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ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE a common article of food, the stem supplied materials MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.
for small boats like canoes, and a variety of domestic No. IX.
utensils, while the inner rind of the plant, or, as
some think, a certain preparation of the pulp, fur. EARLY HISTORY OF MOSES.
nished materials for paper. It is well known that MANY readers of the Bible are confused by finding the byblus plant grows also in Europe, though only the same name given to very different persons; in in one spot, namely, in the rivulet of Cyane, near the earlier ages of the world proper names were not the ancient city of Syracuse, in Sicily, but there it is applied with the same regularity that they are now, produced in great abundance. titles of rank were frequently used in their place, The byblus, or papyrus, grows in shallow water, and more especially the national titles of sovereigns. and shoots out a stalk of nine or ten feet high; the Pharaoh was the Egyptian designation of a king, and trunk is composed of a number of long straight hence we find it given as the name of the monarch fibres, which produce small flowers; the leaves are who received Abraham, of him to whom Joseph was like the blades of a sword, and are frequently used minister, and of the foreign conqueror who so cruelly to keep wounds open; the ancient Egyptians empersecuted the Israelites. This usage has not quite ployed the ashes of the root as a cure for sores, and disappeared; in works of modern history we find the attributed to it great healing powers. The length of term Sultan, employed to designate the ruler of the stalk, the natural hollow when the pulp was Turkey, without the addition of his proper name; removed, and the ease with which it was worked, and the name of the Great Mogul similarly applied pointed out the byblus as a proper material for boatto the emperor of Delhi; and some writers omitting building. Herodotus tells us that large boats were to mention changes in the succession have frequently formed from planks cut out of the root, which is led historical students into serious errors. To avoid frequently fifteen feet in length; that the light stem such mistakes, we shall designate the Pharaoh who furnished a mast, and the manufactured papyrus persecuted the Israelites, Pharaoh the Third, not supplied ropes and sails. But the smaller boats, or because he stands third in the order of succession, canoes, were probably formed from the light stem, but because he is the third mentioned in Holy Writ. like the wicker cots which are now used on the Upper
Pharaoh the Third found that the severe tasks he Tigris. There are many delineations of the Nile. imposed on the Israelites did not prevent the con- boats on the monuments; some are evidently of very tinued increase of their numbers, "The people mul. heavy burden, and are impelled both by ropes and tiplied and waxed very mighty." (Exod. i. 20.) The sails: some are so small that they can only contain tyrant, therefore, had recourse to the barbarous ex
one person, who appears to be very careful in adjustpedient of extermination, and ordered all the male ing his equilibrium, lest he should overset the frail children to be slain. Several sceptics have sneered vessel. In the accompanying engraving the fisherman at the improbability of such cruelty, though it is far is represented in one of these boats, which seems to from being without a parallel even in modern history. be particularly intended for shallow waters where fish We have shown that Pharaoh the Third was the might easily be speared. sovereign of an intrusive race of conquerors, whose
papyrus boat in which Moses was exposed, position in relation to the native Egyptians and the was daubed with slime and pitch, that is, both with Israelites was very similar to that of the Turks with mineral and vegetable substances, to stop the chinks respect to the Greeks and the Armenians. It is not and keep out the water. A mineral tar, frequently generally known that, though Turkey in Europe employed for this purpose, is produced abundantly contains more than eight millions of inhabitants, the on the coasts of the Red Sea, and is so remarkable Turks themselves do not amount to half a million, for its antiseptic properties, that it has been successbut their position as a dominant caste enables them fully applied to the manufacture of mummies. In to rule over fifteen-sixteenths of the population. the Museum of the Royal Asiatic Society of London, Turkish sultans have been as much alarmed by the there is a human hand preserved by this mineral tar, increase of their hostile subjects as Pharaoh the
so very perfect that the shape of the nails can be Third, and though they never have completely adopted clearly seen. When the mother of Moses, therefore, his plan of extermination, they have sanctioned par. had staunched the boat with this or some similar tial massacres, and more than once prepared to follow substance, she had reason to hope that it would float the system of destroying the Christian males to its in safety, until some charitable person should take fullest extent. When we read of the massacres per compassion upon the child. But in her immediate petrated by the Spartans on the Helots, whenever neighbourhood concealment was necessary, and "she the increase of their numbers rendered them for- laid it in the flags by the river's brink." From the midable, we cannot doubt that a dominant caste, such monuments we find that the water-plants of the as that which ruled Egypt under Pharaoh the Third, Nile, especially the lotus-lily, grew sometimes to such will hesitate at no act of cruelty, however atrocious, a height that they formed lurking places for fullto ensure and continue its superiority.
