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have seen some grains and seeds taken out of the ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor, sepulchres, which were so far from being injured by the father of Shechem, for an hundred pieces of being kept for three thousand years, that they still silver ; and it became the inheritance of the sons of retained their germinating power, and we have actu- Joseph.” (Josh. xxiv. 32.) ally seen a plant grown from one of them.

We have now gone minutely through the entire It was Joseph's policy to make the sovereign lord history of Joseph and his family, and have shown of the soil of Egypt, with the single exception of the how fully every particular is confirmed by existing land belonging to the priests. Hence the rental of testimony, brought to light within our own day. We Egypt was identical with its taxation; the sum paid have next to investigate the history of the Israelites for the support of the government being twenty per under altered circumstances, when “ another king cent, or one-fifth of the entire produce. The exist- arose who knew not Joseph.” ence of this singular system is confirmed by the monuments, for we find a superintending secretary present at the winnowing and measuring of the corn,

HISTORY OF WRITING MATERIALS. as was shown in an earlier part of this series,

Both Jacob and Joseph were embalmed after their There are few subjects capable of affording more death, the body of the former was immediately re-interesting details than the history of the origin, promoved to the land of Canaan, but Joseph's remains gress, manufacture, and use of those articles or subwere not borne to the sepulchre of his fathers, until

stances with which we are most familiar; and yet it the Israelites entered the land of Canaan, after their happens that these are precisely the very subjects departure from Egypt and wanderings in the desert. about which least is known. Whether the old adage It is unnecessary to dwell upon the care with which that “ too much familiarity breeds contempt,” applies the Egyptians preserved their dead; the mummies to a contempt for the knowledge of things familiar to are too well known to require description. There are, us, we know not; but we certainly cannot understand however, one or two circumstances mentioned in the the feeling which seeks for information respecting Scripture narrative which require a few brief obser- objects new and strange, and disdains to inquire into vations. When the Israelites had brought Jacob's the many curious properties and useful facts concernbody over the river Jordan, they made a halt for ing familiar things. The very circumstance of faseven days to indulge their sorrow,

" and when the miliarity and utility ought, we think, to afford an inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the additional reason for acquiring information concernmourning in the floor of Atad, they said, This is ing such articles. We propose, therefore, to lay a grievous mourning to the Egyptians ; wherefore before our readers the history of those familiar and the name of it was called Abel-mizraim, (sorrow of

useful articles— Writing Materials. Having already the Egyptians,) which is beyond Jordan.” (Gen. L. 11.) introduced cursory notices concerning some of them, In confirmation of this narrative, we find that no

more especially those of the ancients, our chief busination, ancient or modern, carried their lamentations

ness will now be with those of the moderns. for the dead to such an extravagant length as the I. THE HISTORY OF A QUILL PEN. Egyptians. We see the mourners at funerals depicted on the monuments rending their garments, casting It has been said, quaintly enough, that he who first dust upon their heads, beating their breasts, and introduced the use of goose-quills for pens, borrowed using gestures that seem to belong to almost hopeless from the emblem of folly the instruments of wisdom. despair. Historians assure us, that during the period Without discussing the justice or injustice of this of mourning, which varied with the rank of the satire upon a poor goose, we cannot deny that quill deceased, the relatives and dependents abstained from pens have been the messengers of vast benefit to the use of meat and wine, neglected their persons, mankind, insomuch that it has been sarcastically and went about singing plaintive songs in honour of remarked, that “had the ancients been acquainted the departed. The Israelites adopted this custom, with the art of employing quills as a material for and it was retained by the Jews for many centuries pens, they would, probably, have dedicated to Minerva, after it had been disused in Egypt. But such a prac

—not the owl, but the goose.” But some men have tice was looked upon as unmanly by warlike and

made the mistake of honouring the

cause, nomade races, and hence arose the surprise of the instead of the mere instrument, of good. Thus, Canaanites, who regarded such grief as so great a

we have been told of one writer who had the novelty, that they perpetuated its memory by giving pen with which he wrote one of his works, framed a new name to the place in which it occurred.

