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BURNISHERS - PAINTERS
ON EMPLOYMENTS WHICH INJURE THE exempt a man from the penalties due to transgression : EYE-SIGHT.
the disciple of Claude, or of Galileo-of Hunter, or of No. IV.
Watt,-is exposed (as we shall see) in the exercise of his high calling to the inconveniences of the humblest
artisan. Nothing, in fact, proves so well to us the
COL- dependent and even coequal condition of man in the LIERS-EFFECT OF HEAT UPON TUE EYE-sigar
scheme of creation as the universality and individuality of the application of the natural laws to which we are
all alike subject. We have heard the case of an emiWe now proceed to notice a few employments
few employments nent landscape-painter, who in the ardent pursuit of wherein too much or too little light proves injurious his profession became troubled with confusion and to the eye.
dimness of vision. He abandoned his practice for a It is of course known that the value of cloth de.
time, and gave rest to his eyes, the inflammation of pends upon the fineness of its material, and the which yielded to proper medical treatment. Upon degree of closeness with which it is put together. attempting to resume his occupations he was much In the process of weaving, the threads, whether of alarmed to find that he no longer possessed the power silk, cotton, or wool, &c., cross each other at right of discriminating shades of colour from each other : angles, and constitute what is technically termed the he had, in fact, apparently lost the faculty necessary warp and the woof. The value of the cloth therefore to his profession. He had again recourse to medical is tested by the number of threads contained within treatment, and after a time was restored to perfect a given space--the larger the number, the more va- sight. luable becomes the article. There is a class of per- The above instances occur, as it will be seen, in sons called linen-inspectors, whose business it is to employments where too much light is admitted to test the value of cloths in this way, and such per- the eye, whereby it becomes irritated and fatigued. sons suffer loss of visual power, in consequence of On the other hand its occupation in a dim uncertain the constant application of the eye to this kind of light is productive of results equally disastrous. In work. Those engaged in examining white linen cloths this case it is strained as it were beyond its powers, suffer more than when dark colours are the subject in endeavouring to exercise its function in the absence of investigation ; and among the coloured cloths the of the only necessary means, namely, a moderate and scarlet, with which our army is clothed, produces steady supply of light. Such persons are the numethe worst effects. The reader is probably aware that rous class of miners and colliers, whose employwhite cloth reflects most light; and that of all the ment is underground, amid the fitful gleams of a few colours of the spectrum red is the least refrangible , lamps or candles, which the very position of the and although yellow and orange colours afford workmen prevent from being other than weak and most light, yet red affords most heat, and is, from almost inadequate sources of illumination ; while in causes not well understood, productive of irritability the collieries the lamps are necessarily surrounded to the eyes of most animals. Scarlet is a compound with wire-gauze to prevent the firing of the gas which colour, containing a large proportion of red, com- often issues from the apertures (blowers) laid open bined with yellow*. Manufacturers of bright colours by the workman's pick, and thus the already feeble also suffer injury to the eyes.
illumination is enfeebled. The exposure then of the It is said also that at the Bank of England a new eye to this bad light for several hours, and the transiissue of bank-notes is productive of ocular disease tion into the light of day above when the miners' among the clerks, whose employment it is to exa- daily toil is done, is in many cases productive of the mine, sign, and counter-sign an immense number of disease we have described. In the stupendous mines these documents per day. The money counters also, of Southern America immense numbers of the natives in the same establishment, are said to be peculiarly were, while under Spanish dominion, kept entirely in liable to amaurotic affections, especially at every new, the mines, together with their wives and children ; issue of coinage, when the pieces are highly polished, and thus, as an ingenious Frenchman observes, those and consequently reflect much light.
