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as to fill the hole: a train is laid and fired, and pre- us consider the question ; first, by the light of reasently the explosion takes place, rending away the son, and then, by that of the Gospel. mass of rock. The loose column of sand is not blown

(STEBBING's Discourse on Death.] out of the hole, leaving the rock unshaken, but it keeps its place, until it compels the solid rock to yield unto


The discoverer of these facts, relating to the flow Body.-Spirit! I feel that thou of sand in the hour-glass, makes the following obser

Wilt soon depart.

This body is too weak longer to hold vations:

The immortal part. “There is perhaps no other natural force on the The ties of earth are looseningearth which produces by itself a perfectly uniform

They will break; movement, and which is not altered either by gravita- And thou-even as a joyous bird, tion, or the friction, or resistance of the air: for the

Thy flight will take height has no influence; friction, in place of being an

To the eternal world.

Say, Spirit! say! obstacle, is the regulating cause; and the resistance of

Wilt thou return again ? once more illume the air within the column must be so feeble as to be

My house of clay? altogether insensible as a disturbing force."

Or must this body, which has been to thee [Magazine of Popular Science.]

A temple and a dwelling-place,

Perish for ever, and forgotten be?
Spirit. Yes! I must leave thee.

I am longing

For the cominunion of those blessed ones

Within the courts of heaven, Tee free and active spirit, by which we think and Who tune their golden harps act, hath properties which have induced the reasoners To the eternal praise of Him, who gives

That home aboveof every age and country, to allow it to be immortal.

Which they have gained, and which I would attain, On looking into ourselves, on finding conscience,

Through Ilim who came to prove memory, and thought, in all its various modes, and

That God is Love: wonderful methods of manifestation, working their And by him too, I know that thou, several tasks independent of everything without, we

My earthly tenement, derive from the very constitution of our being, from

Within the dust must lie,

And there turn to corruption, our own simple individual consciousness, a proof

Even as the seed doth die which not the sophistry of hell itself can gainsay,

To be revived again. that our souls shall defy the power of time, and never

Death hath no power o'er the soul, be holden by the grave, or fall under the hand of For Christ hath conquereddeath. The life of the soul is an essential life. Its

The grave cannot retain its victims motions are demonstrations of life, and its activity When He cries -Come forth ! No figure, no image of mortality ap

Then I return to thee

The victory is gainedplies to the soul. Though darkness may come over

For “ Christ hath made us free."_? it, it diminishes not its energies ; and though time may change its habits of willing or deciding, it makes no change in its state or constitution.

WOMEN are formed for attachment. Their gratitude is But vast is the difference when we look at the unimpeachable. Their love is an unceasing fountain of debody; week, corruptible, and decaying, destitute of light to the man who has once attained it, and knows how power , except that which is given it; motionless, till it well cultivated, would prove the source of your highest

to deserve it. But that very keenness of sensibility which, the mind gives it motion ; unconscious, till the mind enjoyment, may grow to bitterness and wormwood if you gives it consciousness; it partakes in all its habits fail to attend to it or abuse it.—Hogg. and principles of the dull, gross matter, which forms the bulk of the unconscious earth. Time wears it like Take care thou be not made a fool by flatterers, for even a blighting wind, disease twists and tortures its in

the wisest men are abused by these. Know therefore, ternal machinery, till the fabric falls to ruin: a little that flatterers are the worst kind of traitors; for they will Wrong mingling of its fluids, a momentary pause in strengthen thy imperfections, encourage thee in all



correct thee in nothing, but so shadow and paint all thy the pulses of its organs, reduces it to a state of vices and follies, as thou shalt nerer, by their will, discern torpor. Then comes death, and in a few days, the evil from good, or vice from virtue: and because all men brightest, the loveliest of forms, the countenance are apt to flatter themselves, to entertain the additions of that won all hearts by its sweetness, the graceful, other men's praises, is most perilous. Do not therefore firm-set limb, that the sculptor and the painter praise thyself, except thou wilt be counted a vain-glorious would employ their best skill to imitate, are covered fool, neither take delight in the praise of other men, except