and glazed, and hung up over his mantel-piece ; It is particularly mentioned that Joseph “ was put another pen was put into a golden casket by the in a coffin ;” among the Egyptians, coffins were used over-zealous admirer of a celebrated writer, and no only in the burial of people of distinction ; but when doubt it was with a feeling of much complacency they were used, great care was taken in ornamenting and self-satisfaction that Holland, a physician of and decorating them. The wood from which they Coventry, who translated Pliny's Natural History into were formed is of so lasting a nature, that some of English, wrote the following lines :those Egyptian coffins now to be seen in the British

With one sole pen I wrote this book, Museum, and other collections of antiquities, seem as

Made of a gray goose quill fresh as if they had just come from the hand of the

A pen it was when it I tookmaker. Hence we see, that there was no very great

A pen I leave it still. difficulty in the children of Israel bearing with them It appears from the best testimony, that the mode the body of Joseph at the time of the Exodus, and of writing in the earliest times was not by the use of carrying it about with them during their wanderings a fluid like ink, but by marking with a blunt point in the desert. It was not until the conquest of

on tablets covered with a surface of wax; but when Canaan was completed, indeed, that the body of the the Egyptian papyrus was devised, and a coloured patriarch was committed to its final resting place; liquid found, which could be used as ink, a new mode for we read in the book of Joshua, “And the bones of procedure was devised, more likely to leave perof Joseph, which the children of Israel brought up manent traces of the writing. The instrument em. , out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of ployed was a reed, the nature of which is not precisely

pen as the

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ascertained. Massey, in his Treatise on the Origin of Strutt gives the annexed represen.
Letters, mentions the use of reeds for writing among tation of the Anglo-Saxon pen and
the Turks, Moors, and the oriental nations generally. inkstand.
The same author remarks, that whenever the word Another writer of the fifth cen.
pen occurs in our English translation of the Old and tury, quoted by Adrian de Valois,
New Testament, we must not understand it to mean has been considered as affording proof
a quill pen, but as an iron style or a reed, both of of the use of quill pens at that time,
which the carly nations used: the former was sharp by the following statement :--That
at one end, like a pointed needle, and at the other Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths,
end broad and blunt, to rub or scratch out what the was so illiterate and stupid, that
writer wished to be erased.

during the ten years of his reign he Styles were much used among the Romans, they was not able to write five letters were made of different metals, also of ivory or bone. (THEOD) at the bottom of his edicts. Wooden styles, or skewers, were found in the ink. For this reason the letters were cut for him, (we may horns at Herculaneum. The common material of suppose like our modern stencil plates,) in a plate of styles was, however, iron; for we find that, as the gold, and the plate being laid upon the paper, he Romans were not allowed to wear arms in the city, then traced out the letters with a pen.

The Emperor they often, in a fit of wrath, wounded each other Justin, who flourished about the same period, is said with the writing-style, which they carried about to have shown a similar specimen of ignorance. them; hence the origin of the Italian stiletto. Re- Alquin, the friend and teacher of Charlemagne, menspecting the reeds which were substituted for the tions writing pens in the eighth century. After that blunt style and wax tablet, they are described as time, proofs exist which put the question of their use having been small, hard, round canes, about the size beyond dispute. Mabillon saw a manuscript Gospel of a large swan's quill, and fashioned into shape much of the ninth century, in which the evangelists were as we now do our quills. The supply of them used represented with pens in their hands. Calami properly to be obtained chiefly from Egypt, Cairo, in Asia signify the reeds used by the ancients in writing ; but Minor, and Armenia. Chardin and Tournefort have modern authors have often used the term as a Latin described in their travels a sort of reed employed for word for pen, and it has been suggested that that this purpose, which grows in Persia, and which they was probably the proper term for quills, before their considered as the best, at that time. These reeds application to the purposes of pens. Reeds were used are not originally hollow, but contain a pith, which, for a considerable time after the introduction of pens; however, afterwards dries up in a manner similar to and in monasteries and convents were frequently used the membranous film in the barrels of our modern for initial letters, as they made stronger marks than quills. These reeds are collected in some places bor- quills. By some letters of Erasmus to Reuchlin, dering on the Persian Gulf, whence they are sent to we learn that the latter sent three writing reeds to every part of the East. They are said to be deposited Erasmus, who expressed a wish that Reuchlin, when for some months after they are cut, under a dung- he could procure more, would send some to a learned hill, when they assume a mixed black and yellow friend of his in England. Erasmus lived between colour, acquire a fine polish and a considerable degree 1467 and 1536, and it would from this appear that of hardness; this latter quality, however, is rendered quills were scarce at that time. About the period of of less value, by the circumstance that it is accom- 1430, the familiar letters of the learned men of Italy, panied with a want of that elasticity which is so made mention of two inconveniences to which they valuable a property in quill pens. This we can easily were subject at that time, viz.; the difficulty of conceive, for although bamboo-reeds, and canes, are, making good ink, and the scarcity of good quills. in general, elastic in their complete form, yet when The principal birds from which quills have been they are deprived of the internal parts by drying or obtained for making pens, are the goose, the swan, any other process, the shell, or cylinder, is not likely and the crow. Pelicans, and other birds, have also to have much elastic property remaining.

