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OF THE WYE-LLANGURIG

RHAYADYR.

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we lose sight of local and national attachment, which of Cardigan, and a dim outline of the coast of cast an indescribable charm over all, So much for Ireland. After a copious fall of rain, the cataracts the "picturesque" or topographical side of the sub- which descend with headlong fury down the sides of ject. Our limits will not permit us to attempt even the mountain, add considerably to the grandeur and a bare enumeration of the wonders of art, which wildness of the scenery. This “hill king” of Cam. have elevated this country to the highest rank bria is best known, however, as the parent of no less amongst nations, else we could dwell at length on than five streams or rivers, whence is derived the the field presented to the traveller in search of in- name Pum, five, and Luinon, springs, or fountain, formation, on the manufacturing and commercial The most important of these is the Severn, which establishments, the dockyards and arsenals, ports, rising in the north-east of the same group of mounmines, canals, bridges, railroads, and other public tains, (for Plynlimmon consists properly of three works, which contribute to our prosperity, and are mountains piled together into one gigantic mass,) eminently calculated to instruct the inquiring mind. after a course of about two hundred miles, pours its

Having thus slightly glanced at the profitable waters into the sea below Bristol. The Wye, or Guy, nature of home tours, let us proceed to our immediate which in Celtic signifies a river, issuing from the subject, and request the reader to accompany us to southern side of the mountain, falls in a narrow the source of the “ sylvan Wye.”

streamlet several hundred yards nearly perpendicular,

till gradually increasing by the union of several small Part I,

springs, the overplus of the surrounding morasses, it PLINLYMMON-SOURCE

soon forms a cataract, rolling with amazing rapidity over a rocky channel. The other rivers, the Rheidal,

the Llyffnant, and the Fynach, though considerable Thou sylvan Wye, since last my feet Wandered along thy margin sweet,

streams, are of minor importance, I've gazed on many a far-famed stream,

The Wye, (says Gilpin,) after dividing the counties of

Radnor and Brecon, passes through the middle of HereBut none, to my delighted eye,

fordshire; it then becomes a second boundary between the Seemed lovelier than my own sweet Wye,

counties of Monmouth and Gloucester, and falls into the Through meads of living verdure driven,

Severn a little below Chepstow. The exquisite beauty and 'Twixt hills that seem earth's links to heaven;

grandeur of the scenery which in many parts adorn its With sweetest odours breathing round,

shores in almost endless variety, is scarcely to be equalled. With every woodland glory crowned,

Such is the sinuosity of its course, that between Ross and And skies of such cerulean hue,

Chepstow, a distance not exceeding seventeen miles in a A veil of such transparent blue,

direct line, the water passage is thirty-eight. Along the That God's own eye seems gazing through.

whole of this distance, the poet Gray truly observes, that

its banks are a succession of nameless beauties. TAE"pleased Vaga," as the Wye is poetically termed

The beauty of these scenes arises chiefly from two cirby Pope, takes its rise from a spacious hollow near

cumstances; the lofty banks of the river, and its mazy the summit of Plynlimmon, a dreary mountain

course; both of which are aocurately embodied by the which attains an altitude of 2463 feet, on the borders poet', when he describes the Wye as echoing through its of the counties of Cardigan and Montgomery, about winding bounds. It could not well echo, unless its banks fifteen miles from that fashionable watering-place,

were both lofty and winding Aberystwith. The lower parts of the mountain are Let us now commence our matter-of-fact tour. covered with soft mossy turf, and stunted heath, but The progress of the Wye from its source to LLANoften broken with rugged and extensive bogs, which GURIG, a distance of about ten miles, is through a render the ascent dangerous and difficult*. In other naked and dreary country, with undulating hills in places the surface is entirely overspread with large the background. Mr. Roscoe observes, in his deloose stones, or white-coloured rocks, which give it a lightful Wanderings, that the village is honoured in singular appearance on approaching its base. The all travellers' note-books with the cognomen of summit consists of two peaks, on each of which are

