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NOTES ON FOREST TREES. No. XXIII. a solid mass. To purify this first preparation, they
procure some fine earth, which, when pounded and reduced to a very fine powder, they put into the bottom of a basin made of copper ; over this layer of earth they spread a layer of camphor, and continue thus until they have laid four strata. The last, which is of very fine earth, they cover up with the leaves of the penny-royal plant; and over the whole they place another basin, joining it very closely to the former by means of a kind of red earth that cements their brims together. The basin, thus prepared, is put over a fire, which must be managed so as to keep up an equal beat : experience teaches them to observe the proper degree. But above all they must be very atten. tive lest the plaster of earth which keeps the basins together should crack or fall off, as in that case the spirit would evaporate, and the whole process be spoiled. When the basins have been exposed to the necessary heat, they are taken off, and left to cool; after which they are separated, and the sublimated camphor is found adhering to the cover. If this ope
ration be repeated two or three times, the camphor The Camphor TREE, (Dryobalanops camphora.)
is found purer, and in larger pieces. Whenever it is The celebrated Camphor Tree of Sumatra is one of necessary to use any quantity of this substance, it is the largest trees of the forests of that island; it is put between two earthen vessels, the edges of which also found in Borneo, and several other eastern islands are surrounded with several bands of wet paper, of the East Indian Archipelago. The greatest part of These vessels are kept for about an hour over an equal the Camphor, however, which is brought to Europe, and moderate fire ; and when they are cool, the camis produced by a species of laurel (Laurus camphora). phor is found in its utmost perfection, and ready for That which is afforded by the tree now under notice, use. seldom reaches our market, being carried chiefly to The Greeks and the Romans appear to have been China, where it fetches a very high price. That which unacquainted with this valuable drug, and we are is received in England comes from Japan, in casks indebted to the Arabians for a knowledge of it. and chests.
The chemical properties of Camphor are thus deThe Camphor yielded by the Dryobalanops camphora, seribed.—" Camphor is a vegetable substance, of an is found occupying portions of about a foot, or a foot oily nature, combustible, odoriferous, volatile, conand a half, in the heart of the tree. The natives, in crete, and crystalline." Its smell is strong and pene. searching for the camphor, make a deep incision in trating; its inflammable nature is so great, that it the trunk, about fourteen or eighteen feet from the will burn when floating on the surface of water. A ground, with a billing, or Malay axe, and when it is curious rotatory movement takes place among small discovered, the tree is felled, and cut into junks a particles of Camphor when sprinkled on the surface fathom long. The same tree yields a liquid or oily of water; and if a cylindrical piece of Camphor is matter, which has nearly the same properties as the partly plunged in the liquid, it is dissolved, not equally camphor, and is supposed to be the first stage of its over the whole immersed portion, but with great formation. The precise age when this tree begins to rapidity at that part which is on a level with the suryield camphor has not yet been satisfactorily ascer- face of the water. Camphor is much used in the tained, but the young trees are known to yield only preservation of subjects of natural history from oil, that is, camphor in a liquid state.
insects ; its powerful odour destroys the more minute The method of extracting the oil, is by making a species, and deters the larger from approaching, and deep incision with a small aperture, into the body of it is also used in medicine as a sedative. the tree, and the oil, if any, immediately gushes out and is received in bamboos. The product of a middling-sized tree is about eight China catties, or about eleven pounds, and a large tree will yield nearly double
The beautiful system of sun, planets, and comets, could
have its origin in no other way than by the purpose that quantity. It is said that trees which have been and command of an intelligent and powerful Being. He cut for the purpose of obtaining the oil, and left stand- governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as the ing in that state, will often produce camphor eight or
lord of the universe. He is not only God, but Lord or ten years after, but it is of an inferior quality.
