are not ordained by the rubric At the conclusion of the prayers, the priest and of the church, but have been sanctioned by long deacons descend from the altar, and walking three usage, and adopted from the practice of the primitive times round the bier, perfuming with their censors oriental Greek church, which practice is itself clearly and sprinkling the by-standers with holy water, then deducible from the Paternalia of the ancients. stationing themselves around, a solemn and affecting It is worthy of remark, that the Mussulmans obfarewell hymn is sung, and the mourning friends serve also the third, ninth, and fortieth days, and hasten to pay their last honours and give the parting provide feasts upon the occasion, as is done in Russia. kiss; this is termed the Aspasmos, or last embrace. The service on the third day is called the Tretinui, Draw near, my brethren ! ascribing glory to God, let us
that on the ninth the Devatinui; the popular belief gire our last kiss, and bid our last farewell, to our departed | is, that the soul of the deceased has not, till this brother; engrossed no longer by the vanities or the cares period, or till the expiration of the fortieth day, of the world, he hath forsaken his kindred, and approacheth wholly shaken off the trammels of earth. This serthe tomb. His kindred and his friends where are they? vice has a parallel in the Novendiale of the Romans, Behold we are separated. May the Lord grant unto him
a solemnity grounded upon the same superstition. repose!
But what a separation my brethren! what lamentation Another practice, evidently of high antiquity, prevails and woe attend this mournful hour! Draw near! Embrace throughout the country and amongst all classes. him who was lately one of yourselves. He is abandoned During the celebration of the service, a dish called to the grave, he sojourneth in darkness and must moulder the Kootiyah composed of rice, dressed with honey, with the dead. Now is he cut off from his kindred and to which raisins are sometimes added, is placed his friends. May the Lord grant unto him repose ! Every unholy connexion with life and its vanities is invited to the feast, usually prepared on such occa
near the coffin ; after the burial, each of the guests dissolved. The spirit hath left its tenement, the clay is disfigured, the vessel broken. We bear a motionless, sions, takes three spoonfuls of the Kootiyah, and speechless, senseless carcase to the tomb. May the Lord repeats a short ejaculating prayer for the repose
of grant unto him repose !
the deceased's soul. What is life? à blossom, a vapour, the light dew of On the fortieth day prayers are again said, and morning. Come near, then, let us attentively contemplate service performed, called the Sorotchénui, after which the grave! Where now the graceful form. Where the the priests, with the friends, are assembled to dinner, sparkling of the eye, the beauty of the cheek? all, all, and commence by partaking of the “ Kootiyah," withered like the grass, have vanished from our eyes. Come, let us prostrate ourselves with tears, before Christ accompanied with the usual prayer for the dead. our Saviour.
Sometimes a daily service is performed till the expiWhat lamentation and woe, what tears and agonies when ration of the forty days : this is termed the Corothe soul is torn from the body! Hades and the bottomless köoustië. It would be idle to record the numberpit yawn around. Life is a fleeting shadow, a dream of less silly popular superstitions as to the origin of error, the fruitless toil of transitory being. Fly then the contaminations of the world, that ye may
these ceremonies, that are prevalent, not only among lay hold of the kingdom of heaven. Let us approach, my the lower classes, but even amongst those who from brethren! and view the dust and ashes of which we are rank and education might be expected to know better. formed. Whither are we bound? What shall be our From the prevailing imagination that the souls of the destiny? Who is poor, who is rich ? Who is master ? deceased hovered about the graves, it is well known' Who is slave ? All, all, are but ashes. The glory of man
that the ancient heathens were in the habit of prepapasseth away: the flower of youth is plucked by death.