thou deserve it, and receive it from such as are worthy and with the heavy dews of corruption. The hours have honest, and will withal warn thee of thy faults; for flatterers to be numbered, how long the wreck of humanity have never any virtue, they are ever base, creeping, cowardly may be looked at by the human eye; and these persons. A flatterer is said to be a beast that biteth smiling; nours are few. Decay hastens its work darkly and it is said by Isaiah in this manner: My people, they that fearfully. The nerves of the strongest shrink at praise thee, seduce thee, and disorder the paths of thy beholding its progress, and the frame broken up and feet: and David desired God to cut out the tongue of a

flatterer. But it is hard to know them from friends, they marred, is hurried into the grave. There the forces

are so obsequious and full of protestations; for as a wolf of the earth operate around it; limb is let loose from resembles a dog, so doth a flatterer a friend. A flatterer limb; the eye falls from its socket; the shrivelled, is compared to an ape, who because she cannot defend the or dissolving mass, becomes broken into clods, and house like a dog, labour as an ox, or bear burdens as a in a little time the clod drops into formless dust. horse, doth therefore yet play tricks, and provoke laughter. And taking a handful of that dust, and Ainging it

Thou mayest be sure that he that will in private tell thee

up into the air, we shall see that the wind will scatter it thy faults, is thy friend, for he adventures thy dislike, and

doth hazard thy hatred; for there are few men that can like the common dust of the highway; and then endure it, every man for the most part delighting in selfhuman reason may well ask, Is this the body of a

praise, which is one of the most universal follies that be man? And how shall the bodies of men arise ? Let witcheth mankind.--SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

never ceases.

VARIOUS SPECIES OF THE ELEPHANT. Chaumont, in France, and a medical man named There is a greater difference than is generally sup- and other places : to make the story more wonderful,

Mazurier, exhibited those which were perfect, at Paris posed in the conformation of the two living species his exhibition was accompanied by a little pamphlet

, of Elephants, namely, the African and the Asiatic;

in which it was stated that they had been found in a and the fossil Elephant or Mammoth, in like manner, differs from both the others. The engravings repre- tion Teutobochus Rex, the name of a king of the

tomb thirty feet in length, over which was the inscripsent the sculls of the three species. Fig. 1 is the Cimbri, who fought against the Roman Marius

. head of the Mammoth; it is much more pointed on the summit than that of either of the other species; Ganges, in the southern part of China, Java, Borneo,

The Indian Elephant is found on both sides of the its trunk also must have been much larger, if we may Sumatra, and all the larger East Indian islands ; it judge from the size and prominence of the bony sup- has never been found in Africa, is larger than the port to which it has been attached; there is also a

African species, and appears to be much more readily great difference in the formation of the teeth, and

tamed. the hide was thickly covered with coarse hair.

The African species is found in a great portion of

that continent from the coast of Guinea to the Cape

Fig. 2. Fig. 1.

of Good Hope, but few attempts seem to have been made to

to submit to the will of man, and it is chiefly sought after on account of the value of its ivory.

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BUFFALO. THE following tradition of the American Indians, concerning the Great Buffalo, or Mammoth, of ancient days, is given by Mr. Peale, in his account of the fossil remains of the Mammoth found in North America, in 1801. As Mr. Peale remarks," the language of this tradition is certainly English, and,

perhaps, a little too highly dressed, but the ideas are The head of the Indian Elephant, fig. 2, resembles truly Indian." the last species much more than the African in its

Ten thousand moons ago, when nought but gloomy great elevation, but it is distinguished by being more

forests covered this land of the sleeping sun; long rounded at the summit; the bone which supports before the pale men, with thunder and fire at their the trunk is also less prominent. The ears in this command, rushed on the wings of the wind to ruin species are much smaller than those of the African this garden of nature; when nought but the untamed Elephant, and the tusks do not grow to so great a

wanderers of the woods, and men as unrestrained as size. In the female they are seldom to be seen with they, were the lords of the soil; a race of animals out turning the lip on one side, and on this account existed, huge as the frowning precipice, cruel as the it is generally believed that the female is unprovided bloody panther, swift as the descending eagle

, and with tusks.

terrible as the angel of night. The pines crashed The head of the African Elephant, fig. 3, is

beneath their feet, and the lake shrunk when they

very different from the others, being much shorter and slaked their thirst; the forceful javelin in vain was

hurled, and the barbed arrow fell harmless from their

side. Forests were laid waste at a meal; the Fig. 3.

of expiring animals were every where heard, and whole villages, inhabited by men, were destroyed in a moment.