Governor: we know him
, Camphor is also prepared, in China, from the leaves butes, by the wise and admirable structure of things around and branches of a tree, called by the Chinese tchang.
us, and by their final causes ; we admire him on account They take some branches fresh from the tree, chop
of his perfections, we venerate and worship
him on account
of his government.—Sir Isaac NEWTON. them very small, and lay them to steep in springwater for three days and three nights. After they Living in an age of extraordinary events and revolutiopha have been soaked in this manner, they are put into a kettle, where
they are boiled for a certain time, during thus be communicated to posterity; that all is vanity which which they are kept constantly stirred with a stick is not honest, and that there is no solid wisdom but in real made of willow. When they perceive that the sap of piety.--Evelyn's Epitaph by himself. these small chips adheres sufficiently to the stick in the form of a white frost, they strain the whole, taking care to throw away the dregs and refuse. This juice is after
LONDON: wards poured gently into an earthen basin, well var. JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. nished, in which it is suffered to remain one night. POBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTALT PARTA Next morning it is found coagulated and formed into Sold by all Booksellers and Newstenders in the Kingdom
HEAD-DRESSES OF EGYPTIAN LADIES.
HEAD-DRESSES OF GRECIAN LADIES.
HEAD-DRESSES OF ROMAN LADIES,
ON WIGS AND HEAD-DRESSES. both sexes round the forehead, and in the males
round the chin, as sometimes to resemble the cells
of a bee-hive, and at others waves and undulations, THE HEAD-Dresses or FEMALES.
executed in wirework. The arrangement of the hair, and the decoration of
Ladies reckoned among the ornaments of the head the head, have, in all ages, been objects of great the tiara, or crescent-formed diadem, and ribands, attention among females, and the extravagance into rows of beads, wreaths of flowers, nettings, fillets
, which they have been led, in decorating this part of skewers, and gew-gaws innumerable. Ear-rings the person, has often been a subject of severe reproof. of various shapes, necklaces in numerous rows, and We meet with many instances of this in the Sacred various other trinkets, were in great request. The volume, where the vanities of the Jewish women are Roman ladies followed, to a certain extent, the fashions particularly alluded to.
of the Greeks, but they seem rarely to have worn The Jews, originally a pastoral people, acquired a the tiara, or the net to support the hair; their mode taste for this method of ornamenting the person of dressing the hair was less elegant but more elabothrough their intercourse with the Egyptians, and rate, being frequently arranged in a vast number of with the Asiatic nations. There are no known Jewish small curls ; for this purpose they made use of a hot monuments to which we can refer, but we may iron, called calamistrum, and this instrument appears gather much information on the subject from the to have been in use among the Grecian as well as the remains of Egyptian antiquity, for there is little Roman ladies. Tiaras, pins, and other articles for doubt the fashions of the Jews were mostly borrowed the decoration of the head, have been found among from the people of that nation. We have already the ruins of Pompeii. The Roman ladies, whose hair given a representation of an ancient Egyptian wig*, is generally black, were extremely fond of light and but this kind of head-dress was seldom worn without auburn hair, which was brought to Rome from Gera variety of ornaments being at the same time added; many and the northern parts of Europe. Ovid, and these consisted of fillets of gold, ribands of the other Latin poets, frequently allude to this practice, brightest colours, flowers, particularly the lotus, of and to the employment of a German nostrum to which they were extremely fond; in some cases cause the hair to grow,feathers, together with enormous ear-rings, necklaces, Say that by age, or some great sickness had, elegantly painted collars, &c.
Thy head with wonted hair be thinly clad; The first three figures in the engraving are head- Falling away like corn from ripened sheaves, dresses of Egyptian females. The figure to the left
As thick, as Boreas blows down Autumn leaves. shows the usual mode of wearing a wig, resembling
By German herbs thou may'st thy hair restore,
And hide the bare scalp that was bald before. that we have already figured; the only ornament
Women have known this art, and of their crew being a narrow fillet round the crown of the head.
Many false colours buy, to hide the true; The central figure is much more gaudily attired, and And multitudes, yea, more than can be told, was probably an assistant at some religious cere- Walk in such hair as they have bought for gold. mony; in her hand she holds a musical instrument,
Hair is good merchandise, and grown a trade, called a sistrum. The feathers which surmount the
Markets and public traffic thereof made
Nor do they blush to cheapen it among head-dress are variegated with green and red, an
The thickest number, and the rudest throng, artificial lotus forms part of the ornament, fixed in a golden support ; a golden fillet binds the hair, which struction as to the dressing of their hair.
