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cation of astonishing workmanship and astonishing strength; 1 of the castle, and according to his own account, made sad in front of the gate is a bridge of great consequence over havoc among the Imperialists. Indeed, he tells us plainly, the Tiber, which is the first in going in or out of Rome; that but for him the castle would have been taken when nor is there any other way of passing, except over this the city fell. After killing the Constable, he and a combridge, but this cannot be done except by leave of those panion contrived to make their way to the gate of the who guard the fortress. The fortress itself is of so great a castle: “When we arrived at the gate above mentioned," height, that a church, which is built at the top of it, in he says, " part of the enemy had already entered Rome, honour of the Archangel Michael, chief of the heavenly and we had them at our heels. The castellan having host, is called the Church of St. Angelo in the Heavens. thought proper to let down the portcullis, there was just There is still a figure of an angel upon the top; but a room enough made for us four to enter. No sooner had we writer of the sixteenth century speaks of it as a thing entered than the Captain Pallone de Medici pressed me which had existed, but did not exist in his days.

into the service because I belonged to the Pope's household, In the severe contests, of which Rome was continually and forced me to leave Alessandro very much against my the theatre, between the popes, the antipopes, the barons, will. At this very juncture Pope Clement had entered the and the people, the Mole of Hadrian figures conspicuously. castle of St. Angelo by the long gallery from St. Peter's, The first pope who obtained possession of it was John the for he did not choose to quit the Vatican sooner, never once Twelfth, who filled the papal chair in the middle of the dreaming that the enemy would storm the city. As soon tenth century. Succeeding popes and antipopes at times as I found myself within the castle walls I went up to held it securely, and at times were driven out of it by the some pieces of artillery which a bombardier named Giuliano, turbulent barons and citizens. Its importance, as an a Florentine, had under his direction. This Giuliano engine for overawing a rebellious people, did not escape the standing upon one of the battlements, saw his house discernment of the pontiffs; neither did it escape the obser- pillaged, and his wife and children cruelly used: fearing ration of the people themselves, who deliberately declared to shoot any of his friends, he did not venture to fire the guns, by a public decree, that when they should obtain possession but throwing the match upon the ground made a piteous of it, they would uproot it from its very foundations. In lamentation, tearing his hair, and uttering the most doleful 1378 this decree was near being carried into effect; the cries. His example was followed by several other gunners, partisans of Pope Urban the Sixth, having taken it from which vexed me to such a degree, that I took one of the those of the Antipope Clement, in spite of the garrison matches, and getting some people to assist me who had not which the French cardinals, who opposed Urban's election, the same passions to disturb them, I'directed the fire of the had placed there, proceeded as far as they could in the artillery and falcons where I saw occasion, and killed a work of destruction, and contrived to disfigure the structure

considerable number of the enemy. If I had not taken and reduce it to its present shapeless mass. They stripped this step, the party which entered Rome that morning, off the marbles, and destroyed the form of the square base- would have proceeded directly to the castle ; and it might ment, and were only stopped from further mischief by the possibly have been a very easy matter for them to have strength and solidity of the building.

stormed it, as they would have met with no obstruction The fortress remained dismantled till 1392, when the two from the artillery. I continued to fire away, which made Romani said to Pope Boniface the Ninth, If you wish some cardinals and gentlemen bless me and extol my actito maintain the dominion of Rome, fortify the Castle of St. vity to the skies. Emboldened by this I used my utmost Angelo." He followed their advice, and the event is thus exertions : let it suffice that it was I who preserved the significantly recorded by a great Roman antiquary. “ Pope castle that morning, and by whose means the other bomBoniface the Ninth first fortified the Mole of Hadrian, and bardiers began to resume their duty; and so I continued established the dominion of the Roman Pontiffs.' The to act the whole day." people foresa w and felt the fatal consequences. They peti- Cellini was then posted by the Pope's desire with five tioned Innocent the Seventh, the successor of Boniface, to great guns in the highest part of the castle ;“ I obeyed his restore to them their liberty, the capitol, the Milvian orders," he says, “ with alacrity, and had better success Bridge, and the Mole of Hadrian." They even seized, for than if I had been following my own business." Of the a moment, the first three; in an attack on the mole they marvellous skill with which he performed the duties of were reprised by the pontifical troops, and completely this new station, Cellini has left us an accurate account, routed in the gardens of Nero, in the Vatican. The popes embellished in his characteristic manner with various had now no longer to fight for this fortress with the people, anecdotes more amusing, as Mr. Roscoe, (from whose for the future they only fought for it with one another. spirited translation of the Memoirs we have quoted,) says