grown men. We see large nets for catching birds In the midst of this cruel persecution Moses was set in the marshes, watched by trappers who hide born, and was concealed three months by his mother; themselves in the lotus beds, and remain undiscovered when she could no longer hide him, “she took for until there is sufficient prey in the net. It is very him an ark of bulrushes," or as the words may probable that the sister of Moses availed herself of more properly be translated, 'a boat made out of
some such place of concealment, where she could the papyrus,” and placed him by the brink of the watch the fate of the child without danger of river. The papyrus *, from which we have derived the detection. word “paper," was anciently named byblus, and is “ The daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash the origin of the word “ Bible," which properly sig. herself at the river ;" we can find no examples of nifies a paper book. It is called al bardi by the baths on the monuments, and it seems probable that modern inhabitants of Egypt, who do not, however, ladies bathed as freely in the Nile as they now do in pay any attention to its cultivation. But in the early the Ganges. ages no plant was more important; the soft pith was When the daughter of Pharaoh beheld the weeping • See Saturday Magasine, Vol. IV. p. 208.
child, she had compassion on him and said, “ This is
" a , monuments that the Israelites were marked by the as a commercial race; they seem to have left the peculiar physiognomy which characterizes the Jews care of their flocks to women, which will account of the present day, so that the instant the princess for the circumstance of the introduction of Moses beheld the child, she was quite certain of its parent- to the daughters of Jethro. It may be added, that age. This is one of the minute traits which at once in this part of Arabia, the duty of attending the stamps the authenticity of a narrative, for it is one flocks is still regarded as a degrading employment which at the first glance seems improbable, but being by men, and generally falls on the female part of the confirmed by undesigned coincidence, becomes the population. very strongest corroborative evidence.
During the interval between the birth of Moses and “She called his name Moses, (which signifies, his appearance before the sovereign of Egypt to drawn out); and she said, Because I drew him out claim permission for the children of Israel to go and of the water.” The circumstance of naming persons worship God in the desert, the persecution of the from some striking peculiarity must be familiar to Hebrews seems to have relaxed. A new Pharaoh every reader of the Old Testament.
most probably filled the throne, whose attention was Though “Moses was instructed in all the wisdom not directed to the condition of his subjects in the of the Egyptians," we find that he never forgot his land of Goshen until this application was made to parentage. It is probable, that in spite of the exalted him by Moses and Aaron. Pharaoh the Fourth repatronage he enjoyed, the courtiers of Pharaoh failed vived the cruel policy of his predecessor : “ Behold not to remind him that he belonged to a degraded the people of the land now are many, and ye make caste. This, indeed, is evident from the reproach of them rest from their burdens.” (Exod. v. 5.) The the Israelite whom Moses reproved for injuring one respite, however, was doomed to be of no long conof his brethren, “Who made thee a prince and a tinuance, and the tyrant soon invented a new refinejudge over us ?" In this passage, the word translated ment of oppression. “ Ye shall no more give the prince more properly signifies man. Now, in almost people straw to make brick as heretofore : let them every example of a dominant caste established in a go and gather straw for themselves." (Exod. v. 7.) country we find its members exclusively arrogating Straw is not used in the modern manufacture of to themselves the title of man, as if their inferiors bricks, but anciently it was to connect and compact were below the ordinary level of humanity. Indeed, bricks dried in the sun. Bricks thus formed of straw our English title baron, simply signifies man, and was and mud are still made in Egypt, and their ancient introduced at the time of the Conquest, when the use is proved by the numbers found in the ruins Normans reduced the Saxons to a state nearly as
of the brick pyramids. degraded as that of the Israelites during their Pharaoh' the Fourth having thus depriveu the Egyptian bondage. Nothing more forcibly, proves labourers of the materials necessary for the manuthe miserable condition of the Hebrews, than the facture in which they were engaged, insisted that they readiness with which this delinquent adopted the should still perform their allotted tasks. “And the reproachful language of the oppressors, and denied tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye the title of man to the most exalted of his own shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought nation.