“ wretched.” There is only one very indifferent piled a pyramid of loose stones, called in the language house of entertainment, but now that there is a of the country, Carnedd, or Carneddau. Similar heaps prospect of the Upper Wye Tour becoming appreciated of stones are common on the neighbouring mountains, as it ought, we agree with Mr. Roscoe that Llanand in many other places in Wales. It has been gurig will no doubt at an early period afford superior supposed that they are sepulchral monuments erected accommodation. Poor as the village is, the scenery by the Britons in honour of their military heroes, is wild and extremely magnificent, so much so, inbut it seems more probable that those on Plynlim- deed, that Nicholson speaks of it as “exceeding the mon were formerly used as beacons, as they might powers of description." The hamlet stands on the have been seen from ten counties. In 1401, the re- north bank of the river, surrounded by towering nowned chieftain, Owen Glendower, posted himself mountains, the lower portions of which are partially on this mountain with a small body of men, awaiting covered with wood, and relieve the hitherto monothe arrival of his vassals and friends from various tonous tone of the landscape, the eye having preparts of the principality, and from whence he freviously been accustomed to dwell chietiy on the sullen quently descended and harassed the adjacent country. and savage sterility of Plynlimmon. The entrenchments he threw up may still be traced. The scenery from Llangurig to Rhayadyr, espeThe blade of a British spear or pike made of brass, cially on approaching the latter, is highly interesting; was found in a bog near this spot some years ago.

the river being confined by close rocky banks, and The views from the summit in clear weather embrace having a considerable declination, the whole is a suca wild and extensive range of landscape; exhibiting cession of rapids and waterfalls. The Nanerth rocks, mountains rolling, as it were, over each other in the for nearly three miles, form a fine screen to the north most sublime forms and beautiful hues. In the north bank. The trees and shrubs which overhang the appears Cader Idris, and the lofty region of Snow- eddying pools and rapids in many places, add condonia; the hills of Salop and Hereford may be seen siderably to the picturesquc character of the scenery. to the east and north-east; and on the west the bay RHAYADYR, a straggling, but rather a curious

At a small roadside inn at Eisteddfa Gurrig, a guide can be specimen of a Welsh town, has little to recommend obtained, and from whence the mountain is generally ascended,

+ Pope.

Gilpit's Observations on the river Wye.

it, save its beautiful situation. It stands on elevated , from sacred history that the earliest altars were made ground on the east bank of the Wye, which, after of unhewn stone : indeed, the Chaldee word for altar, leaving the Nanerth rocks, makes an easy bend signifies literally, “ stones orderly erected,” and God under woody hills. The view from the bridge, which himself directs Moses, “ If thou wilt make me an has a very fine arch, is singularly grand, the river altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone: here falling over a ledge of rugged rocks and form- for if thou lift up thy tool upon it thou hast polluted ing a magnificent cascade, from which the town it.” (Exod. xx. 25.) This reverence for unhewn derives its name Rhayadyr Gwy; Rhayadyr, signi- stones led to their being used as idols. We read of fying a cataract, and Gwy, a river. There is excel

the children of Israel in the age of their corruption, lent fishing above Rhayadyr, the river abounding that “they set them up images and groves in every with fine trout, and in the Summer season it is high hill and under every green tree.” (2 Kings xvii. much resorted to by the lovers of the piscatory art. 10.) Here the Hebrew word Matzebah, which our The town is divided into four streets, intersecting translators have rendered “image," properly signifies each other at right angles, a plan common in most " a stone pillar.” So also in the Levitical law: “Ye of the old Welsh towns. In the reign of Henry shall make you no idols nor graven image, neither rear the Eighth, the quarter sessions were held here, but you up a standing image, neither shall ye set up any were soon afterwards removed, chiefly on account of image of stone in your land to bow down before it: the inability of the place to afford necessary accom

for I am the Lord your God.” (Levit. xxvi. 1.) Here modation for the judges. In the centre of the town the word Matzebah, rendered "standing image,” sigstands the hall, a square building erected about nifies simply a stone pillar. In consequence of these 1768. The castle, which stood on a nook of the perversions, the erection of the Matzebah was entirely Wye, at the extremity of Maes-bach, a small common prohibited, when Moses recapitulated the law to the in the neighbourhood, was anciently of considerable children of Israel. importance. Of the superstructure nothing now

The worship of stone pillars was very common in remains. It is said to have been erected by Rhys, the East; Clement of Alexandria declares that rude prince of South Wales in the time of Richard the

stones were the object of adoration in those lands First

, and afterwards burnt in 1231 by Llewellyn ap where the art of statuary was not understood; PauJorwerth.

sanius mentions several such pillars in Bæotia, where

they were probably introduced by the Phænician CHAPTERS ON CORONATIONS.

and Arnobius declares that the pagans of colonists;

Northern Africa consecrated pillars of stone for idols No. II.

so late as the fourth century of the Christian era. THE REGALIA.