The castle underwent many alterations and additions at than credible. the hands of succeeding pontiffs. Alexander the Sixth " There passed not a day," he says, “ that I did not kill constructed the brickwork on the summit, and also the some of the army without the castle. One day, amongst bastion; to him likewise is to be attributed the secret com- others, the pope happened to walk upon the round rampart, munication with the Vatican. His additions to the works when he saw in the public walks a Spanish colonel, enabled the castle to withstand the siege of the Imperialists whom he knew by certain tokens; and understanding that under Charles the Fifth, and it was at last surrendered, he had formerly been in his service, said something contiot taken by assault. Paul the Third and Paul the Fourth cerning him, all the while observing him attentively. 1, also did much towards ornamenting and strengthening it; who was above the battery, and knew nothing of the but the great engineer was Urban the Eighth, who occu- matter, but saw a man who was employed in getting the pied the pontifical tirone from 1623 to 1644; he added a ramparts repaired, and who stood with a spear in his hand, mound, a ditch, a bastion, and a hundred pieces of cannon, dressed in rose colour, began to deliberate how I'should lay thereby making it appear, as a Roman antiquary quaintly him tlat. I took my swivel, which was almost equal to a observes, that "" bis bees (the arms of his family, the demi-culverine, turned it round, and charging it with a good Barberini,) not only gave honey, but had stings for the quantity of fine and coarse powder mixed, aimed it at him aght."

exactly; though he was at so great a distance that it The interesting event in the history of this castle, could not be expected any effort of art should make such is the siege

of it by the Imperialists in 1527, when they pieces carry so far, I fired off the gun, and hit the man in were led by Charles de Bourbon, (commonly called the red exactly in the middle. He had arrogantly placed his Constable de Bourbon, as he was Constable of France, on sword before him in a sort of Spanish bravado, but the bis celebrated expedition for the plunder of Rome. He ball of my piece hit against his sword, and the man was arrived before the walls of that city on the 5th of May; seen severed in two pieces. The pope, who did not dream ảnd on the following morning at daybreak commenced of any such thing, was highly delighted and surprised at the assault." He was himself the first to mount the walls, what he saw, as well because he thought it impossible that and he was also the first who fell; Benveriuto Cellini

, such a piece could carry so far, as by reason he could not he who fired the fatal shot, but there is of course a great this he sent for me, and made an inquiry into the whole exposed to ravages' greater, perhaps, than it 'had ever suf- but as for the man being 'split into two pieces, neither he fered in its decline, from the barbarian Goths and Vandals nor I was able to account for it. So falling upon my as we style them. Pope Clement the Seventh withdrew to knees I entreated his holiness to absolve me from the guilt the Castle of St. Angelo, where he sustained a siege inof homicide, as likewise from other crimes which I had company with thirteen cardinals.

committed in that castle in the service of the church. The During the siege Benvenuto Cellini directed the artillery | pope lifting up his hands, and making the sign of the cross

over me, said that he blessed me, and gave me absolution upper apartments, which present little worthy of notice, are for all the homicides I had ever committed, or ever should used as prisons for the confinement of state criminals. In commit, in the service of the apostolical church. Upon the principal saloon is exhibited a bust of Hadrian; and this quitting him I again went up to the battery, and continuing apartment was used as a theatre for the representation of to keep a constant fire, I scarce once missed all the time; a tragedy during the fifteenth century. From the summit my drawing, my elegant studies, and my taste for music, of the castle a fine view is presented of the windings of all vanished before this butchering business; and if I were the Tiber; except for the purpose of ascending 10 the to give a particular account of all the exploits I performed summit to enjoy this view, the interior of the castle is in this infernal employment, I should astonish all the scarcely worth a visit. world; but I pass them by for the sake of brevity."