thereof: for they be idle : therefore they cry, saying, The reigning Pharaoh “sought to slay Moses ;" an Let us go and 'sacrifice to our God. Let there be injury to one of a ruling caste is never forgiven. more work laid upon the men, that they may labour Were Pharaoh inclined to pardon Moses, it is probable therein ; and let them not regard vain words.” (Exod. that he would have found such an act of clemency v. 8, 9.) The unfortunate Israelites were thus forced beyond the limits of his power; even at this day, the to undertake a new labour. “ So the people were sultan of Turkey would find it a very hazardous ex- scattered throughout all the land of Egypt, to gather periment to spare a Raya who had struck, much less stubble instead of straw.” (Exod. v. 12.) Many slain a Turk.
persons judging from our agricultural habits, might Moses fled into the land of Midian. There are be led to suppose that Pharaoh required impossibilitwo countries known by this name in Scripture; one but as we have already observed in a former eastwards of the Asphaltic Lake, on the confines of article of this series, the Egyptian reapers only cut Moab, the other which afforded shelter to Moses, on off the ears of the corn, leaving the greater part of the Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea. The inhabitants the stem untouched, so that the straw remained for
waste. Consequently, though the task imposed upon white powder, in which state Arsenic is commonly the Israelites was very severe, it was not wholly im- sold at the shops. possible.
In its metallic state Arsenic is used in the arts, The Israelites were unable to fulfil the double task, but not to any great extent. It forms an alloy with “And the officers of the children of Israel, which copper which is very malleable, and when plated with Pharaoh's task-masters had set over them, were silver susceptible of a fine polish. This alloy enters beaten." (Exod. v. 14). This is a trait of govern- | into the composition of the specula of reflecting ment belonging to the oriental nations, both in ancient telescopes. Arsenic is also used in the manufacture and modern times, but especially to such as have the of shot; a small quantity being mixed with the misfortune to be ruled by a dominant caste. The melted lead is found to impart to it the property of Turk in the west of Asia, and the Mantchew Tartar granulating in spherical drops. Arsenious acid is in the remote east, make the stick the chief agent of employed for purifying flint glass, whilst in a state of administration. The highest officers of state are ex- fusion, and for preparing colours used in painting. posed to this infliction, which is never supposed to But for this latter purpose it is not so well adapted degrade the sufferer ; on the contrary, we find many as the sulphurets of Arsenic already mentioned, examples of viziers and nobles bastinadoed by order namely, realgar and orpiment, to which we are inof their sovereign, for some slight offence or ground- debted also for some very beautiful pigments used in less suspicion, subsequently restored to favour and dying and calico-printing. rank, without any one feeling that public punish- Arsenic (arsenious acid) is one of the most virulent ment had weakened their respectability.
poisons with which we are acquainted, and as its There are some who pretend to believe, that the cheapness renders it accessible to all classes, it has accounts given by the sacred historian of the tyranny i obtaineá an unfortunate celebrity by its frequent of the Pharaohs must be exaggerated; but the Fel- association with deeds of murder and suicide. Until lahs of Egypt are, at the present day, subjected to very lately this dangerous substance has always been oppressions similar to those described by Moses, and described as acrià and nauseous to the taste, pru. the remembrance of the Israelites is recalled to the ducing a sharp burning sensation in the mouth and mind of modern travellers, by the sufferings and the throat. This description is erroneous.
Arsenic poscruelties with which he is shocked at almost every sessee hardly any taste, and what it has is sweetish, step in that unhappy country.
so that it is possible to swaliow it without exciting suspicion or alarm. It is but slightly acted on by
cold water, requiring four hundred times its own ARSENIC.
weight of that liquid for its solution. Of boiling
water only thirteen times its weight is required; but ARSENIC is but rarely found in a state of purity. on being permitted to cool the Arsenic separates from It commonly occurs in combination with the ores
the water in the proportions just mentioned. Its of cobalt, silver, lead, iron, and nickel. The minerals solubility is greatly impaired by admixture with known by the names of realgar and orpiment, con- vegetable or animal substances, as coffee, tea, milk, sist of Arsenic and sulphur in different proportions. and other similar materials. The former of these native products seems to have Arsenic is very commonly used for destroying been known to the ancients, and used by them in vermin, especially mice and rats, a practice which we painting and for medicine.