very persons whose ancestors worshipped the sun are Burnishers form another class of persons peculiarly born, live, and die, without ever having been blessed liable to this disease, particularly such as are engaged with a sight of his rays. in producing upon metallic surfaces a high degree of Ah! what avail their fatal treasures, hid polish. One of the results of the simple, and other- Deep in the bowels of the pitying earth, wise admirable, principle of the division of labour, is Golconda's gems, and sad Potosi's mines; certainly attended in some cases with its evils, by Where dwelt the gentlest Children of the Sun? splitting up one branch of business into a large num
Thowsox. ber of collateral shoots, it reduces man to a machine, The united effect of the dim light in which colliers and often deprives him of the power of exercising his are constrained to perform their daily labour, and of invention; and, as in this case, proves positively hurt the contaminated atmosphere which they breathe, is ful. Hence we have an additional proof of the value thus alluded to by Mr. Thackrah, in his work on the of automatic machinery in effecting those processes Effects of Trades, Professions, &c. on the Health. by which man is injured, and his powers impaired. The eyes of colliers are small, affected with chronic
In the instances we have given, the hand and the inflammation, and intolerant of full light. Boys enter the eye are chiefly employed, while the mind rests ; but pit at the age of six or seven, and are employed in opening Nature is not partial in her rewards or her punish the trap-doors, driving the horses, propelling the trucks, ments. A high degree of mental cultivation does not &c.; and finally, when of sufficient age, they become col
liers. Sickness and vomiting sometimes affect persons at • The bull, the turkey, and other animals, manifest great impa-their commencing the employ, and many after a few years tience and anger at the sight of a red colour. This is probably due trial are obliged, by the injury which their health has sus to an irritation of the optic nerve, induced by this particular colour : this is, however, only a surmise of the writer. A young man was re
tained, and especially by the weakness of the eyes, to leare cently killed by holding out his tongue to an adder which he had
the mine. caught, and doubting whether it was a snake or an adder, put out (3.) As the exposure of the eye to too much light his tongue to test the fact. The animal, irritated by the red appearance of the tongue, bit it; and the bite was fatal, for the young
is injurious, it almost follows that too much beat is man died some hours afterwards.
equally so. It is painful to reflect that many of our
Tuxuries are purchased at the expense of much hu-is, however, a fact, that so much depends upon the nan suffering. True it is that by habit men may most exact attention to a number of minute parti ecome inured to extraordinary and unnatural circulars, only to be attained by a rare union of judg imstances, which do not indeed exert their fatal ment and experience, that a person who thoroughly fluence at once upon them, but which would understands the business is invaluable as a workman, ak unaccustomed hand. Undoubtedly, by and his earnings are accordingly great. Honourable rly use and training, the body may successfully instances are not wanting of these melters having thstand high degrees of heat, as the experiments become persons of property, not to say that they
Sir C. Blagden, Chantrey, and others, and the have set up their carriages ! The importance of -very-day experience of our gas-factories, glass-houses, their avocation is indeed much greater than may &c., prove ; and it is possible that in all the success- generally be imagined, even when the best irons are ful cases the individuals are fitted peculiarly by na- used. Not only does the perfection of innumerable ture, or the habit of early training, for the exercise exquisite cutting instruments depend almost entirely of these pursuits; still, however, it is to be lamented upon the quality of the metal, but much of the glory that there are many cases of workmen whose powers of the fine arts. The steel plates, which by a wonfail them for their own peculiar callings. How far derful triumph of skill the engraver has appropriated, habits of intemperance influence their fate, it is not the burine of Heath and the chisel of Chantrey, within our province to discuss, although we fear that respectively owe their excellence to a judicious mamuch is to be attributed to this energetic and too nagement of the crucible by the Sheffield cast-steel common cause.
melter." - Manufactures in Metal. On a visit a few years ago to an immense foundry, A melancholy case has occured recently to a friend about noon on a hot summer's day, we were much of the writer, an ingenious painter on glass and glass
struck by the situation chosen by several of the men stainer. The stained glass which enters into the com· for the consumption of their dinner. They were seated position of church and cathedral windows, often con
on the copings of several enormous forge-fires, the taining pictures and figures of high excellence, is heat of which was so great as to prevent our approach produced in the first instance, by applying a coloured within several yards, and yet these men appeared to composition to white glass, or painting on glass, as suffer no inconvenience whatever, for as it would on canvass, with a coloured compost which will seem they were in a temperature natural to them, resist heat : the glass being thus prepared by the which, however, was so great that the broad sun artist, its durability through long ages is ensured by shine, into which we soon went, appeared cool in a process termed firing, which consists in placing the comparison.