The same poet also ventures to give the ladies inis black; the ornament which hangs over the shoulder is of blue and gold, and the collar is elegantly worked
A long and slender visage best allows
To have the hair part, just above the brows; or painted. The right-hand figure has her head
So Laodameia, surnamed the fair, covered with a cap, of a delicate fabric, and of a Used, when she walked abroad, to truss her hair. bright-blue colour; the rosettes of the fillet are of A round plump face must have her trammels tied gold, and the ornament that depends from the top of
In a fast knot above, her front to hide; the head is black; the ornament is in the form of a
The wire supporting it, whilst either ear,
Bare and in sight, upon each side appear. serpent.
Some ladies' locks about their shoulders fall, The next nation of antiquity to which we can
And hanging loose, become them best of all. refer on this subject is the Greeks, and the good taste of the Grecian ladies is eminently conspicuous More leaves the forest yields not from the trees, in the adornment of the head.
At first, as appears
More beasts the Alps breed not, nor Hybla bees, both from ancient seulpture and paintings, men
Than there be fashions of attire in view, and women alike wore their hair descending partly
For each succeeding day adds something new. before and partly behind, in a number of long separate locks, either of a flat and zig-zagged, or THE LIMITED POWER OF MAN. of a round and corkscrew shape. A little later it grew into fashion to collect the whole of the hair
Man can construct exquisite machines, can call in hanging down the back, by means of a riband, vast powers, can form extensive combinations, in
in front, one, two, or three long narrow locks hang- nature which already exist; he is applying to his use
But all ing down separately; and this is the head-dress which Minerva, “a maiden affecting old fashions qualities which matter already possesses. Nor can and formality, never seems to have quitted,” Later law of nature which is not a result of the existing
he by any effort do more. He can establish no new still the queue depending down the back was taken up, and doubled into a club, and the side-locks only which are not modifications of its present attributes
ones. He can invest matter with no new properties continued to reach in front as low down as the His greatest advances in skill and power are made bosom. But these also gradually shrunk away into when he calls to his aid forces which before existed a greater number of
smaller tufts or ringlets, hanging unemployed, or when he discovers so much of the down about the ears, and leaving the neck quite habits of some of the elements as to be able to bend unconfined. So neatly was the hair arranged in them to his purpose. He navigates the ocean by the * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 113.
assistance of the winds, which he cannot raise or still :
and even if we suppose him able to control the the moon, without any other feeling than the comfort force of these, his yet unsubjugated ministers, this of a safe and easy navigation ; and the varieties of could only be done by studying their characters, by hill and dale, of shady woods and luxuriant verdure, learning more thoroughly the laws of air, and heat, might have been pleasant only in the eyes of farmers and moisture. He cannot give the minutest portion and graziers. We could, too, have listened to sounds of the atmosphere new relations, a new course of ex- with equal indifference to everything beyond the mere pansion, new laws of motion. But the Divine opera- information they conveyed to us ; and the sighing of tions, on the other hand, include something much the breeze, or the murmuring of the ocean, while we higher. They take in the establishment of the laws learned nothing from them of which we could avail of the elements, as well as the combinations of these ourselves, might have been heard without pleasure. laws, and the determination of the distribution and it is evident that the perception of external things, quantity of the materials on which they shall produce for the mere purpose of making use of them, has no their effect. We must conceive that the Supreme connexion with the feeling of their beauty; and that Power has ordained that air shall be rarefied, and our Creator, therefore, has bestowed on us this addiwater turned into vapour by heat ; no less than that tional feeling, for the purpose of augmenting our haphe has combined air and water, so as to sprinkle the piness. Had he not had this design, he might have earth with showers, and determined the quantity of left us without the sense of beauty or deformity. heat, and air, and water, so that the showers shall be “If God," says Paley, “had wished our misery, He as beneficial as they are.