think cannot be too strongly discountenanced, since Metallic Arsenic is exceedingly brittle, of a crys- it is never resorted too without considerable risk, and talline structure, and so volatile, that at a tempera- has often been attended by consequences the most ture of 356 degrees it is vaporised without melting. unexpected and distressing. It is only a few months Its colour is a grayish-white, very much resembling since that a poor boy lost his life by eating a piece of that of polished steel, to which also its lustre bears poisoned bread and butter, which had been incau. a close analogy. This metal speedily tarnishes on tiously left in an exposed situation as a bait for rats. being exposed to the action of air and moisture, its And we know of numerous instances in which valusurface becoming covered with a film of black able animals have been destroyed whilst the vermin powder, which is sometimes superficial, whilst at have escaped. Another objection to the use of other times it extends throughout the whole mass. Arsenic for the purposes just mentioned is, that it It is said that some specimens of metallic Arsenic, facilitates the means of obtaining it; thus placing it which are supposed to have been in a state of extreme within the reach of persons who are too often excited purity, have been kept for years in open vessels with by malice, revenge, or despair, and who, being familiar out losing their characteristic brilliancy.
with its poisonous effects, resurt to it as a ready inArsenic is highly inflammable, burning with a blue strument of destruction to themselves or the objects flame, and emitting fumes, the odour of which is of their hatred. Hence it is that the number of very much like that of garlic. The Arsenic of deaths from poisoning by Arsenic, both by accident commerce, commonly called white Arsenic, and by and design, very greatly exceed those occasioned by chemists arsenious acid, is a compound formed by the any other substance. union of the metal with oxygen. The greater part For medicinal purposes Arsenic has long been eniof it is obtained from Bohemia and Saxony, where it ployed, but it requires to be administered with extreme is prepared by submitting the arsenical ores, with caution, and in very minute doses; and its effects which those countries abound, to a strong heat in an apon the system being vigilantly watched. In the oven, or reverberatory furnace, to which is attached hands of the ignorant or inexperienced it is scarcely a horizontal fiue several hundred feet in length. In possible to estimate the mischief it may produce; this flue the vaporised Arsenic is condensed, in the whilst under favourable circumstances it is acknow. form of a dark gray powder, which is again heated, ledged to be, for certain diseases, a safe and valuable but in close iron vessels, when the impurities are remedy. separated, and the arsenious acid obtained in dense Arsenic is an active ingredient in several quack solid masses possessing a vitreous (glassy) lustre. medicines. Let it be particularly noticed that all By exposure to air, however, these semi-transparent preparations containing Arsenic are poisonous ; masses gradually become opaque and fall into fine whether intended to be taken internally, or to be
applied externally in the forms of lotions, plasters, or duce a temporary mitigation of suffering, than to ointment. In the latter case it kills more rapidly neutralize the effects of the poison. Happily there than when taken into the stomach. Hence the dan- have been instances in which, by skill and promptitude, ger of using the various ointments and plasters which life has been preserved; but when the first alarming profess to be efficacious in the cure of cancer and symptoms have abated, it is a long time before the other similar complaints An ointment containing patient can be considered in a fair way towards only one part by weight of Arsenic to thirty-two of recovery. fatty matter, was applied to a cancerous wound, the In an American journal (Silliman's) for May, 1836, surface of which did not exceed an inch and a half two cases are mentioned, on the authority of Dr. in diameter, for one night only. The day following, Eastman of Holles, New Hampshire, U. S., in which the patient, a girl of eighteen, was seized with vomit- tobacco had been employed with complete success in ing and violent colic, and on the second day she died counteracting the usual effects of Arsenic. The first with all the symptoms of having been poisoned. If case occurred about the year 1820, and the subject of we thought it necessary, we could enumerate many it was Sophia, the daughter of Dr. Eastman above instances in which the most lamentable effects have mentioned, who ate, by mistake, some Arsenic which accompanied the use of quack medicines. By the had been prepared for destroying rats. Painful combined efforts of ignorance, impudence, misrepre- symptoms soon led to inquiry, when the cause was sentation and avarice, the most deleterious nostrums immediately discovered. An elderly lady who was acquire a temporary notoriety. Their inventors very present, advised that the patient should be made to frequently become rich; whilst death, or lingering vomit as soon as possible, and as she had always felt disease, is the lot of many of their credulous and mis- a perfect loathing for tobacco, that herb was recomguided patrons.