at different times, helped to furnish a portion of Thus much for reed-pens, our information on which quills; but of all these, the goose has furnished by is but limited. Concerning quills, much doubt exists far the larger portion. So immense has become the as to when they were first applied to the purposes of number of quills employed, that in 1832, (notwithpens. An anonymous historian of Constantius says standing the large consumption of steel pens,) thirtythat they were so employed in the fifth century; but three million, six hundred and sixty-eight thousand the oldest certain account is said to be a passage in goose quills, were entered for home consumption, the some writings of Isidore, who died in the year 636; greater part of which came from the Netherlands and and who, in an enumeration of the materials used in Germany. An immense quantity is also imported writing, mentions reeds and feathers. There exists, from Russia and Poland, where vast flocks of geese also, a poem “ on a pen," written in the same cen- are fed for the sake of their quills alone. The quantury, and to be found in the works of Adhelinus, who tity exported from St. Petersburg varies from six to died in 709, and who was the first Saxon who wrote twenty-seven millions. We may form some idea of in Latin. We supply the following translation. the number of geese which must be required to afford

the supply, when we consider that each wing produces CONCERNING THE PEx or THE WRITER,

about five good quills, and that by proper manageThe shining-white pelican (bittern) which sips with open ment, a goose may afford twenty quills during the

throat, The waters of the pool once produced one white.

year. Hence, it is obvious, that the geese of Great I proceed direct to the whitening plains

Britain and Ireland could afford but a small supply. And leave blue marks on the shining-white ground*,

The quills are the large feathers taken from the Shadowing the glistening grounds with darkened windings t. ends of the wing, and have different names according Nor is it enough to open a track over the plains $;

to the quality, which seem to depend principally on But rather a path continues by numerous turns

the part of the wing from which they are taken. Which has carried to the heights of Heaven, those who wan

The operation of preparing the quills is called quillder not. • Blue ink upon white paper.