As a fortress the castle of St. Angelo is now almost It was the fortune of Benvenuto Cellini, at a subsequent worthless. “ Since the modern improvements in artillery," period, to become a prisoner in the fortress where he had says Sir John Hobhouse, “it is clear that a castle, comperformed these prodigies of gunnery. He contrived upon manded as it by all the neighbouring hills, could never ihis occasion to employ his skill in effecting an escape, the resist a cannonade. It was surrendered during the late particulars of which he has detailed with considerable war in 1814, after an idle menace from the French captain minuteness in his memoirs. He succeeded in descending that the angel on the top should sheathe his sword before from the battlements of the castle undetected and unhurt; the garrison would capitulate." but in attempting to scale one of the outer walls, he fell, On Easter Monday there is a splendid display of fireand became insensible. On recovering his senses, he works from the castle of St. Angelo. Mr. Galiffe speaks imagined he had been beheaded, and was in purgatory, of it in high terms. "If my expectations," he says, " were Notwithstanding the injury he had received, he contrived disappointed in the illumination [of St. Peter's], the fireto crawl away; and though the pontiff, Paul the Third, works far surpassed everything that I had ever seen or had himself, in his youth, made his escape from the same imagined. The signal for their commencement is given confinement; he caused Cellini to be again committed to by a cannon-shot, a little after ten, which is instantly folthe prison, where he suffered incredible hardships, and lowed by the simultaneous explosion of three thousand witnessed still more incredible visions.

sky-rockets, expanding in their flight in the form of a sheaf The castle of St. Angelo received the appellation which of corn. I had seen an explosion of fifteen thousand at it now bears in the pontificate of Gregory the Great, who, once in the gardens of Peterhoff; but they did not produce in crossing the bridge of St. Angelo as he went to offer up the twentieth part of the effect of this one-fifth of their prayers for the deliverance of the Romans from a pestilence number, thus skilfully managed, and shooting upwards with which they were afflicted, beheld, according to the story, from the summit of the grand castle of St. Angelo. A on the summit of the Moles Hadriani, the figure of an angel beautiful cross-fire of all sorts of fire-works ensues, and the sheathing a sword. In commemoration of this vision, the scene terminates with another flight of three thousand skybrazen statue which still crowns the castle was erected, and rockets, similar to that with which it commenced. This the building, as already stated, received the name by which certainly is the grandest exhibition of the kind that I have it has since been distinguished. It has been long used as a

The windows facing the castle, on the other public prison, and contains about four hundred wretched side of the Tiber, are in great request on these occasions, criminals, who have been sentenced to the galleys. The l and let at high prices.

ever seen.

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LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.

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THE SHORES OF THE LOWER LAKE–The Town of | importance to the general effect of the scene, from
KILLARNEY—TAE CASTLE AND GAP OF DUNLOH. the striking contrast it offers to the mountains, and
One of the chief sources of attraction at Killarney the apparent increase it gives to their height.
is to be found in the very varied character of the

To the southward this flat commences where the scenery upon the borders of the body of water com

hills adjoining the peninsula of Mucruss terminateposing the two lower lakes,—Turk Lake and Lower that is to say, at Castle Lough Bay, as that great Lake, as they are respectively called. Its southern inlet is called which lies to the north of Mucruss and western shores are bounded by the lofty moun peninsula, and forms the south-eastern corner of the tains which form so remarkable a feature of the Lower Lake. Near the head of the bay formerly county of Kerry, and which comprise among them the stood the old fortress of Castle Lough on an insulated most elevated summits in all Ireland. Very different rock; it was a place of strength at least for its size, is the scenery on the other sides. The northern but was so completely demolished by the Parliamenshore is bounded by hills of moderate height sloping tary army under Ludlow, (whose capture of Ross gradually down to the water's edge. The part also Castle we recorded in a former number*,) that not a of the eastern shore, lying contiguous to the northern, trace of it can be discovered, except a few fragments is bounded by similar hills; as is likewise that part of walls scarcely discernible from the rocks on which of it which lies contiguous to the mountains of the they stand. The name of Castle Lough is at present southern shore. But throughout the remaining or given to a private demesne. middle portion of the eastern side, the hills recede

As far as the river Flesk, which enters the lake considerably, so that for the space of about two miles, opposite the southern end of Ross Island, the fat a low and level tract intervenes between them and forms a part of the demesne of Cahernane, an exthe lake, instead of their coming down close to its tensive and well-wooded place, described as interesting waters. This level ground, in itself the least in- and possessing many advantages,.. notwithstanding teresting part of the shores of Killarney, becomes of