The cry of universal distress at length extended even to the region of peace in the west, and the good Spirit interposed to save the unhappy. The forked lightning gleamed around, and loudest thunder rocked the globe! The bolts of heaven were hurled upon the cruel destroyers alone, and the mountains echoed with the bellowings of death.

All were killed except one male, the fiercest of the rounder; the ears are extremely large and hang race, and him, even the artillery of the skies assailed down the shoulders ; it is much smaller than the last, Shades the source of the Mopangabela, and, roaring

He ascended the bluest summit which and both sexes are furnished with very large tusks.

aloud, bid defiance to every vengeance. The red The native country of the Mammoth, and the cause of the destruction of its race, is a problem which, lightning scorched the lofty firs, and rived the knotty perhaps, will never be solved, but the remains of this oaks, but only glanced upon the enraged monster. stupendous creature have been found in almost every

At length, maddened with fury, he leaped over the part of the northern hemisphere of the globe, in

waves of the west at a bound, and this moment reigns Europe, Asia, and America. When the enormous

the uncontrolled monarch of the wilderness. bones of this animal were first discovered, people were so little acquainted with comparative anatomy, that they were supposed to be the bones of giants;

LONDON: and designing men, taking advantage of this belief, JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, VEST STRAND. exhibited collections of them for money. In 1613, PUBLISUED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS PR:CK One Pexxy, and IN MONTELY PASA some of these bones were found near the Chateau of

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsreaders in the kingdon




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THE NAVIGATION OF THE MIDDLE AGES. conveyed away the materials, of which the famous Colossus

of Rhodes bad been formed. This stupendous figure was TIIE ARABIANA.

made of brass, and passed for one of the seven wonders of The details, which have hitherto occupied our attention on the world. Its feet were upon the two moles at the entrance the subject of Navigation, have had reference generally to of the harbour, and ships passed in and out in full sail periods prior to the final overthrow of the Roman einpire, beneath it. It was about one hundred and five feet high. an event which has formed one of the most remarkable eras It did not stand many years before it was overturned by an in the history of the world. It is scarcely too much to say, earthquake, 224 B. c. : and, as the Rhodians had a superthat, when the Roman empire was at the zenith of its stitious opinion that it should never afterwards be used for greatness, the whole known world was subject to its sway; any other purpose, they allowed the fallen statue to remain for we shall remember that the term known world," will on the ground: the Saracens, however, had no such scruhave a different signification at different times. America was ples; they broke up the statue, and loaded nine hundred then unknown :-Africa was then unknown, except those camels with the metal, which they sold to a Jewish mercountries bordering on the Mediterranean and Red Seas; chant for 36,0001. English, It is related of this image, and also those countries which now rank for local extent as that a winding stair-case ran to the top, from which the the largest in the world—India, China, and Russia, were distant shores of Syria, and the ships of Egypt as they almost entirely unknown in those times; so that nearly all, traversed the bay of Alexandria, could be discerned by which were recognized as inhabitable and inhabited coun- means of glasses suspended from the neck of the statue. tries, were under Roman domination.

It had remained in ruins for nearly 900 years, although This gigantic power had, however, the seeds of dissolu- the people of Rhodes had collected large sums of money tion within itself. Distant provinces could not be governed for its repair. This money, however, they seem to have without the maintenance of armies in such numbers, and appropriated; which was, perhaps, the true reason why of such rast extent, that the mother country was first they feigned or felt reluctance to raise up the image, and drained, and then served only by foreigners; and all the pretended that the oracle of Delphi forbade it. useful arts, whether agricultural, or otherwise, fell into When the Arabians, in their rapid career of conquest, decay. Besides this, the aspiring ambition of the different had reached the Euphrates, they immediately perceived generals frequently led them to assume sovereignty on their the advantages to be derived from an emporium situated own account, and to shake off the authority of the country upon a river, which opened on the one hand a shorter route which sent them out. The scriptural expression, that “ a to India than they had hitherto had, and on the other, an house, divided against itself, falleth," was fully verified in extensive inland navigation through a wealthy country; the case of the Roman empire ; for the want of unity of and Bassora, which they built on the west bank of the purpose and of combined operation weakened this over- river, A.D. 636, soon became a great commercial city, and grown empire, and made her an easier prey to the barba- entirely cut off the independent part of Persia from the rians of the north-east of Europe.