Superstition connected stone seats with the admiAmong the Regalia of England there is no article pos- nistration of justice, which was regarded as a right sessing more historical interest than King Edward's delegated to rulers by the gods. This custom lasted or, as it is commonly called, St. Edward's Chair, to a very late period; a marble bench anciently stood in which the sovereign is seated when the crown is

at the upper end of Wesminster Hall, where the placed upon his head. It is in shape similar to the king in person, and at a subsequent period his chief high-backed chairs which were fashionable in England judges, heard the pleas of those who complained of about a century ago; its height is six feet seven injury, and hence the chief criminal court of the inches, its depth twenty-five inches, and the breadth realm is now called the Court of King's Bench. of the seat measured withinside is twenty-eight

The Irish stone of destiny appears from the ancient inches. At the height of nine inches from the ground records of Ireland to have been an altar, an idol, and there is a ledge which supports the celebrated Stone the throne of the kings; and it was therefore viewed of Destiny, which Edward I., or Longshanks, brought with three-fold reverence. A remarkable prophecy from Scotland as a memorial of his conquest of that identified its fortunes with those of the royal line of country. This stone was originally the royal seat of the Scots, which is thus given in the old monkish the kings of Ireland ; they called it Liafail, or

the rhymes :stone of destiny," and attributed so much importance

Ni fallat fatum, to it, that they named the island in honour of it,

Scoti, quocunque locatum

Invenient lapidem, Innisfail, or “ the island of destiny.” According to

Tenentur regnare ibidem. the monkish legends, this was the identical stone That is: which served Jacob as a pillow when he saw the miraculous vision in Bethel; they tell us that it was

Or Fate is false, or where this stone is found, brought by Gathol, king of the Scuths, or Scots, to

A king of Scottish race will there be crowned. Brigantia, a city of Gallicia in Spain, and that it was It was on account of the importance attached to this removed from thence to Ireland by Simon Brech, the prophecy that Kenneth removed the stone from Dunleader of a body of Scots, about seven hundred years staffnage to Scone, where, for more than four hundred before the birth of Christ. From these invaders and fifty years, it was used as a throue at the coroIreland received the name of Scotia, which it retained nation of the Scottish kings. Its removal to Enguntil within a century of the English invasion. Fer- land was felt by the entire people of Scotland as a gus, a descendant of Simon Brech, being compelled national humiliation, and they stipulated for its to leave Ireland in consequence of civil wars, led a restoration at the treaty of Northampton, A.D. 1328. body of emigrants to Argyleshire, and brought with Writs for sending it back were issued by Edward him the stone of destiny, which he deposited at the Third, but from some unexplained cause they Dunstaffnage, about three hundred years before the were never executed. birth of Christ. All his descendants were installed When James the First ascended the throne of on this stone seat, and it was believed that when the England great importance was attached to this fulfilrightful heir took his seat, the stone emitted loud ment of the prophecy connected with the stone of and harmonious musical sounds, but that it remained destiny, and so deep was the impression thus prosilent whenever a pretender attempted to be crowned. duced on the minds of the Scottish people, that in the

The real history of the stone is scarcely less curious reign of Queen Anne it reconciled many to the Union, than that ascribed to it in the legend. We learn who would otherwise have opposed that measure.,

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THE AMPULLA,

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and jar were delivered to him by a holy man, to whom the place of its concealment was divinely revealed. He gave it to the most noble Prince Edward, commonly called the Black Prince, who deposited it in the Tower of London. It was enclosed in a box secured with more than ordinary care; but the box itself by some accident was put astray, so that the holy oil could not be used at the coronation of Richard the Second. In the year of grace 1399, Richard the Second, having made an inquisition into the treasures bequeathed to him by his ancestors, found the eagle and jar, together with a manuscript in the handwriting of “St. Thomas of

Canterbury," containing the prophetic description of KING EDWARD'S CHAIR.

all the advantages and blessings that the kings of

England would derive from being anointed with this A close examination of the stone induces us to holy oil. He was so struck with the enumeration, believe that it is a block of red sandstone, containing that he wished the ceremony of his coronation to be a more than ordinary proportion of ferruginous repeated, and applied to the archbishop of Canterbury matter; it certainly is not an aërolite, as several for the purpose. The prelate obstinately refused, authors have asserted. Its dimensions are, twenty- declaring that unction was a sacrament, which, like two inches in length, thirteen in breadth, and eleven the sacrament of baptism, could not be administered in depth. At each end are two short iron chains. The chair itself was anciently decorated with him when he made his unfortunate voyage to Ireland,

a second time. Richard took the eagle and jar with carving, gilding, and painting, but its beauty has been and on his return resigned them to the custody of long since effaced. At modern coronations it is the archbishop of Canterbury at Chester, saying, “It covered with cloth of gold, but we could wish that is manifestly the will of God that I should not be the decorations of this very interesting relic of anti- anointed with this holy oil; that solemn sacrament is quity should be restored as nearly as possible ac

reserved for some more favoured monarch." The cording to the ancient pattern.