glass in a close iron box or oven, called a mufle, But the above instance of the power of the human and which is provided with horizontal iron shelves, frame to bear intense degrees of heat, sinks into placed at regular distances, and covered with insignificance when compared with many cases of well-burnt powdered lime, to prevent the contact constant occurrence in the arts and manufactures of the glass and the hot metal. On these shelves We must be content at present with the selection the glass plates are deposited, the coloured surfaces of one only. The reader may be aware that steel of course upwards. The muffles are placed in a furis fusible, or capable of being melted, and when in nace, and each muffle is furnished with a tube, which the fluid state of being cast in moulds, by which passes out through the furnace-wall, the use of which process the natural qualities of the metal, its hard tube is to enable the operator to examine the state of ness and elasticity, and the permanence of the edge the glass during the process of firing. A fire is now in cutting-tools, are very much improved. The steel kindled and heat continued until, on inspection, the which is to be cast is previously broken into small glass contained
in the muffle is found to have acquired pieces, put into a clay crucible capable of holding a heat just sufficient to fuse it: by this means the between thirty and forty pounds of the metal, and so colours are absorbed into and become part of the placed in a wind-furnace, where it is brought to a glass. The watchful eye of experience alone detects white heat, which is sustained for about four hours, the exact moment when the white heat, to which the in which time the liquefaction of the mass is com- furnace has been brought, must be reduced : the plete : the furnace-cover is then removed, and other whole contents of the furnace are left to cool gradupreparations are made for pouring the metal into ally for about twelve hours, at the end of which time cast-iron moulds. “This is a process which places the glass is said to be annealed, or to have lost that the melter in a situation little, if at all, enviable, as brittleness which it would have had if it had been compared with the inside of M. Chabert's celebrated removed from the furnace immediately. oven : indeed the eyes and the hands that are daily The gentleman referred to had been engaged for conversant with molten steel would hardly shrink at several years in managing the above process, when a the mention of a temperature sufficient to broil a few months back, after looking for a longer time than beef-steak! Previously to drawing the crucible, the usual through one of the tubes into the furnace, while artist, whose body, arms, and legs, are defended by the contents of the latter were at a white heat, he ensacking-wrappers, goes to a water-trough, and with tirely, and as it appeared to him suddenly, lost the a besom thoroughly moistens his outer covering, sight of the eye he was employing. The retina was that his clothes may not get a-flame, while he is in fact struck with palsy, from which we regret to bending over the mouth of the 'burning fiery fur- add he has not since recovered. And yet how wonbace.' Thus prepared, with a pair of strong tongs derful is the fact, that although the eye in this case he withdraws the pot from the fire, takes the lid off
, is totally insensible to luminous impressions, and at and pours the metal into the mould. The ingot thus present is of no assistance to its owner, yet the pupil formed is either a bar about two inches square for still retains to a certain extent its contractile and extilting, or a plate six inches broad, twelve to eighteen pansive power when light is more or less admitted to inches long, and an inch thick, for rolling, as the the visionless orb. This fact tends to show how insame may be wanted to be wrought into its ultimate dependent the function of the iris is of the will. form by the hammer or the shears. It may perhaps In this class are included stokers in iron-furnaces be thought that this fluxing and pouring of the metal and glass-houses, and the denizens of the smithy requires no very great skill in the management. It generally, together with tavern cooks, &c.
THE OVAL, THE ELEMENTARY FORM
The following method of further elucidating the OF BEAUTY.
properties of the oval, will form an amusing problem The indescribable beauty of outline which pervades two ovals of different sizes, cut in card-board, are
for the young draughtsman. To make these drawings, many of the works of antiquity, has been the cause
necessary. Fig. 6 is a Greek vase, with handles, of many attempts to discover if there was any fundamental principle to which this peculiar beauty was to be ascribed. All parties seem to have agreed that it depends on various modifications of a curved line. Mr. Reinagle, the Royal Academician, endeavoured to show, in a lecture delivered at the Royal Institution in 1827, that ovals of various sizes would mechanically produce various elegant and symmetrical outlines. His endeavour was to prove, “that a line formed by an elliptic curve was beautiful even in an abstract point of view, free from all association." To illustrate his views he employed various diagrams, such as are seen in the following figures.
1 3 4 5
8 9 No. 1 and 2 are a series of straight parallel lines, arranged horizontally and vertically; these were shown to produce no principle of beauty. In No.3, a series of straight lines are drawn so as to radiate from a centre producing the simplest beautiful arrangement of lines. In Nos. 4 and 5, he endeavoured
formed in the following proportions of seven parts; to prove that a series of straight lines, radiating
the body has four parts, the foot one, and the neck from centres, as fig. 4, were improved in beauty by
two. The greatest width of the body is equal to the the addition of curves, as in No. 5. Nos. 6 and 7
longest diameter of the larger oval. illustrate the improvement produced by substituting
Fig. 7 is another illustration of the use of the oval curves in the rays, as in No. 6, and a still further in forming a flattened vessel called a patera. improvement by additional curves, as in No. 7.
Fig. 7. Pursuing the same idea, it was shown that if the rays proceeded from a curved instead of a straight line, as in Nos. 8, 9, the beauty of the arrangement was increased, No. 9 being the most elegant. If an oval disk, fig. 2, is prepared, the beauty of the
We have thus seen in what manner many elegant
figures can be produced by the symmetrical arrangecombination of elliptic curves may be illustrated in ment of elliptic curves; some, however, contend that various ways, as in fig. 3, where the curves are placed the line of beauty is formed of what is called an hexaat random; fig. 4, in which they radiate from a centre, gonal curve, that is, an arc of a circle equal in length forming a most beautiful figure, capable of becoming to one-sixth part of its diameter. In this manner the the ground-work of an elegant design in foliage or following elegant serpentine lines are produced. The ornament. If the oval disk is applied, as in fig. 5, outline of the human face is said to be formed of and the whole of its outline repeatedly drawn, a hexagonal curves.