might have made sure of his purpose, by forming We may and must, therefore, in our conceptions our senses to be as many sores and pains to us, as of the Divine purpose and agency, go beyond the they are now instruments of our gratification and analogy of human contrivances. We must conceive enjoyment, or by placing us among objects so illthe Deity, not only as constructing the most refined suited to our perceptions, as to have continually and vast machinery with which the universe is filled ; offended us, instead of ministering to our refreshment but we must also imagine him as establishing those and delight. He might have made, for instance, properties by which such machinery is possible: as everything we saw loathsome, everything we touched giving to the materials of his structure the qualities a sting, and every sound a discord.” by which the material is fitted to its use. There is In place of every sound being a discord, the greatmuch to be found, in natural objects, of the same est part of the sounds which we hear are more or less kind of contrivance which is common to these and to agreeable to us. The infinite variety of sounds prohuman inventions : there are mechanical devices, duced by the wind and waters, the cries of animals, operations of the atmospheric elements, chemical the notes of birds, and above all, the tones of the processes. Many such have been pointed out; many human voice, all affect us with various kinds and demore exist. But besides these cases of the combina grees of pleasure ; and, in general, it may be said, tion of means, which we seem able to understand that it is such sounds as indicate something to be without much difficulty, we are led to consider the feared and avoided, such as the howling of wild Divine Being as the author of the laws of chemical, of beasts, or the hissing of serpents, that are positively physical, and of mechanical action, and of such other | painful to our ears, In this sense all nature may be laws as make matter what it is; and this is a view said to be full of music, the disagreeable and diswhich no analogy of human inventions, no knowledge cordant sounds being (as in artificial music), in such of human powers, at all assists us to embody or un- proportion only as to heighten the pleasure derived derstand. Science, therefore, while it discloses to us from those which are agreeable. The human voice the mode of instrumentality employed by the Deity, is that which pleases us chiefly, and affects us most convinces us, more effectually than ever, of the im- powerfully. Its natural tones and accents are calcupossibility of conceiving God's actions by assimilating lated to penetrate the heart of the listener, and the them to our own. --WHEWELL.
union of these to articulate speech, in every language, not only produces a melody which pleases the ear,
but an effect on the feelings, of which the mere words MUSIC
would be incapable. These natural tones of the voice, Music, though now a very complex and difficult art, either by themselves, or joined to articulate lanis , in truth, a gift of the Author of Nature to the guage, constitute music in its simplest state; and the whole human race. Its existence and influence are pleasures and feelings derived from such music must to be traced in the records of every people from the necessarily have existed in every form of society. earliest ages, and are perceptible, at the present time, Hogarth's Musical History. in every quarter of the globe. It is a part of the benevolent order of Providence, that we are capable of receiving from the objects around us, pleasures
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XXXVI. independent of the immediate purposes for which
THE CARPENTER. 2. they have been created. Our eyes do not merely When a timber-tree is cut down, the branches, arms, and enable us to see external things, so as to avail our- boughs, are cut off and the bark stripped, this being selves of their useful properties; they enable us also valuable for many purposes, The trunk is then sawed to enjoy the delight produced by the sensation of square, and again cut into planks, deals, battens, &c, as beauty
, a perception which (upon whatever principle the different sized boards into which it is reduced are called. it may be explained), is something distinct from any logs, distinguished from the long beams known technically
Teak and mahogany is imported into this country in consideration of the mere utility of an object. We
as timber, by their width and thickness, being considerable, could have had the most accurate perceptions of the in proportion to their length. form and position of everything that constitutes the Timber is sawed in countries producing, or using it, in most beautiful landscape, without receiving any idea great quantities in saw mills, in woich the tools are worked of its beauty. We could have beheld the sun setting by water or steam. From four to six long saws are set amid the glowing tints of a summer evening, without parallel to each other in a frame, and at the distance apart
of the thickness of the planks into which the timber is to thinking of anything beyond the advantage of serene
be cut. These frames of saws are moved vertically up and Weather ; we might have contemplated the glossy ex- down by the machinery, the timber lying horizontally on a panse of the ocean, reflecting the tranquil beams of frame-work, and being pushed gradually along by the ma
chinery, to keep the saws in action as they cut through it, the girder is completed, there is a slit all along it, through the saws always remaining in one place.
which the truss is seen lying in its place between the two Wood is also sawed into battens, laths, &c., by circular sides. saws, turned by machinery, like a lathe.