Oriental trade. The Arabian merchants of Bassora exWe shall now continue our sketch of the progress of tended their discoveries eastward, far beyond the tracks of naval affairs, from about the beginning of the sixth century. all preceding navigators, and imported directly from the

About this period, the eastern, or Constantinopolitan por- place of their growth, many Indian articles, hitherto protion of the dismembered Roman empire, was assailed by the cured at second hand in Ceylon; which they accordingly Saracens, a nation occupying a portion of what is now called furnished on their own terms to the nations of the West. Arabia. Mathuvius, a Saracen chief, fitted out a powerful The victorious Arabs, by these events, had now deprived fleet and conquered the island of Cyprus in the Mediterra- Heraclius, the emperor of the East, of the wealthy, and in

which bad formerly belonged to the eastern empire, some degree, commercial province of Syria. The little and then seized upon the island of Rhodes, from whence he commerce now remaining to the Roman empire also fell Vol. XIII.



into their hands, with the city of Alexandria and the pro- whom scarcely anything was at that time known to the vince of Egypt; and the road from Egypt to Medina was western world.

“When foreign vessels arrive at Can-fu, covered by a long train of camels, loaded with the corn (supposed to be Canton,) the Chinese take possession of which used to feed the city of Constantinople.

their cargoes, and store them in warehouses till the arrival A few years afterwards, the ancient canal between the of all the other ships which are expected, whereby they are Nile and the Red Sea is said to have been cleared out, and sometimes detained six months. They then lery a tax of again rendered navigable, by Amrou, the Arabian con- thirty per cent. on the goods in kind, and restore the queror and governor of Egypt, in order to furnish a shorter remainder to the merchants. The emperor has a right of and cheaper conveyance for the corn and other bulky pro- pre-emption, but his officers, fairly and immediately, pay duce of the country.

for what he takes at the highest price of the articles

. Fresh attempts were also made by these people to connect Chinese ships trade to Siraf by the Persian Gulf, and there the Mediterranean and Red Seas by means of a navigable take in goods brought from Bassora, Oman, and other canal; a purpose sought to be accomplished in various ages places, to which they do not venture to proceed on account of the world, by people who have given their attention to of the frequent storms and other dangers in that sea," maritime affairs. The continent of Africa is a peninsula, From the account of their route, which is constantly along connected with Asia by the Isthmus of Suez, which is about the shore, the Chinese of this age appear to be rather more sixty miles long, and consists of sand. Many thousands of timid navigators than the Arabs and Egyptian Greeks were, human beings have perished at different times in labouring many centuries before. Sometimes there were four hunto cut through this neck of land. The Ptolemies of Egypt, dred Chinese vessels together, in the Persian Gulf, loaded the Greeks, the Romans, and the Saracens, have all with gold, silks, precious stones, musk, porcelain, copper, attempted, but failed, to effect the object. The French, alum, nutmegs, cloves and cinnamon. when in Egypt, traced out the ancient line; and the union At the period to which these accounts refer, the Arabians of the two seas has been deemed, in modern times, to be had removed their principal seat of commerce almost quite feasible; and many plans have been proposed for re- entirely to the Persian Gulf. suming the work.