• See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XI., p. 195. Vo. XII

364

the level of the surface. The Flesk is crossed by a upon Killarney, as Mr. Wright says, is the distance bridge over which runs the road to the town of Kilo of the town from the lake. It was not possible to larney, bordered by tall lime-trees. From the river have fixed, in all the neighbourhood, upon a worse Flesk to the road leading from the town to Ross situation for the site of a village; the backs of the Castle, the flat is occupied by small fields, bare of houses are turned towards the lake, the view of which trees, and mostly divided by stone fences, and on the is totally excluded by Lord Kenmare's woods, and opposite side beyond the road, are the gardens and but for the supply yielded by a few wells, there would pleasure.grounds attached to the mansion of the Earl not be any fresh water in the village, although there of Kenmare.

are These pleasure-grounds are not, however, wholly on Not far from the town, two small rivers, the Deanagh a low level surface. The flat ends at the little stream and the Flesk, fall into the lake. If the town had called the Deanagh, which, running from the north been built at the mouth of either of these streams, and passing almost close to the town, bends suddenly and especially at the mouth of the latter, it would off and empties its waters into the lake. Beyond, or have enjoyed advantages of which it is now deprived, on the north of this river, the ground is diversified and visiters would have then had little ground of with gentle knolls covered with verdure, and adorned complaint. The inns in the town are generally with some fine trees, beneath which there are walks crowded during the lake season. Mr. Barrow gives commanding very charming prospects of the lake. an amusing picture of the scene which one of them

Upon the low flat which we have thus described as presented. stretching inland for some distance from the eastern

I had no sooner (he says) taken my seat in the coffeeshore of the Lower Lake, stands the town of Killar- room, than I found myself in the very midst of tourists. ney, about a mile from the water, It is comprised in one corner sat half-a-dozen noisy and merry looking within the parish of the same name, in the barony of | fellows, clustered together, with an array of maps stretched Maganihy, in the county of Kerry, and in the province out before them, talking over the exploits of the day, and of Munster ; it lies to the south-west of Dublin, at making arrangements for the morrow. In another might a distance of 224 miles; its distance from Cork is well thumbed "Guide to the Lakes," and ever and anon

be seen some solitary tourist (like myself), poring prer a only 45 miles. It boasts of two broad streets, called seeking information or explanation from the waiter. Some respectively the Old street and the New street, besides were busily employed with their knives and forks, in dif. several smaller ones, more deserving of the appella- ferent parts of the room ; while others were amusing themtion of lanes. The public buildings are not worthy selves with reading over the names of the numerous visiters of any particular notice. Mr. Wright mentions a contained in the book that is kept for their insertion, and in public reading-room, to which strangers are politely I once peeped into this general consignment of experi

which may be found what are intended for flashes of wit. invited by a singular announcement, to the effect that mental efforts of genius, and having discovered amongst none but members or strangers are admitted. The some other equally valuable information, "that the port 10 mansion of Lord Kenmare, with its park and grounds, the Kenmare Arms was," in the opinion of the writer

, of which we have already spoken, adjoins the town,

" finer than any port on the lakes," I felt satisfied, and and generally attracts some of the attention of the hastily closed the volume. visiter. The linen manufacture has made considerable On account of its low situation, as well as the progress under the patronage of the noble proprietor intervening woods, the town of Killarney commands of the town, and the inhabitants derive great benefit no prospect of the magnificent lake scenery; indeed, from the visits of strangers during the Summer and from no part of the fat in which the town stands, Autumn.