Iron trusses are often used instead of oak, and beams When timber is sawed by hand, it is done by two men are frequently strengthened by screwing a thin flat iron acting in concert in the following manner. A pit is gene- truss on one or both sides, let into the beam for about half rally chosen, round the margin of which a stout frame is the thickness of the metal. laid. The beam to be sawed is laid lengthwise to the pit on this frame, in the centre, and one man stands on the beam while another is in the pit below him, each alternately raising or pulling down a large vertical saw, with which they saw the beam lengthwise into planks. Wedges of wood are placed by them in the fissure as they proceed, to keep the cut open, and thus allow the saw to play freely. This is excessively hard labour, especially to the upper man, who has not only to raise the weight of the saw in the up-stroke, but to guide it correctly along the chalked line on the beam. This man gets higher wages, and is called the Top-sawyer, a term technically given in jest to any one who is, or fancies himself, of importance.
When timber is wanted in lengths exceeding those that can be procured from the tree in one piece, it must be joined by what is called scarfing; that is, the ends of the two lengths that are to be united into one, are cut so that a
This mode of strengthening a beam by trussing, is only portion of the one may lap over and fit into a portion of the adopted in floors, where it is necessary to limit the depth other which is cut so as to receive it, the timber, when
of the truss to that of the beam, to obtain a level surface united, being of the same uniforin size. The joined ends by means of joists laid across, and supported by, the beam. are secured together by bolts or spikes. The annexed are
But it is obvious that much greater strength may be imfigures of the more usual modes of scarfing timber for parted to a long beam by making it the base of a triangular
frame, as is done in roofs, in various manners, when the slanting sides of the triangular frame carry the battens or laths for supporting the tiles or other covering.
The annexed is the simplest form of a roof, and will help to explain the subject of carpentry in other respects. The beam A, called the Tie-beam, is of such a length as to rest on the side walls of the house at each of its ends, and is supposed to be of such dimensions in depth and thickness as would render it inadequate to support much more than its own weight. The two sloping rafters B B, are called Principals; they are mortised into the tie-beam at their ends by a joint, shown in the annexed figure, by which they are provided with a firm abutment to prevent the ends from slipping outwards, and in order to prevent the principa! from starting upwards out of the mortise, it is strapped down to the tie-beam by an iron strap, bolted or screwed to both timbers.
pis termed a King-post, and is cut out with a head and foot, the former to receive the upper ends of the principals,
which, being cut square, abut firmly against the sloping The last is a mode of scarfing invented by Mr. Roberts, face of the head. The sloping principals hold up the kingof the Royal Dock Yards.
post, and the tie-beam is supported from the latter by a When a beam of timber is long in proportion to its stirrup-shaped strap, that goes under the beam and is breadth and thickness, it will bend by its own and will be bolted, or screwed, to the post on each side. To prevent incapable of supporting much additional weight; it may be the principals from bending by the strain, or by the weight strengthened by trussing, in different modes, of which we of the roof-covering, the struts c c, are placed, abutting will only describe that usually adopted for girders, intended against the beveled part of the foot of the king-post, and are for floors. The beam is sawed longitudinally into two strapped to the principals, or mortised into them. equal beams, each, of course, half the thickness of the The number of tie-beams with their trusses, &c., of original, these halves are reversed, end for end, so that if course depends on the length of the roof, or the material there were any weak part in the original beam, this may with which it is to be covered. A longitudinal scantling, be divided equally between the ends of the compound beam or thin beam, called a purline, E, is laid lengthwise, resting made up of the two halves when bolted together. A flat on the principals over the ends of the struts, and is secured truss, usually of oak, with iron king-bolts and abutting to the former by a spike, or else by being notched down plates, resembling in form and principle, a timber roof or on to the principal. These purlines support the common bridge
, is placed between the two half beams, and let into rafters R, which abut at their feet against a longitudina! a shallow groove cut in each half to receive it; the com- scantling s, lying
on, and halved down on, the tie-beams; pound beam, with this truss in the middle, is then bolted at their upper ends, the rafters r rest against a ridge-piece
, together again by means of iron bolts with washers and nuts, and consequently becomes rigid by the construction The rafters are placed about a foot apart, and on to them
or thin plank, let edgeways into the head of the king-post
. of the truss. The truss is not entirely let into the double are nailed the laths or battens to carry the tiles or slates. beam, as the full effect of strength may be obtained without In constructing roofs, floors, and other structures of the necessity for cutting the groove in each half beam, of timber, the various beams are framed, or fastened together half the thickness of the oak truss; consequently, when by certain processes calculated to insure strength and pera