mended as most likely to effect the desired purpose. Referring again to the employment of Arsenic for A pipe was accordingly used, but as that did not the most wicked and detestable of purposes, namely, produce nausea, Miss E. next chewed a large quantity the destruction of human life; we wish distinctly to of strong tobacco, and swallowed the juice. To the state, that it is now hardly possible for any person surprise of herself and her friends, this failed in exwho resorts to it with criminal intentions to escape, citing even a sensation of disgust; as did also a sooner or later, from the ignominy and punishment strong decoction made with hot water, of which she their guilt justly merits.
drank about half a pint. But not only was the The detection of deleterious and poisonous sub- tobacco ineffective, but the painful symptoms prostances in cases of sudden or suspicious illness or duced by the Arsenic gradually abated, and the death, constitutes an important branch of medical patient began to feel well. Physicians soon afterjurisprudence; and there is no substance whose wards arrived, when an emetic of blue vitriol (sulphate presence can be more satisfactorily demonstrated, and of copper) was administered, which operated modewhich can be more easily separated from the contents rately once. No ill consequences followed, and in a of the stornach either before or after death, than that few days Miss Eastman fully recovered her health. to which we here particularly allude. By a process, The other case, which happened a few years afterthe details of which would not be interesting to our wards in the same place, was that of a sick person, a general readers, but which is of the utmost importance female, who took arsenic by mistake, and she emto the chemist, as it is also to the Christian philan- ployed tobacco with the same as already thropist, so small a quantity as one-twentieth of a described. In this instance no emetic was taken, nor grain of arsenic has been collected from the stomach indeed any other remedy. of a person who had been poisoned. Nor must we During the last few months, public attention has omit to mention the antiseptic properties of arsenic, been directed towards a practice which seems to have by which we mean that it preserves from decay the prevailed to an alarming extent; we allude to the bodies of those whom it deprives of life. Instances use of arsenic in the manufacture of certain kinds of are well authenticated in which the stomach and in candles. The merit of the disclosure is due, we testines of persons who had died from the effects of believe, to a medical gentleman, who first mentioned arsenious acid have been found, after the lapse of the fact in a lecture delivered by him, last summer, many months and even of years, in as perfect a state before the Medico-Botanical Society. The subject has as they were at the period of dissolution. Hence we subsequently been very ably investigated by the remark that the grave, instead of concealing, may be gentleman already referred to, in conjunction with a the means of preserving, evidences of guilt; and the committee, appointed expressly for the purpose by ofender, when least suspecting it, may prove the truth the Westminster Medical Society. By the report of of that solemn declaration, Be sure your sin will this committee it is clearly shown, that candles confind you out.'
taining arsenic are sold in very considerable quanThe effect of Arsenic upon the human body is so tities; that they are called by a variety of names*, sudden, that unless it is speedily expelled from the each manufacturer giving them a different name; stomach, there are but faint hopes of recovery. The that they are represented by the parties interested in symptoms of having swallowed this poison are the their sale as being very superior to tallow, and but occurrence within fifteen or twenty minutes of spas- little inferior to wax candles, yielding light greater in modic pains of the stomach, a sensation of heat and quantity, and purer in quality, than other candles ; tightness of the head and throat, and inflammation that they have platted, or, as they are sometimes
To these succeed vomiting and purging, called, metallic wicks, and require no snuffing. It with excruciating pain of almost every part of the has further been shown, that the quantity of arsenic body, but especially of the stomach, bowels, and (arsenious acid,) is found to vary considerably in head. Not a moment should be lost in procuring different candles, and in different parts of the same medical assistance, and, in the mean time, the best candle, and that from 10 to 18 grains of this that can be done is to excite vomiting as quickly and poisonous substance has been obtained from a pound as easily as possible.
weight of candles. The committee have examined We are not acquainted with any antidote for Arsenic. Lime-water and magnesia are usually re
These are “ German Wax Lights," " Venetian Wax Candles,"
“Stearine Candles," " Imperial Wax," " Moulded Wax,”." I'rocommended, but these substances tend rather to pro- pical Wax Candles," &c. &c.
samples of almost every kind of candle they could A and B, and from it draw a line through the centre procure, and in no instance has arsenic been found of the circle at D. This line C D E is the meridian in “ the true wax-lights, the true spermaceti, and the line of the place, and if care has been taken, its error old-fashioned composition-candles."