can any considerable portion of the lake be seen. The first object (says Mr. Barrow,) that catches the eye But if the spectator advance inland across the flat of the stranger on driving into the town, is the prodigious and ascend the hills which bound it, he soon obtains number of idlers lounging at every corner of the streets. some very charming views, perpetually varying in the The town itself, at least the main street, is pretty enough, but most striking manner. The contrast between the on either side the lanes and alleys have a dirty appearance, confined glimpses obtained from the low plain and and the people strolling about were not at all prepossessing the broad expanding prospects which the rising hills There was stirring enough, however, as we drove up to the Kenmare Arms Hotel, where the coach stopped;" here I command, will impress him with increasing force the found myself instantly surrounded, jolted, and jostled by a higher he mounts. From that part of the flat which set of hungry-looking fellows, who all at once began to lies adjacent to the river Flesk, the small patches of assail me with open mouths. One offered himself and his the lake which he beholds appear like the windings boat, the best in all Killarney,another his pony to take of that stream. On ascending the rising ground, the me to the gap,-a third slily recommended the other two • to get out of that, for shure the gintleman knows what he instead of appearing like a dilution of the Flesk,

wooded islands become more distinct; and the lake, likes best,' and then confidentially whispering in my ear, - Shure, your honour, mine's the best pony in the world rather wears the aspect of "a majestic navigable to carry you to the top of Mangerton.' Escaping from this river, which received its tributary stream while rolling troublesome group comes a fellow directly in front, with his on through a spacious valley." Higher still on the pockets full of divers-sized packets of Arbutus-seed, which hills, the view opens wider, and the actual form of he assures, there's niver the gintleman comes to Kil

: the lake is fully displayed. From several positions larney thrat doesn't buy some to take home wid him.' Add to all these some dozen or two beggars, male and female,

on the hills, particularly from parts of the extensive who fill up the outer circle, and the whole time chime in deer park of Lord Kenmare, the prospect of the flat with their pious ejaculations, blessing, and praying, and shore between the spectator and the water is effectually preserving his honour's long life, and his honour's father excluded by the trees on the slope beneath him ; his and mother, and his wife and children; and these again eye therefore looking over his own wooded foreground, are interrupted by a heap of ragged errand-boys, offering and lighting in the distance upon the woods of Muto go to the post-office for his honour's letters, or, in short, to do anything in the world for sixpence; and, lastly,

cruss on the one side, and those stretching along the come the pressing and polite invitations of the waiters of western border of the lake to the river Laune on the the respective inns, which, however, is not peculiar to other, he might imagine that the shores of the lake Ireland. From this specimen you may form some slight were covered with a vast forest from end to end. idea of the hearty and welcome reception a stranger meets The river Laune is the only outlet of the Lakes of with on his arrival at Killarney.

Killarney, their superfluous waters flowing through The greatest inconvenience, however, chargeable lits channel into the Atlantic at Dingle Bay. Its

seen

enormous

the scenery:

i source, or rather commencement, is at the north-mountains on each side rise perpendicularly. At a | western corner of the Lower Lake, whence it runs short distance within is a little wild romantic glen, in a rapid course between the end of the hills on containing a small lake, the waters of which, from the northern bank, and the end of the vast moun- the shade cast upon them by the enormous mountain tain mass which lies on the western bank. Soon which hangs above, assume a peculiarly dark hue. after leaving the lake it is crossed by a bridge ; As the visitor penetrates further into the defile, his near which stands Dunloh Castle, the remnant of an admiration of the wild and savage scenery which ancient fortress, which seems to have been originally surrounds him gradually gives way to a feeling of erected for the purpose of guarding the river, and a awe. At one point the defile becomes so narrow that defile in the great chain of mountains. It stands on there is space merely for the scanty road and the the summit of a small conical hill, whose apex has little dark gloomy lake beside it; on either side are been cut away to afford a more convenient space for steep precipitous crags, while in every direction are building ; and its position must have rendered ‘it,

masses which have been detached until the introduction of cannon into modern warfare, from the body of the mountains. Such, indeed, is a place of great strength. It suffered considerably the fearful sublimity of the pass at this particular in the wars of the Earl of Desmond, during the reigns spot, that instances have been known in which persons of Henry the Eighth and Queen Elizabeth ; but it became so paralyzed with terror on reaching it, that was rebuilt about the period of Sir George Carew's nothing could induce them to advance further and administration in Munster. Subsequently, when the brave the apprehension which had seized them, that forces of the Parliament came into this part of the mountain might fall and overwhelm them. There Ireland, the castle was again attacked, and a great are two small bridges thrown across the stream which part of it demolished by a bombardment. The only runs through the defile, at the narrowest parts of the part of the edifice now standing is a square tower, channel; they are of very simple though solid strucwhich constituted but a small portion of the original ture, and are in good keeping with the character of fabric; this has been converted into a dwelling-house,