dressing, sometimes quill-dutching. The quills as

# Letters. Nor is it enough merely to scribble..

they are taken from the bird, are covered with a

membranous skin, and have a toughness and soft- Many of the quills after this preparation are cut into ness which prevents their being easily split. They pens by means of the pen-cutter's knife, and are also are also opaque, and the vascular membrane on the trimmed. A pen-cutter will cut in a day two-thirds of interior of the barrel adheres to it so strongly, that a long thousand, consisting of 1200 according to the it is with difficulty detached. To remedy these stationer's computation. A house in Shoe-Lane, defects, and to fit the quills for their destined pur- London, cuts generally about 6,000,000 of pens yearly; pose, is the business of the quill-dresser. He takes and during the year 1834, notwithstanding the introa large bundle of the quills, just as they are taken duction of steel pens, it cut many more than it had from the bird, and proceeds to separate them into done in any previous year. It is calculated by penthree parcels,—differing from each other in the size makers, not more than one pen in ten is ever mended. and quality of the quills. The value is estimated Swan-quills, which are very large in the barrel, both by the length and the thickness of the barrel; are sometimes employed for pens, and though ex. those having the largest and longest barrels being pensive at first, are, perhaps, not dearer ultimately called "primes," which fetch the highest price in the than the smaller quills, their length and capacity of market; the next best in quality are designated barrel compensating for the larger charge. Crowas“ seconds," and the third, or smallest size, are quills are generally employed in drawing and designcalled "pinions." The process of sorting being ing, on account of the fine point to which they can completed, the workmen proceed to “ clarify" the be brought. They are particularly useful in that quills, the principal object of which is to remove the kind of etching which is intended to imitate prints. membranous skin. The quills are plunged for a short Quills may be hardened by steeping them in alumtime into heated sand : the heat of the sand makes water, at a boiling temperature for a few minutes. the outer skin crack and peel off, which is further There is a modern contrivance by which six or aided by scraping them with a sharp instrument; eight pens may be made out of one large quill. The while, at the same time, the internal membrane narrow end, and also the stalk of the pen being cut becomes shrivelled up, and falls down to the point of off, leaving the barrel only remaining, the latter has the quill. The barrel of the quill is also hardened a cylinder inserted through it, a little smaller than its and rendered transparent by this process, in conse- own diameter. It is then placed in a machine in such quence of the heat consuming or drying up the oily a way that two cutting edges pass along the barrel, matter resident in it. This latter effect is increased by one on each side, by which the quill is cut longitudirepeated heatings; and when done for the purpose of nally into two semi-cylindrical halves. These pieces hardening the quill, is called dutching, probably from are then placed in a groove with the convex side the circumstance that the process was first adopted in undermost, and the edges are made straight and Holland. (The term Dutch pens, is frequently applied smooth by having a plane run along them. These to quills that have been passed through hot ashes, to half-cylinders of quill are then cut into three or four remove the grosser fat and moisture, and to render pieces, according to their length, and each piece is them more transparent.) For the best pens, the pro-operated on by the nibbing-machine, which is a sort cess of dutching is repeated several times; but care of cutting press:

A few strokes with a pen-knife is necessary, in order that the heating should not be then brings each little piece to the form of a pen, carried so far as to injure the barrel. The quills which, fixed in a handle, is fit for use. after this process, are either of the colour of fine thin horn, or of an impure white; but before they are brought to market they undergo another process,

MINE be the rude and artless pile, with the two-fold object of giving them an uniform

The ivy-mantled turret gray, yellow colour, and to make them split more easily.

Within whose old unsculptured aisle, They are dipped into diluted aquafortis or nitric acid,

The toil-worn peasant kneels to pray. which has the effect desired. It is however thought

The whitened wall, the latticed pane, by some, that this process, although it improves their

The rustic porch, the oaken door ;

Above, the rafters huge and plain, beauty, injures their quality by making them too

Beneath, the footstep-graven floor. brittle, so that the slit is apt to run up on pressing

Not here, where few could pomp admire, with moderate firmness ; for this reason, many per

The sons of wealth their pomp display; sons who write much, such as clerks in mercantile

They throng not here in gay attire, houses, &c., frequently prefer a quill which has not

Who come to gaze and not to pray : undergone this process, as being more durable. The

No high-tuned choral peals surprise, quills having been thus dressed and finished, a portion

Enchanting fashion's languid train,

With arts ingenious to disguise of the barb is stripped off, to occupy less room in

The bard of Sion's raptured strain. packing, and the quills are tied up into bundles of

But here, where lowly hearts are bowed, twenty-five or fifty each, for the market.