archbishop kept these precious treasures until the The AMPULLA, or Golden Eagle, in which the holy usurpation of Henry the Fourth, who was the first oil for anointing the kings is preserved, is a vessel of English sovereign anointed with this precious oil. pure gold, in the shape of an eagle with expanding wings, nearly seven inches in height, and weighing of the French kings is still more extraordinary. It

The legend of the Ampulla used at the coronation about ten ounces. The old historian Walsingham, is said to have been brought from heaven by a dove in his account of the coronation of Henry the Fourth, to St. Remy, when he was performing the ceremony connects the use of this Ampulla with a very singular of the coronation of Clovis. Hincmar, in his life of legend :-Henry the Fourth, according to the histo- St. Remy, thus narrates the legend :rian, was anointed with the identical holy oil which the blessed Virgin gave to St. Thomas the Martyr, down a phial in his mouth full of holy oil. All that were

And behold a dove, fairer than snow, suddenly brought archbishop of Canterbury: that is, to Thomas à present were delighted with the fragrancy of it, and when Becket, whose extreme pride and insolence form so the archbishop had received it, the dove vanished. remarkable a part of the history of Henry the

Another historian, quoted by Menin, is rather more Second. Becket received this extraordinary boon particular in his relation :when he was in exile, and the Virgin assured him,

When he that bore the chrism was absent and kept off that whatever kings of England should be anointed by the people, lo! suddenly no other doubtless than the with this oil, they would become merciful rulers and Holy Spirit appeared, in the visible form of a dove, who distinguished champions of the church. It may be carrying the holy oil in his shining bill, laid it down becurious to remark, that Walsingham, or, as he is more

tween the hands of the minister. frequently called, "the worthy monk of St. Alban's," The oil of this mystic vessel was declared by the is not very scrupulous respecting the purity of the Romish priests to be undiminished by use, and this language he attributes to the Virgin, for the word was gravely put forward as a standing miracle until which we have rendered “ champions,” literally sig- the time of the French Revolution. At the coronanifies boxers, or heroes of the prize-ring,—a kind of tion of Charles the Tenth, the priests bad the folly to champions not very well suited to the defence of the proclaim in the public papers that a phial containing church.

some of this invaluable unction had been preserved This oil

, preserved in a golden eagle and stone jar, from the destruction of the rest of the Regalia, to was long lost, but it was at last miraculously brought anoint the head of a monarch so devoted to the to light. While Henry, the first duke of Lancaster, interests of the Romish churcb. was waging war in foreign parts, the aforesaid eagle The original Ampulla given to Thomas à Becket

was not destroyed with the rest of the Regalia in the of purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned time of the Commonwealth ; but it was renovated for up with ermine, like that of the imperial crown. the coronation of Charles the Second, and at the A queen-consort wears a circlet proceeding to her same time a new spoon was prepared into which the coronation, and is crowned with St. Edgitha's oil is poured by the consecrating prelate. The spoon, Crown; which is so named in honour of Edgitha, like the eagle, is of chased gold, and is adorned with the consort of Edward the Confessor. four large pearls in the broadest part of the handle.

Kings were anciently anointed on the head, the bowings of the arms, on both shoulders, between the shoulders, on the breast, and on the hands. There are only three distinct anointings in modern coronations, on the head, breast, and hands, which were said by Becket to indicate glory, holiness, and fortitude. Great importance was attached to this unction, for Shakspeare represents Richard the Second declaring on the invasion of Bolingbroke:

Not all the water in the rough rude sea,

Can wash the balm from an anointed king. The rich IMPERIAL Crown of gold with which the monarchs of England are crowned, is still called St. Edward's crown, though it was actually made for the coronation of Charles the Second, the more ancient