BUT IS NOT
KILLARNEY. No. VIII.
VIEW ON THE UPPER LAKE, FROM RONAYN'S ISLAND. The Upper Lake at Killarney, lying to the westward name, who, in the eagerness of the chase, or in of the Lower Lakes, is embosomed above them in the the pursuit of an enemy, leaped across the chasm mass of mountains which, for some distance, covers here, and left the impression of his foot or feet (for the country beyond them in that direction. The the accounts differ,) in the solid rock. There is a lofty wall thus separating it from them, is perforated mark still shown as his veritable foot-print, and the only at one point, where a deep defile affords a narrow wonderful phenomenon is "minutely described, and channel for the waters descending from the Upper studiously exaggerated, by the credulous guides." Lake to the Lower Lakes. For a long time the only To a traveller ascending this connecting river in convenient mode of passing from the Lower Lakes to his passage from the Lower Lakes to the Upper Lake, the Upper Lake was by ascending this connecting this extraordinary contraction of the channel at Colestream in a boat; but within the last few years a new man's Leap has a very remarkable appearance. road has been constructed, running up along the The devious course of the river above the Eagles' Nest*, margin of the channel. This road does not end at and the numerous impediments which commonly arise from the top of the channel ; it passes by the Upper Lake, rocks, shoals, and the rapidity of the current, are produc(at one part through a tunnel,) and continuing its tive of repeated disappointment, and excite no small degree course to the westward between the mountains, at romantic confines of the Upper Lake. The long-wished for
of impatience in those who anticipate the view of the length reaches the town of Kenmare, upon that inlet
scene is expected to open at every turn; but one short reach of the Atlantic which is called Kenmare River. of the river succeeds to another, terminated by huge rocks,
The channel of communication itself is about three beyond which nothing is visible but distant mountains. miles in length; it winds considerably, and varies At length the boat arrives in a little basin, bounded for the very much in its breadth. The narrowest part is at most part by steep rocks, to which several different outlets the very top, where it is contracted into a little pas appear. The stranger naturally concludes that one to be sage, scarcely more than thirty feet broad. This pass accords best with the course of the river; it is not without
the proper channel which is the widest, and whose direction bears the appellation of Coleman's Leap; and it is
or this remarkable rock we have already given a description. said to be so called after a legendary hero of that | See Killarney, No. 1., Vol. XI., p. 57. Vol. XII.
surprise therefore that he beholds the oars, after a few | them and the English lakes, where the green sod always strong and rapid stokes, drawn in, and the boat suddenly confines the apparently overflowing waters, producing the put about and directed through a narrow pass between the idea of eternal plenitude. rocks, barely sufficient for its admission. This is the
The most striking of the islands upon entering the entrance to the Upper Lake, and soon after passing it, the most distant shores are revealed to view, with the immense lake is, Oak Isle, or Rossburkree, which in the mountains which rise beyond them.
Winter season, is separated into several parts, so as
to form a cluster of islets. It rises from a rocky On passing Coleman's Leap the traveller enters at
base, and is crowned with wood; from its shores is once upon the Upper Lake. He finds it to be entirely encompassed by mountains; and if, after pro
obtained a splendid and majestic view of the lofty ceeding a short distance, he cast his eyes back, he is
mountains, which form so characteristic a feature of unable to distinguish the narrow opening by which Killarney, grouped in the most varied manner. he entered, so completely is it lost in the confusion
The shores of the Upper Lake are extremely intriof hill, bay, and promontory.
“ In this retreat from cate, being indented by numerous wooded and rocky the busy scenes of life, the beautiful and the sublime promontories, by bays, inlets, and long creeks, which
wind towards the base of the mountains, as if purare exquisitely united."
On the south of the lake stands Cromiglaun or the posely to receive the streams which rush through the Drooping Mountain, which rises from the very water. glens, and conduct their waters in silence and tranAdjoining this, on the west, is Derricunnihy, after quillity to the lake. The largest of these inlets is which comes Derry-Dinma, separated from it by the
that bearing the name of Newfoundland, which lies little river Kavoge. The Coombui Mountains are
at the eastern extremity of the lake, and is nearly
The entrance into seen in the distance towards the south-west ; and three quarters of a mile long. further to the west is Barnasna. In the west are
this inlet lies through a narrow pass, defended by also seen Baum, with its conical summit, and the
two vast perpendicular rocks, in passing which an Macgillicuddy's Reeks, with their lofty, shattered, extensive basin suddenly opens to view, bearing the and shelving tops. The nearest of the Reeks to the appearance of a fourth lake.