We should observe here, that Oman is the most eastern A long series of uaval operations, in which the Saracens part of Arabia, whence the Gulf of Persia, which separates were concerned, succeeded, which we need not detail; but Persia from Arabia, is sometimes called the Gulf of Oman. about the year 670, the Arabians, or Saracens, whose fleets It is sometimes called the Green Sea, from the appearance of now rode triumphant in the Mediterranean, and who had its water. Beautiful pearls were obtained from these parts, to already taken possession of Cyprus, Rhodes, and many of which the poet alludes in the mournful song of the Peri:the Grecian islands, lai siege, for the first time, to Con

Farewell - farewell to thee, Araby's daughter ! stantinople. For seven years they annually renewed the

(Thus warbled a Peri beneath the dark sea ;) siege by sea and land, with varying success, but were ulti

No pearl ever lay, under Oman's green water,

More pure in its shell than thy spirit in thee. mately repulsed, after the loss of 30,000 men and most of their ships. Their defeat was, in a great measure, brought

Here also was said to be found the star-fish, which was about by the invention of a peculiar mode of vffensive war- luminous, referred to by the same poet of Nature, when fare, called the Greek fire ; which was then used for the singing the dirge first time by Callinicus, a Syrian Greek. Gibbon supposes

Of her, who lies sleeping among the pearl islands, that it consisted principally of naphtha, a kind of liquid

With nought but the sea-star to light up her tomb. pitch, which springs out of the earth, and catches fire when The western boundary of Arabia was the Red Sea, the a light is applied to it: this was mixed with sulphur, and a strait or passage into which was termed by the old Asiatic kind of turpentine extracted from evergreen firs. Some- navigators, the gate of tears :" for, owing to the danger times it was poured down from the ramparts from large of the navigation in these parts, and the many shipwrecks boilers; sometimes javelins and arrows were wrapped which occurred, the early Arabians reckoned as dead, and round with tow dipped in this mixture; and at other times wore mourning for, all who had the boldness to hazard the it was deposited in fire-ships, from which it was, by some voyage through it into the sea north of the Indian Ocean. contrivance, blown upon the enemy through long tubes.

It is curious also to observe that, according to the reports When once kindled, nothing could stop the flame: water

of the ancient Arabs, the whale was formerly a frequent fed, instead of damping it. The secret of its composition visiter of the Persian Gulf. It is narrated by some naviwas not known to other nations for four hundred years. gators that they saw there the strangest sight which they

A. D. 730. The Christians of Europe were excluded from bad ever bebeld, which was the head of a fish," that might almost every channel by which the precious goods of the be compared to a hill : its eyes were like two doors

, so that East had formerly been conveyed to them. An inveterate people could go in at one eye and out at the other.” When antipathy, heightened by mutual slaughters, and intlamed The Grecians under Nearchus, as noticed in our former by religious bigotry, which made the Christians consider paper*, had an opportunity of measuring a whale in these the Mahometans as the enemies of God, while they, on the parts, they found it to be about ninety feet long, with a other hand, abhorred the Christians as infidels, was almost hide almost two feet thick, covered with shell-ish, baran insuperable bar to commercial intercourse. But the nacles, and sea-weeds, and attended by dolphins larger than mutual alienation produced little or no inconvenience to the they had seen in the Mediterranean. Saracens, who found an ample scope for commercial enter- The west side of the Red Sea appears, about the end of prise within the vast extent of their own dominions. The the ninth century, to have been deprived of all foreign scanty supply of oriental goods from the fairs of Jerusalem, trade. The vessels from Siraf by the Persian Gulf, (and and perhaps a few other privileged places, being very inade- we hear of none from India,) delivered their cargoes at quate to the demand, some Arab merchants were tempted Judda, or Jidda, an Arabian port, which appears to have by the increased price, to traverse the vast extent of Asia | been not used when the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea was in a latitude beyond the northern boundary of the Saracen written. From thence the goods destined for Egypt, power, and to import by caravans the silks of China, and Europe, and Africa, were forwarded in vessels conducted ihe valuable spices of India; which, with the expense and by people acquainted with the navigation of the Red Sea, risk of such a land carriage, must have cost a most enor- the many dangers of which deterred the foreign navigators mous price when they reached Constantinople, where they from proceeding any further in those parts. We are told were, notwithstandig, eagerly purchased by the luxurious that the Red Sea coasters carried the goods to Cairo, which and wealthy courtiers, whose demands for silk the manu- had now superseded Coptos, as the general deposit of merfacturers of Greece were not capable of supplying to their chandize upon the Nile; and if that be strictly true, the full extent.