By toil and sorrows gentler made, The process of preparing the quills is, however,

Nor earth-born schemes, nor visions proud, subject to some variation. Some dressers adopt the

The unambitious breast invade; following mode. The quills are first moistened, not

Moro nearly is His Presence felt, by immersion, but by dipping their extremities into

For whom the Heaven of Heaven expands

Its arch in vain, who never dwelt water, and allowing the remaining parts to absorb

In temples built by human hands. moisture by capillary attraction. They are then

By viewless Spirit of the air, heated in the fire or in a charcoal chaffer, and are

The soul's mysterious depths are stirred, passed quickly under an instrument with a fine edge,

More fervent soars the heavenward prayer, which flattens them in such a manner as to render

More deeply sinks the engrafted word : them apparently useless. They are then scraped and

O could my heart, in darker hour, again exposed to heat, whereby they assume their

That calm and reverent mood recall,

How weak were then temptation's power original form. This is a remarkable fact, and may be

How frail the world's unhallowed thrall ! R. illustrated by taking a feather and crushing it with the hand so as to destroy it to all appearance; if we now

LONDON: expose it to the action of steam or a similar tem- JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND.

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALY Paarsa perature, it will speedily assume its former condition.

THE VILLAGE CHURCH.

PRICE SIXPENCE.

THE

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NO 356.

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JANUARY

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QUEEN ELIZABETH ; HER PROGRESSES AND PUBLIC PROCESSIONS. No. II.

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PALACE OF PLACENTIA, AT GREENWICH, THE BIRTH-PLACE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. BIRTA AND CHILDHOOD OF ELIZABETH-DESCRIP

zens had another barge, and so rowed to Greenwich, where TION OF THE ANCIENT PALACE OF GREENWICH.

were many lords, knights, and gentlemen assembled. All

the walles between the king's pallace and the Fryers were BEFORE entering úpon a description of the Pro- hanged with arras, and all the way strewed with greene gresses and public Processions of Elizabeth while she rushes. The Fryers church was also hanged with rich occupied the throne, we shall proceed to notice the more arras; the font was of silver, and stoode in the midst of the prominent events of her early life, which still serve

church three steps high, which was covered with a fine to invest some localities with interesting associations. cloth; and divers gentlemen with aprones and towels about

their neckes, gave attendance about it, that no filth should Concerning the periods of her childhood and youth,

come to the fonte; over it hung a square canopie of in the reigns of her father and brother, a few very crimosin sattin fringed with golde, about it was a rayle. interesting details have been handed down to us; covered with a redde saie; between the queere and body of while that part of her life which was spent under the the church was a close place with a pan of fire to rule of her sister Mary, possesses considerable im.

the childe readie. portance in an historical point of view.

When all things had been thus arranged, the child Elizabeth was born at the palace of Greenwich, was brought to the hall, and the procession set foron the 7th of September, 1533. Her mother, Anne

ward. First went the citizens two and two ; then Boleyn, or more properly, Bullen, the daughter of the gentlemen, esquires, and chaplains ; “next after Sir Thomas Bullen, had been privately married to them, the aldermen and the maior alone, and next King Henry the Eighth, some time in the month of the kinges counsell; then the kingeschappel in January of the same year; and on the 23rd of May, coaps ; then barons, bishops, earles.” The earl of his previous marriage with Catherine of Arragon had Essex,—the last of the Bourchiers who had that title, been declared by Archbishop Cranmer, to have been —bore the covered basons gilt ; after him, with a from the beginning, null and invalid.

taper of virgin wax, came the marquess of Exeter, The birth of Elizabeth was the occasion of much who was put to death by Henry three years afterwards; joy; in the account of a contemporary chronicler, then the marquess of Dorset, (the father of Lady we have a very lively and interesting description of Jane Grey,) with the salt, and behind him the Lady the ceremonies which attended her christening :

Mary of Norfolk “bearing the crisome, which was The 7th of September being Sunday, between three and very rich of pearle and stone.” The child was borne foure of the clocke at afternoone, the Queene was delivered by the dowager duchess of Norfolk, in a mantle of of a faire ladie ; for whose good deliverance Te Deum was purple velvet, with a long train furred with ermine. sung incontinently, and great preparation was made for the On the right of the duchess was the duke of Norchristning. The maior, and his brethren, and fortie of the folk with his marshal's rod, and on her left the duke chief citizens, were commanded to be at the christning of of Suffolk; before went officers of arms; and afterthe Wednesdaie following. Upon which daie, the maior, wards came the countess of Kent, and the earls of Sir Stephen Peacocke, in a gowne of crimosin velvet, with his