QUEEN B CROWN

QUEEN'S CIRCLET. crown having been stolen and sold in 1642. It is : embellished with pearls and precious stones, as dia- The queen's circlet of gold is richly adorned with

monds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, and has a large diamonds, and has a string of pearls round its mound of gold on the top, enriched with a fillet of upper edge. The cap is purple velvet, lined with gold embellished also with precious stones. Upon white taffeta, and turned up with ermine richly powthe mound is a cross of gold garnished with jewels, dered. and three very large oval pearls, one fixed on the top, The queen's crown, or the crown of St. Edgitha, and two others pendent on the ends of the cross. was originally manufactured for Catherine, the conIt is composed of four crosses pattée, and as many sort of Charles the Second. It is a rich imperial

crown of gold, set with very valuable diamonds, intermixed with other precious stones and pearls. It is composed of crosses and fleurs de dis, with bars and arches, and a mound and cross on the top, like the crown of St. Edward, only smaller and lighter. The cap is of purple velvet, and turned up with

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ST. EDWARD'S CROWN,

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CROWN OF STATE.

fleurs de lis of gold, all embellished with precious stones. From these crosses arise four circular bars or arches, which meet at the top in form of a cross; having at their intersection a pedestal, on which is

QUEEN EDGITH A'S Crowy. fixed the mound already mentioned. The cap within this crown is of purple velvet, lined with white taffeta, ermine, or minever pure, richly powdered. The and turned up with ermine. On the day of corona- crown of St. Edward is used solely for the coronation tion the jewels and precious stones belonging to the of a sovereign queen, and cannot be worn by a queen Crown of State, so called because it is worn by every consort. sovereign coming in state to parliament, are taken The Saxon kings of England wore crowns like out, fixed in collets, and pinned into the imperial those of other nations, which were at first only simcrown: their places are supplied by mock stones, ple circlets of gold. King Egbert first adorned the when the ceremony of the coronation is concluded. fillet, or circle, with radiant points, similar to the Since the time of Charles the Second a very rich

worn by the emperors of the East; and crown of state, to be worn by the sovereign only at King Edmund, surnamed Ironside, tipped the points the coronation dinner in Westminster Hall, is pre- with pearl. William the Conqueror surmounted the pared for every succeeding king or sovereign queen. circle with points and leaves, the points being much This is very rich, being embellished with several large higher than the leaves, and each of them was tipped diamonds, and a great number of pearls ; but it is with three pearls ; on the top of the cap, or tiara, most distinguished by a very large ruby, set in the was a cross pattée. William Rufus adorned his middle of one of the four crosses, and estimated at crown with points only, which were all tipped with the value of ten thousand pounds, and also by the pearls. The crown of Henry the First was adorned mound's being one entire stone of a sea-green colour, with fleurs de lis only; these fleurs de lis appear to known by the name of an aquamarine. The cap is have been originally designed to represent the heads

crowns

of lances, and to have been borrowed from some placed on the circle itself all round. The cap and tassel military decorations of the ancient Germans. Maud, are the same as before. Coronets were first assigned to Queen of England, enriched her crown with leaves viscounts in the reign of James the First. The coronet of

a Baron has only six pearls set round the circle, at equal and points alternately, the leaves being higher than

distances; before the reign of Charles the Second barons the points; and this custom remained unvaried until

wore simply a crimson cap, turned up with white fur, but the accession of Edward the Third. He enriched

that monarch assigned them coronets, and at the same his crown with fleurs de lis and crosses pattée. time issued warrants permitting the peers of Scotland and Edward the Fourth was the first English monarch

Ireland to use coronets similar to those worn by noblemen who wore a close or arched crown; it was decorated

of the same rank in England. with fleurs de lis and crosses pattée, and arched with four bars. Henry the Seventh and Henry the

MATERIALISM. Eighth had their crowns composed of fleurs de lis Tae doctrine of the materialists was always, even in and crosses pattée, with two arches, embellished with

my youth, a cold, heavy, dull, and insupportable pearls and precious stones; and this form has been doctrine to me, and necessarily tending to atheism. since continued.

When I heard with disgust, in the dissecting rooms, The ancient French crown was a circle of gold the plan of the physiologist, of the gradual secretion enamelled, of eight fleurs de lis, encompassed with of matter, and its becoming endued with irritability, eight arched diadems, bearing at the top a double ripening into sensibility, and acquiring such organs fleur de lis, which is the crest of cognizance of as were necessary, by its own inherent forces, and at France.

last rising into intellectual existence, a walk into the The Spanish crown was a circle of gold, richly green fields, or woods, by the banks of rivers, brought decorated with jewels and precious stones, and back my feelings from nature to God. I saw in all adorned with eight leaves. It was not closed with

the powers of matter, the instruments of the Deity: arches until the marriage of Philip the Second with the sunbeams, the breath of the zephyr, awakened Queen Mary of England, when four arches were | animation in forms prepared by Divine Intelligence to added, being double the number of those in the receive it; the insensate seed, the slumbering egg, English crown. Those of Bohemia, Poland, Den- which were to be vivified, appeared like the new-born mark, and Sweden, are similar to the Spanish ; but animal, works of a divine mind; I saw love as the no foreign crown has the velvet tiara or the ermine creative principle in the material world, and this love of the English crown.