See the limbs now motionless which were lately strung ring a feast for the dead and the living called the Siliwith vigour. Lo! now they are powerless, the eyes are
cernium, and that a portion of this was deposited on closed; the feet fast bound; the hands at rest; the ears the tomb or within the temple. The fondness with have ceased from their office; the tongue hath no utterance. which some of the early converts clung to these pracAll are given up to the grave, behold all things terrestrial tices of their forefathers, blending them with the pure are vanity.
rites of their newly adopted worship, and the eagerThe scene is impressive, but everything around too ness with which their steps were followed in succeedstrongly tends to arouse the imagination, and stimu- ing ages, by the indiscriminating zeal of those who late the feelings to a pitch of unnatural excitement, had not the same blinding associations of kindred and incompatible with the solemn and holy thoughts of country, will sufficiently account for the transwhich should occupy the mind at such a moment. mission of these customs to later ages and more en
Even to the casual stranger the excitation is irre- lightened times, although unsanctioned by the authosistibly powerful, “he catches the trick of grief,” rity of the church, and in direct opposition to the and shares in the sorrow of the mourners, as he sees simple character of its ritual. friend after friend with grief swollen cheek and Another coincidence is not unworthy of remark: streaming eyes, ascend the steps of the platform, the term Bustirupus, (the robber of the pyre,) was falter out the valedictory prayer, and imprint the among the Romans one of the deepest execration and parting kiss on the lips and brow of the dead. contempt. The Russians have a corresponding ex
The last embrace given, and the farewell hymn pression Kootyanik, a word signifying the “stealer sung, the procession resumes its way, in the same of Kootiyah," one of the most opprobrious epithets order, to the cemetery, where no further ceremonial that can be applied to the vilest criminal. is observed, excepting that the officiating priest casts The will of the deceased is read, and his papers are first a little earth, in the form of a cross, into the examined on the fortieth day, when the seal placed vault, upon a coflin, and then pours upon it some on his property by the police is removed by the holy oil, pronouncing the words, " The earth is the proper authorities.
THE DUTCH FISHERIES.
Whales also. Successive wars prevented the vessels No. II.
from putting to sea, and the government preferred employing them and their crews in the defence of
the country. Five years ago the whaling vessels which The Dutch Cod fishery is of less importance than the then remained were wrecked, and almost all the har. Herring. Those vessels which during November have pooners perished; but the government is doing everybeen employed in the latter, are repaired and graved, thing in its power to repair this last calamity and to so as to be in a condition for putting out to sea for revive the Whale fishery, now successfully prosecuted the former on the 6th of December, that being St. by the French. Among other things it is forming Nicholas' day. No positive obligation attaches to harpooners at its own expense. that day, for the government-bounty regulations only require their going to sea before the first of January. The bounty amounts to three hundred forins, or about
THE PLANETARY SYSTEM. twenty-four pounds sterling. Far fewer vessels are employed in the Cod fishery.
Farr star of Eve, thy lucid ray
Directs my thoughts to realms on high ; Vlaardingen generally sends out about forty, but of all
Great is the theme, (though weak the lay,) the other towns already mentioned, one other only,
For my heart whispers God is nigh. Maasluis, sends any.
The Sun, vicegerent of his power, The Winter Cod fishing is called Beug vaart, from
Shall rend the veil of parting night, the beug employed in it. This consists of a rope half Salute the spheres, at early hour, a league in length, or more, with bouys at certain dis
And pour a flood of life and light. tances to keep it near the surface of the water, and Seven circling planets I behold, armed throughout its whole length with lines and
Their diff'rent orbits all describe;
Copernicus these wonders told, hooks, the hooks being baited with lampreys, or, if
And bade the laws of truth revive. these cannot be had, with geep. As lampreys make
Mercury and Venus first appear, the best bait, no pains are spared in getting them. A
Nearest the dazzling source of day, vessel with a reservoir for preserving them is sent Three months compose his hasty year, before the fishing commences to England for a supply,
In seven she treads the heavenly way. the rivers there being better stored with them than Next Earth completes her yearly course, those of Holland are. Each fisherman takes what he
The Moon, as satellite, attends;
Attraction is the hidden force, requires, and the remainder is deposited in a reservoir
On which creation's law depends. at Vlaardingen to serve for future voyages.
Then Mars is seen of fiery hue; Previous to the flotilla's putting out to sea, there is
Jupiter's orb we next descry; appointed what is called the Dank-segging-tag voor
His atmospheric belts we view de schepens, that is, Thanks-saying-day for the ships.
And four bright moons attract the eye. Thanks are offered on the occasion for the expedition Mars soon his revolution makes, that is over, and prayers made for that which is to
In twice twelve months the Sun surrounds; commence.