, collar of esses, and all the aldermen in scarlet with Wiltshire and Derby supporting the train. Over the collars and chains, and all the councell of the cittie with child was a rich canopy, borne by the Lord Rochford, them, tooke their barge at one of the clocke ; and the citi-' the Lord Hussey, the Lord William Howard, and the VOL. XII,

356

There appears to have been some misunderstanding

and every

Lord Thomas Howard the elder. And lastly, came nor my self, nor none of hers that I have the rewl of: that many ladies and gentlemen.

is her women and har gromes: besychyng yow to be good

Lord to my Lady and to al hers: And that she may have When the childe was come to the church doore, the

som rayment; for she hath neither gown, nor kertel, nor Byshop of London* met it with divers byshoppes and

petecot, nor no manner of linnin for smokes, nor cerchefes, abbots mitered, and beganne the observances of the sacra

nor sleves, nor rayls, nor body-stychets, nor handcerchers, ment. The god-father was Lorde Thomas Archbyshoppe

nor mofelers, nor begens. All thys har Graces Mostake, I of Canterburie *; the god-mothers were the olde Dutchesse

have dreven of as long as I can, that be my trothe I cannot of Norfolk and the olde Marchionesse of Dorset, widdowes; drive it no longer, besechyng yow, my Lord, that ye wel see and the child was named ELIZABETH: and after that all

that her Grace may have that is nedful for har, as my Trost things were done at the church doore, the child was

es ye wel do. Beseeching yow, my owen good Lord, that brought to the font and christneil ; and that done, Gartar

I may know from yow be conting how I shal order my self; chiefe king of armes cryed aloud, “ God of his infinit

and what es the kyng's Graces pleser and yours, that I goodnesso send prosperous life and long to the high and

shal do in erery thing. And whatsom ever it shall ples mighty princess of England, ELIZABETH !". And then the the kyng's Grace or your Ludship to command me at all trumpets blew; then the childe was brought up to the altar

teyms, I shal folfel et, to the best of my power. and the Gospell said over it. After that, immediately the Archbyshop of Canterburie confirmed it, the Marchionesse of Excester being god-mother: then the Byshop of Canter- between the Lady Governess and one Mr. Shelton, burie gave unto the Princesse a standing cup of golde; the who was chief of the house at Hunsdon. Lady Brian Dutchesse of Norfolke gave to her a standing cup of golde

seems to press very strongly for the interference of fretted with pearle; the Marchionesse of Dorset gave

three

Lord Cromwell. gilt boles pounced with a cover; and the Marchionesse of Excester gave three standing boles graven all gilt with a My Lord, Mr. Shelton saythe he es Master of thys cover. Then was brought in wafers, confects, and ipocrasse, Hows; what fashion that shall be I cannot tel: for I have in such plentie, that every man had as much as hee coulde not sen et afor. My Lord, ye be so honourable your self, desire: then they set forwarde, the trumpets afore going in

man reportethe your Lordsychep lovethe the same order towards the Kinges pallace, as they did honour that I trust your Lordship will se thys Hows honerwhen they came thitherwarde, &c.

abely ordered, how som ever it hath been aforetime, and ef The mayor and aldermen received the King's it be not performed, I shal sertify to your Lordship of it.

et plese yow, that I may know what your Order is, and if thanks in his chamber through the dukes of Suffolk

For I fear me it wil be hardly inow performed, for ef the and Norfolk; “ and from thence they were had to head of ...... knew what honour meaneth, et wel be the the seller, and dranke, and so went to their barge.” beter ordered: ef not it will be hard to bring it to pass. Elizabeth was not three years old when her mother