One of them situated at the head of a "wbích affords more room and convenience than cascade, and resting at each end on a single stone, could be expected from the exterior aspect." Owing has a very romantic appearance. The object of the to the extraordinary thickness of the woods covering bridge is to carry the road from one side of the defile the hill upon wbich the building stands, no part of to the other, where the obstacles on the former happen the lake or of the surrounding country is seen from to be insurmountable. The road itself has been the area in front of the castle, and even the windows formed with considerable skill. In some places it

afford but a very confined view; the battlements, passes along the edge of precipices where the way 2 however, command a noble prospect of the lake, and has been with difficulty cut through the solid stone;

of the windings of the river Laune. Our engraving in others between immense detached rocks which represents the castle as it appears from the banks of have fallen from the mountain, and which are just the river; in the distance appears the defile or open- sufficiently separated from each other to admit a ing in the mountains already mentioned.

single carriage, thus affording a natural passage that This defile, which lies between Tomies Mountains could not have been opened elsewhere withvut proand Macgillicuddy's Reeks, is called the Gap of digious labour and expense. At one particular part Dunloh. The entrance is formed by the Holly of the pass the road runs along the margin of a Mountain and the Bull Mountain, which are shoots black pool, "and is so unprotected as to inspire the from the two larger masses above mentioned. equestrian traveller with fears that should his horse

Amidst the vast mountainous region on the western trip he might be precipitated into the lake." side of the county of Kerry, there is no scene which But a scene of this description (says Mr. Wright), defies exhibits a more varied and sublime combination of the address of the most expert tourist and the pencil of the the boldest features of uncultivated nature than the ablest master: it must be seen to be understood. Those Gap of Dunloh. By some terrific and mighty opera

who have visited the passes of Borrowdale, in Cumberland, tion, the chain of mountains at this place seems to

may form a faint idea of the chilling dreary grandeur of

Dunloh ; but the pass of Llanberris in North Wales, bears have been abruptly severed, and the stupendous rocks

a still greater resemblance, and he who has seen the Gap of which it was formed rent asunder and dispersed of Dunloh will not be over-awed by the sublimity of Llanin wild disorder through the chasm. On the brow berris, nor will the deep-rooted in age of Dunloh be eradiof the mountain which guards the entrance on the cated by the combined beauty and grandeur of Borrowdale*. right hand, immense projecting masses of stone, The defile is three miles in length, and at the tersuspended in their lofty beds, overhang the pass, mination of it a view of the Upper Lake is to be had. threatening destruction to all who approach this It opens into the vale of Comme Duff, through which savage solitude; and the vast fractured stones which the road proceeds. Nearly opposite the termination are observable at the base of the cliff, plainly indicate of the gap is a beautiful waterfall of considerable that the danger has not always been imaginary. height, and always plentifully supplied. The waters One almost shudders at thinking of the horrible crash

of this fall flow into a succession of small lakes, which must have been produced by these ponderous stones occupying the whole length of the valley; in some Tumbling all precipitate down dashed,

of these are islands bearing shrubs on their surface Rattling round loud thundering to the moon,

and decorated with water-lilies. whilst the echoes in the still of retirement repeated the

* The scenery," says Sir R.C. Hoare, “is truly Alpine, and on tremendous sound through the windings of the vale. A

a grand scale : the track rugged, but well worth the trouble of asclear stream at the bottom of the defile winds amongst the cending. The horrors of the black surrounding rocks are much rocks,

heightened by their reflections in the different lakes at their base. ......Now rapid and now slow,

The scenery resembles that of the Pass of Llanberris under SnowNow murmuring soft, now roaring in cascades.

don in North Wales, but the vegetation amongst the rocks is much

more luxuriant. This valley and pass afford many good subjects for This stream forms a communication between a chain of the pencil, and are highly worthy the artist's attention." small lakes, some of which are very deep, but others seem only to be a dilatation of the stream, where it has been obstructed in its course by the accumulated ruins of the

It is the virtue of few words, to render plain that which impending precipice.

thousands have obscured; as one glass will transmit a

bright image of the sun, where hundreds produce but darkThe entrance to the gap is very narrow; and the ness and confusion.-MACCULLOCH.

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