vessels must have proceeded through the canal, which was About the year 850, Solyman, an Arabian merchant, restored by Amrou, the Arabian conqueror of Egypt. Thus wrote an account of the state of the maritime com inerce we find the trade of the Red Sea nearly fallen back to the between the Arabians, Chinese, &c., from which we obtain

state in which it was under the first Ptolemies; and also, the following particulars.

if we except the conveyance by the canal, nearly in the The Arabian merchants had, by this time, extended their

state in which it has been for several hundred years past. commerce and their discoveries in the East, far beyond the ut

The efforts which are now making, however, by the English, most knowledge of their own ancestors, the Greek merchants and by the enterprising Pacha of Egypt, to render the Red of Egypt, or the Ethiopian merchants of Aduli. Their Sea a channel of communication between Europe and the vessels now traded to every part of the Asiatic continent, as

East, promise to make those regions once more a busy far as the south coast of China, and to many of the islands. scene of naval traflic. Solyman gives the following account of the Chinese, of

* See Saturda y Magazine, Vol. X.I., p. 205.

The Saracens continued for a long period to maintain a from the cocoa-nut tree alone so many articles are connaval superiority in the Mediterranean, whether for the vertible to use, as suilice not only to build and rig out a purposes of war or of commerce. Some of the Saracenic vessel, but to load her when she is completed and in trim vessels were of a very large size. About the year 970, to sail.” The preparation of thread from the übres of the Abderahman, the Saracen Sultan or Caliph of the greater cocoa-nut was a great source of trade with many of these part of Spain, built a vessel larger than had ever been seen islands. The nut is softened in water, and afterwards before in those parts, and loaded her with innumerable beaten with a mallet till it becomes quite flexible, when the articles of merchandize, to be sold in the eastern regions. fibre is spun out and twisted into ropes. The thread was On her way she met with a ship carrying despatches from used in compacting the ships of Arabia and India. the emir of Sicily to Almoez, a sovereign on the African The ships of India were, in old times, launched by means coast, and pillaged it. Almoez, who was also sovereign of of elephants. It is related that one of these animals, being Sicily, which he governed by an emir or viceroy, fitted out directed to force a very large vessel into the water, found a tieet, which took the great Spanish ship returning from the task exceed his strength; whereupon his master, in a Alexandria, loaded with rich wares for Abderahman's own severe tone, ordered the keeper to take away the lazy beast use. Many other instances of ships of a very large size and bring forward another: the poor animal upon this having been constructed by the Saracens, have been re- instantly renewed his efforts, and in so doing fractured his corded; and it has been suggested as probable, that it was skull and died upon the spot. in imitation of those ships that the Christian Spaniards The Arabians seem to have carried their exploratory enintroduced the use of large ships, for which they were dis- | deavours into all regions and in all directions. Russia and tinguished down to the time of Philip the Second, whose its inhabitants are described, as people of more modern “Invincible Armada" consisted of ships much larger than times have found them in the earlier state of their civilizathe English vessels opposed to them.

tion. The daring of the Arabs was bounded by the As an instance of the depressed state of human know- Northern Ocean, which they termed “the sea of pitchy ledge during the middle ages, we may mention that Cosmas, darkness." India was visited regularly, and the Hindoos a Greek merchant of the sixth century, wrote a book called served in a nautical and commercial relation, for the HinChristian Topography, the chief intent of which was to doos had a superstitious horror of the sea. The interior confute the heretical opinion of the earth being a globe, parts of Africa likewise were sought out and described ; together with the pagan assertion that there was a tempe- and although fable may have insinuated itself into the rate zone on the southern side of the torrid zone. He in- more veracious narrative of the geographer and historian, formed his readers that, according to the true orthodox yet enough remains to make us believe that attempts were system of cosmography, the earth was a quadrangular made, if not absolutely followed up by success, to proceed plane, extending four hundred courses, or days' journeys, on westward, and to reach some strange, wonderful, and from east to west, and exactly half as much from north to immeasurably distant regions, which should be an eternal south, enclosed by lofty mountains upon which the canopy recompense to the daring and skilsul mariners who should or vault of the firmament rested: that a huge mountain on guide their prows to those shores. the north side of the eartlı, by intercepting the light of the There belong to Welsh history some traditions respecting sun, produced the vicissitudes of day and night; and that the adventures of Madoc, a prince of North Wales, who is the plane of the earth had a declivity from north to south, said to have first discovered America at the latter end of by reason of which the Euphrates, Tigris, and other rivers the twelfth century. Owing to certain domestic contentions running southward are rapid; whereas the Nile, having to about the sovereignty, Madoc determined, as runs the run up-hill, has necessarily a very slow current. Many thread of these traditions, to go out voyaging to a great other specimens of the blending of truth and fiction, or of distance, when he had procured men and ships with all the propagation of the latter alone, may be afforded. necessaries. The ancient Britons were said to be very proMassudi, who wrote a general history of the known world ficient in the art of navigation and all things pertaining in the year 947, compares the earth to a bird, of which thereunto. When they had been many weeks at sea, and Mecca and Medina are the head, Persia and India the right bad been much tossed about, they, at length, to their great wing, the land of Gog the left, and Africa the tail.