On the right of lake is that called Ghirmeen, at the foot of which is
this inlet rises a steep overshadowing cliff, clothed the entrance to the sequestered defile of Comme
with straggling trees : on the opposite side it is Duff, or the Black Valley. On the north and east bounded by masses of bleak rocks, while the disare Ghirmeen and the Purple Mountain at a distance, tant view in the middle of the picture is occupied and the Long Range (as the mountains on the north by a wood of oaks, from out of which issues the of the channel between the Upper and Lower Lakes river Esknamucky, which may be ascended for some are called,) backed by Tomies and Glena.
way in a boat, Mr. Wright says that a walk along From its situation in the midst of a stupendous am
the banks of this stream will surprise and delight the phitheatre of mountains, the Upper Lake displays the tourist. An irregular path winds along the banks most wild and romantic scenery. Its length is nearly between trees whose thick foliage confines the view
until at the end of about half a mile, a space sad. the same as that of Turk, its breadth somewhat inferior. The mountains which bound it on every
denly opens, discovering some cottages, surrounded side, are a continuation of those .forming the defile by a few small enclosures. The sound of falling wa through which it is approached, and their characte- ter here strikes the ear; and on turning the eye ristic featores are similar, but they are loftier, and towards the Turk mountain, which the visiter has all their parts are on a grander scale ; the glens are
thus insensibly approached, a beautiful cascade is deeper, the woods more extensive and of older growth,
seen over the trees at the head of a deep glen.' the rivers larger, and the falls more lofty and preci
It is scarcely in the power of imagination to conceire a
more romantic retreal. pitous. The highest mountains are those at the
No vestige of human industry end of the lake, which are likewise the most
appears beyond the precincts of this little hamlet : woods upper
and mountains surround it; and the inhabitants seem varied in their outline; among them rise Macgilli- totally cut off from the society of their fellow creatures. cuddy's Reeks,“ pre-eminent in grandeur.” Of Nor is the retreat less remote in reality from the busy these Reeks, which are the highest mountains in scenes of life than it appears to be: the plough has never Ireland, we have already given an account*. They
left the traces of its furrows on the vale; the soil is turned are visible from the Lower Lake, but their appear
with the spade; and the produce, if more than sufficient for ance, from the Upper Lake, is so different, that they away on horses, by a craggy path which winds along the
the maintenance of the humble cultivators, is conveyed would scarcely be recognised for the same.
borders of the stream. On entering the Upper Lake (says Mr. Weld,) the attention is at first wholly engaged by the vastness of the the visiter passes Arbutus Island, which lies on the
Advancing up the lake towards its western end mountains, and next by the extreme wildness and ruggedness of the scene. The numerous islands, as well as the northern shore, about half a mile to the west of the shores, present on every side immense rocks; some bleak entrance into the lake at Coleman's Eye. It is so and terrific, others of á less savage aspect, teeming with called on account of the profusion of the arbutus vegetable life.
plant which it displays, and which indeed covers the The islands in the Upper Lake are very numerous; rocky sides of its pyramidal form. Of these strawthe rocks along their shores generally consist of a berry trees, which are to be found in abundance on green stone, which, close to the edge, assumes a dark every part of the shores of Killarney, but in especial hue, agreeing so nearly with the reflections of over- luxuriance in the islands of the Upper Lake, which shadowing trees in calm weather, that the line of are celebrated for possessing the finest specimens of separation cannot be traced without difficulty. the plant in the British Islands,-an anonymous
And here (says Mr. Wright), as in all her works, Nature writer thus speaks :-has proved herself the most accomplished artist, in adapting the light and airy tints of the limestone-rock to the
In the latter end of October, when I first visited Killar, gay and luxuriant shores of Glena and Mucruss, and the ney, they were in high beauty, many of their bells and inore dingy shadows to the bold, terrific, and savage fea
blossoms still remaining, the fruit on some just forming, tures of ihe Upper Lake. This exposure of the rocky and on others nearly ripe. The same bough often exhibited bases of the islands and stony strands, which occur in the
all these varieties. The ordinary height of the tree is ten lakcs of Kerry, forms a distinguishing character between
or twelve feet; but I have seen some, of a happier growth
, which rose to eighteen or twenty. The blossom is shaped See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 137. like a goblet, and the fruit nearly spherical ; it is at first