will not be more than half a degree. The meridian The injurious effects of arsenic, when diffused line being once found, the construction of the sunthrough the atmosphere of an apartment in which dial can be effected without difficulty. candles containing it were burning, could never for a moment be doubted by those acquainted with its If two men are born on the same day and hour, and properties. To set the question before the public in die on the same day and hour, one shall appear to the strongest possible light, the committee already have lived one or even two days longer than the other. mentioned have conducted, with great care, a series It is well known to all navigators, that if a ship of comparative experiments, in which birds, rabbits, sails round the world, going from east to west, those and guinea-pigs were placed in boxes, and exposed, on board, when they return, will have counted a day under precisely similar circumstances, to the pro less than the inhabitants of the country they have ducts arising from the combustion of an equal num- sailed from, and to which they have returned. The ber of candles containing arsenic, and of others cause of this is, that the vessel following the course of which were quite pure. Our space will not permit us the sun, has the days longer, and in the whole numto give the details of these experiments; but we ber of the days reckoned during the voyage, there is must not omit to mention, that they are both inte necessarily one rising and setting of the sun less, resting and important, as respects the public health. visible to the crew. On the other hand, if the ship During the week that these experiments were pur- proceeds round the world from west to east, as it goes sued, seven birds which had been exposed to the to meet the sun, the days are shorter, and during the vapour of arsenical candles diėd, whilst the birds in whole circumnavigation, the people on board necesthe boxes where pure candles had been burning, were sarily count one revolution of the sun more. as gay, and ate and drank as freely, at the end of Supposing then, that of twin brothers one embarks the week as they did at its commencement.
on board a vessel which sails round the world from east We cannot pursue this subject further. Let us, to west and the other remains at home. When the ship however, express a hope, that the exposure which returns, the inhabitants will reckon the day Thursday, has taken place, may lead to the immediate abandon while those on board the vessel will reckon it only Wedment of a practice fraught with consequences of so nesday, and the twin who has been at sea will appear dangerous a character.
to have a day less in his life than he who has remained on shore.
Consequently if they should die the same AMUSEMENTS IN SCIENCE.
day, one of them would count a day less than the other, No. VII.
although they were both born on the same day. ASTRONOMY.
But suppose that while one was sailing from east
to west, the other went round the globe from west to In many astronomical problems, the discovery of the meridian line, that is, a line passing exactly north differ by two days,-one would appear two days older
east; on their return their account of the time would and south, on any part of the earth's surface, is essen
than the other. tially necessary. When extreme accuracy is not required, the following plans are sufficiently correct. The Polar Star is nearly due north, and when
Suppose the meridian line to be required for the pur- neither sun nor moon are visible, and no mariner's pose of constructing a sun-dial. Having firmly fixed compass at hand, it has directed the course of seamen a piece of brass or other substance, D E, fig. 1, in some across the trackless ocean, or been a guide to the place exposed to the sun, taking especial care that its wanderer on the land. Round this star the whole of surface is perfectly level and horizontal ; and on the the heavens appear to revolve. As it is not a peculiarly south side of this brass plate, fix a sharp-pointed bright star, its beauty is not likely to attract notice, piece of iron, A: take two squares, B and c, and place but it can be easily found by means of the splendid them as shown in the engraving; the point where constellation of the Great Bear or Charles' Wain. This Fig. 1.
constellation is so extremely beautiful that it cannot Fig. 2.
fail to have been noticed by the most casual observer.
The following figure will show the method of finding the Pole Star by means of the Great Bear.
A B C represents this con-
if a line is drawn through these
by the name of the Little Bear, they join at c will necessarily be immediately under the line will pass immediately the pointed end of the wire ; take this point as under the Pole Star D. It is, a centre and inscribe several concentric circles.
as we have said, not very brilFig. 2 will explain this better. D is the point im- liant, but there are no stars of mediately under the point of the iron, and round this greater magnitude than itself within a considerable point several circles are drawn. An hour or two space of the heavens, for the remaining stars of the before noon mark the spot where the shadow of constellation of which it forms a portion, are much the iron point passes any of the circles; an hour or smaller, and only visible when the sky is particularly two after mid-day perform the same operation. clear.
Let us suppose A and B the points on the same circle where the shadow crossed in the forenoon and the
LONDON: afternoon. Take the point c exactly midway between JOHN WILLIAM PARKER WEST STRAND,