The next paragraph of the letter displays strongly was beheaded. It was on the 19th of May, 1536, the anxiety of the " discreet lady Governess," as that Queen Anne Boleyn was executed on the green Strype calls her, for the health of her charge, and the before the Tower of London; the marriage of Henry extreme imprudence of Master Shelton in meddling the Eighth with Jane Seymour taking place on the with matters which did not concern him. next day. Very soon after the birth of Elizabeth,

My Lord, Master Shelton wold have my Lady Elizabeth an Act of Parliament had been passed, declaring that

to dine and sup every day at the bord of Astat [board of if her mother should die, without leaving any male estate.] Alas! my Lord, it is not meet for a child of har issue, the crown should descend, on the death of the ag [her age], to kepe such rewl yet. I promes you, my king, to her and her heirs; thus the princess was Lord, I dare not take et upon me to kepe bar Grace in placed in the order of succession, not only before the

helthe and she keep that rule; for ther she shal se dyvers

mets and freuts, and wine: which would be hard for me to Princess Mary, the daughter of the degraded Queen Catharine, but likewise before even any male issue of refryn her Grace from et. Ye know, my Lord, there is

no place of corekcyon ther. And she es yet to young to the king by a future queen. This arrangement was correct greatly. I know wel, and she be ther I shal nother speedily disturbed upon the death of Queen Anne bryng her up to the king's graces honour nor hers; nor to Boleyn; an act being passed soon after the king's har helthe nor my pore honesty: Wherfore I shew your marriage with Jane Seymour, annulling his second Lordship this my descharg, besycheyng you, my Lord, that marriage as well as his first, and consequently ren

my Lady may have a mess of met to har owen logyng, with

a good dish or two that is meet for her Grace to et of: and dering the Princess Elizabeth, as well as the Princess

the reversion of the mess shal satisfy al her wemen, a genMary, incapable of succeeding to the crown, which it tleman usher and a groom. Which been eleven persons settled upon Henry's issue by Queen Jane or by any on her side. Suer I am et wil be (in to right little) as great. future wife whom he might marry.

profit to the king's Grace this way as the t'other way. For After the execution of her ill-fated mother, the young

if al this should be set abroad, they nust have three or four Princess Elizabeth seems to have been greatly neg

mess of meat, where this one mess shal suflice them al with

bread and drink, according as my Lady Maries Grace had lected by her father. Some very curious information

afore; and to be ordered in al things, as her Grace was concerning the condition to which she was then afore. reduced, and the “ill case,” to use Strype's expression,

The description which is contained in this letter of in which she was left, has been handed down to us in

the manners and disposition of the young princess at -a letter printed by Sir Henry Ellis, in his second

so early an age, is assuredly not the least interesting series of Original Letters. It is addressed by Lady

part of it. Brian, the governess of the Lady Elizabeth, to Lord Cromwell, from Hunsdon, for instructions concerning pain with her great teeth, and they come very slowly forth :

God knoweth (says the governess) my Lady hath great her after the death of Queen Anne, her mother. After and causeth me to suffer her Grace to have her wil more some preliminary remarks, the Lady Governess thus than I would; I trust to God and her teeth were wel graft, proceeds:--

to have her Grace after another fashion than she is yet: so My Lord, when my Lady Marys Grace was born, et

as I trust the King's Grace shal have great comfort in her

Grace. For she is as toward a child, and as gentle of conpleased the King's Grace to appoint me Lady Mastres; and made me a Barones. And so I have been our .

ditions as ever I knew one in my leyf. Jesu preserve her the Cheldern hes Grace hare had sens.

Grace. As for a day or two at a hey teym or whan som Now et es so my Lady Elizabethe is put from that degre

erer it shal please the King's Grace to have her set abrod,

I trost so to inderer me, that shee shal so do as shal be to she was afore: and what degree she is at now I know not bot be heryny say; therefor I know not how to order her

the King's honeur and hers: and then after to take her

ease again. Dr. John Stokesley, who held the cee from 1530 to 1510.

The letter then concludes thus:+ Dr. Thomas Cranmer, who was primate from 1532 till 1553, and in 1556 suffered at the stake under Mary,

I think master Shelton wil not be content with this. He

to

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