joy, discovered land, which seemed at first sight like a But the most celebrated of the Arabian geographers was cloud resting upon the distant waters. Seeing that it was Al Edrisi, who flourished in the twelfth century. He di- quite steady, they concluded it to be land, and sailing vides the world into seven climates, beginning with the towards it found it to be a fertile and pleasant country. equator and going northwards; these climates are distin. Here they settled, and in course of time Madoc returned to guished by lines running from west to east, which resemble Wales, and brought from home fresh men and ships, by the lines of latitude on a modern map or globe. The me- means of which he stocked the country, and they all settled chanical division of the earth into climates was continued there; and he and the other adventurers were subsequently for many ages, until the accuracy of modern science came forgotten by the mother-country. to adopt the parallels of latitude for marking off breadths It is supposed that the part of the world which Madoo on the earth's surface. This geographer supposed the earth arrived at was a part of the vast continent of America, to float in the ocean “like an egg in a basin of water." | which the Spaniards appear to have afterwards first found By his system he showed

out. The especial reason, which induces the moderns to the world

consider the story of Madoc to be essentially true, is that Built on circumfluous waters calm, in wide

so many of the words used by the Indians of those regions Crystalline ocean.

were found to be similar in sound and signification to tho This ocean

was considered, according to the prevalent Welsh; this has led to those people being called Welsh notion, to be surrounded by clouds and thick darkness. Indians. They live about the fortieth degree of north He further says that, owing to the impossibility of passing latitude, and have been thrown back more westward by the the equator by reason of the heat, the known world consists encroachments of the Americans of the States. They were of only one hemisphere, partly land and partly sea, all originally called Padoucas, or White Indians. We will which is surrounded by the great sea, or ocean, as bas just now turn to the very remarkable narrative of Lieutenant been mentioned.

Roberts, which, being coupled with the tradition cited During these ages the Arabs visited the Chinese and the above, will help us a good way to account for the early far-off nations of the East; and accounts of their inter- | populating of America. course with these people are handed down by various “In the year 1801," says he, “ being at Washington, in authors. These relations embrace not merely mercantile America, I happened to be at a hotel smoking my cigar, affairs, but observations of life and manners. One writer, according to the custom of the country, and there was a speaking of the use to which the cocoa-nut is applied, says, young lad (a native of Wales), a waiter in the house, who " There are people at Oman, who cross over to the islands displeased me by bringing me a glass of brandy and warm (the Laccadives) that produce the cocoa-nut, carrying with water instead of cold. I said to him jocosely, in Welsh,


. I'll

“There happened to be at the time in the same room one and with the bark of the tree they spin a yarn, wherewith of the secondary Indian chiefs, who, on my pronouncing they sew the planks together, and so build a ship. Of the these words, rose up in a great hurry, stretching forth his same wood they cut and round away a mast; of the leaves hand at the same time; and the chief said that it was like they weave their sails, and the bark they work into cordage. wise his language, and the language of his father and Having thus completed their vessel, they load her with mother, and of liis nation. 'So it is the language of my cocoa-nuts, which they bring and sell at Oman. Thus father and mother, and of my country.' Upon this the


much wood as they want, they let it dry, strip off he leaves Tastiere happened beating:

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