Jupiter greater limit takes The vessels are not long at sea, returning generally
And twelve long years declare his bounds. with fresh and salted cod, within five weeks from their With ring of light see Saturn slow, departure. The fish are all caught in the North Sea,
Pursue his path in endless space;
By seven pale moons his course we know, and the season closes in March. In April the mode of
And thirty years that round shall trace. capture is changed, and with it the term applied to the
The Georgium Sidus next appears, fishery. Lines are then employed; the fishery is called
By his amazing distance known ; kolreis ; and it closes in May, when the vessels return The lapse of more than eighty years, in order to prepare for the herring fishery. No fresh
In his account makes one alone. cod is brought home from the kolreis, the cod at that Six moons are his by Herschel shown, season being too fat and oily.
Herschel, of modern times the boast : A third Cod fishing is prosecuted by the Dutch,
Discovery here is all his own, which is called Islandsche vaart, from being carried
Another planetary host !
And lo! by astronomic scan, on along the coast of Iceland. The vessels set out in May, and return to Holland in August or September.
Three stranger planets track the skies,
Part of that high majestic plan, Though often lucrative, it is difficult and dangerous,
Whence thoso successive worlds arise. from the coldness of the climate, and the storms en
Next Mars, Piazzi's orb is seen, countered on the Iceland coast. The vessels employed,
Four years, six months, complete his round: not above twenty-five in number, are brigs, and are
Science shall, renovated, beam, all sent out by the villages on the left bank of the
And gild Palermo's favoured ground. Maas. The cod fish they bring home is of excellent
Daughters of telescopic rayquality, and is known by the softness and delicacy of
Pallas and Juno, smaller spheres,
Are seen near Jove's imperial day, its skin, and the whiteness of the fibre when cooked.
Tracing the heavens in destined years. The Whale fishery in Holland is called the Little
Comets and fixed stars I see, fishery, to distinguish it from that of Herring and
With native lustre ever shine; Cod, or the Great fishery. The Whale fishery was How great, how good, how dreadful He, very considerable in former times, and was chiefly
In whom life, light, and truth combine! confined to Rotterdam adventurers. Large three- Oh may I better know his will, masted vessels were employed with numerous crews.
And more implicitly obey ; They sailed either for the South Seas or for the coast of
Be God my friend, my father still,
From finite-to eternal day. —MANGXALL. Greenland, and were often called Groenlande-vaarders.
This branch of industry used to be so much encouraged that even the public treasury bore the expense
LONDON: of some of the expeditions fitted out. But the same JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. causes which injured the Dutch by reducing their PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MUNTHLY PARTS once flourishing Herring fishery, affected that for
Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom
CRUSADE AGAINST THE ALBIGENSES UNDER SIMON
It stands, (says Mr. Hughes,) on a conical cliff on the opposite side of the river, overlooking the town at about two cannon-shots' distance. On inquiring into the history of this eagle's-nest, we found that it had been, in days of
yore, the fastness of a petty free-booting chief, who kept the The Castle of Crussol, situated in the ancient dis- inhabitants of Valence in a perpetual state of war and trict of Vivarais, and in that part of it which forms annoyance ; a history which almost appears fabricated
to suit the modern department of Ardèche, is one of the of sunshine from a dark evening cloud behind it, we could
its appearance and character. Seeing it relieved by a gleam most picturesque of those ruined strong-holds so
fancy, without any great effort of imagination, that, like the numerous in the south of France, and so interesting bed-ridden Giant Pope in honest John Bunyan, it was grin. in the eyes of a Protestant, from their connexion ning a ghastly smile of envy at the prosperity which it with the memorable crusade carried on against the could no longer interrupt. Albigenges, by the Church of Rome and its adherents, In a former paper * we brought down the history in the early part of the thirteenth century. It stands of the crusade against the Albigenses to the capture upon a lofty eminence of rock, not far from the right of the castle of Minerve, by Simon de Montfort
, in bank of the river Rhone, and nearly opposite to the the month of July, 1210, when that ambitious pertown of Valence, upon the left bank.
• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 89.