only as a divine attribute. Then, in my own mind, The crown of Hungary, worn by the emperors of I felt connected with new sensations and indefinite Austria, is double : the lower crown is similar to the hopes, a thirst for immortality; the great names of Spanish; the upper is composed of sixteen plates of other ages, and of distant nations, appeared to me to gold, from which two arches arise, having in the be still living around me; and even in the funeral centre a cross, richly decorated at the extremities monuments of the heroic and the great, I saw, as it with pearls. The sixteen plates are enamelled with

were, the indestructibility of mind. busts of Jesus Christ, the evangelists, and the apo- These feelings, though generally considered as poetistles; so also is the flat part of the arches, the whole cal, offer a sound philosophical argument in favour of ! being enriched with pearls, diamonds and precious the immortality of the soul. In all the habits and in

i stones.

stincts of young animals, their feelings or movements Before concluding this part of the subject, it may be as

may be traced in intimate relation to their improved well to describe the crowns or coronets worn by the princes

perfect state; their sports have always affinities to of the blood and the English nobility. The crown of the their modes of hunting or catching their food, and Prince of Wales, when there is an heir apparent to the young birds even in the nest show marks of fondthrone of Britain, is a circle of gold, surrounded with four ness, which, when their frames are developed, become crosses pattée and as many fleurs de lis, set alternately.

signs of actions necessary to the re-production and From the two centre crosses an arch arises, adorned with pearls, and surmounted by a ball and cross: within the

preservation of the species. The desire of glory, of coronet is a cap of crimson velvet, lined with white sar

honour, of immortal fame, and of constant knowcenet, and turned up with ermine. The Prince of Wales ledge, so usual in young persons of well-constituted has also another distinguishing ornament, viz., a simple minds, cannot, I think, be other than symptoms of coronet, surmounted with a plume of three ostrich feathers, the infinite and progressive nature of intellectand having the motto, “ Ich Dien," that is, “I serve. This cognizance was first assumed by Edward, Prince of hopes, which, as they cannot be

gratified here, belong

to a frame of mind suited to a nobler state of Wales, commonly called the Black Prince, after the battle of Crecy, A.D. 1346, where, having killed John, king of

existence.—-SIR HUMPHRY Davy. Bohemia, he took from his head such a plume, and put it upon his own.

The proper study of mankind is man.-Pope. The Coronet of the Princes of the Blood-royal is composed of a circle of gold, richly chased, having on the edge Ir the proper study of mankind is man, it is proper only so two crosses pattée, two strawberry-leares, and four fleurs far as it may conduce to our own advancement in rightede lis. Within the coronet is a crinison velvet cap, lined ousness, by making us acquainted with that weakness and with sarcenet, and turned up with ermine. On the top of corruption of our nature, which self-love is for ever the cap there is a rich tassel of gold and spangles. labouring to conceal. Should we forget to apply to our oirn

The coronet of a Duke is a circle of gold, richly chased, individual cases, the observations which we make in the having on the edge eight strawberry-leaves, which most case of others, our knowledge will not only be barren of probably were originally lance-heads, all of equal height; improvement, but may even serve to engender a censorious within is a crimson velvet cap, topped by a gold tassel, and spirit; and increase that pride and presumption which we turned up with ermire of one row. The coronet of a Mar- know too frequently attends the mere possession of specu. quis is a circle of gold, set round with four strawberry: lative knowledge. Our own personal improvement is the leares, and as many pearls, on pyramidal points of equal centre towards which all reflections upon the nature and height, alternately.' The cap is the same as that of the actions of man should converge; and whatsoever tends to duke. An Earl's coronet has eight pyramidal points, with unfold and bring to light any weakness lurking in the as many large pearls on the tops of them, placed alternately heart, should be received on our parts with all the readiness with as many strawberry-leaves, lower than the pearls. and impartiality which becomes creatures wbo are consci

, The cap and tassel are the same as before. Coronets were ous of their responsible condition, and of that higher and first assigned to earls in the reign of Henry the Third. eternal destiny which is to succeed this probationary life ! The Viscount has only pearls, without any limited number, | ----J. S. M. ANDERSON.

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