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THE MYXINE, GLUTINOUS HAG, OR BORER. | animal, and by which, in reference either to its quality
or quantity, or both, this fish is said to escape its enemies. So copious and so thick in its consistence is this jelly-like secretion, that some of the older naturalists believed this fish had the power of converting water into glue, and it obtained in consequence the name of the Glutinous Hag.
The body is long, and cylindrical throughout nearly its whole length, tapering and compressed near the tail ; in colour the Myxine is dark-brown along the
back, lighter chestnut-brown along the sides, and 6006008
The bones of the back in the lamprey are of a soft consistence, and indistinctly divided into rounded portions. In the Myxine, in place of a series of bones composing the vertebral column, there is merely a soft and flexible cartilaginous tube. The annexed engraving shows the structure of the mouth of the Myxine. It is to be observed, the parts are laid open to show the teeth : the tooth on the palate is seen about half way between the points of the nose and the four rows of teeth on the tongue
COMPASSION is an emotion of which we ought never to be This little fish, although seldom more than twelve ashamed. Graceful, particularly in youth, is the tear of or fourteen inches in length, is well deserving of sympathy, and the heart that melts at the tale of woe. We notice, on account of its singular method of obtain- should not permit ease and indulgence to contract our
affections, and wrap us up in a selfish enjoyment; but we ing its food. The Myxine is found as far north as
should accustom ourselves to think of the distresses of huthe shores of Scandinavia, and it is also of frequent man life, of the solitary cottage, the dying parent, and the occurrence on the British coasts, more particularly weeping orphan. Nor ought we ever to sport with pain and off Scarborough. It enters, says Pennant, the distress in any of our amusements, or treat even the meanest mouths of other fish when on the books attached to insect with wanton cruelty. Dr. BLAIR. the lines, which remain a tide under water, and totally devours the whole except the skin and bones. The Scarborough fishermen often take it in the robbed fish on drawing up their lines. On this account it is called, on this part of the coast, the Hag or the Borer, because, as others say, it first pierces a small aperture in the skin, and afterwards buries its head in the body of its prey. It is most usually found in the body of the cod, or some other equally rapacious fish.
Its worm-like figure induced several systematic writers to class it with the worms, and “ it was not till after dissections and published descriptions, that its true relations with the lampreys were acknowledged."
The Myxine, (says Mr. Yarrel,) is not uncommon at Berwick, but it is only to be obtained at a particular season of the year, in one or two localities, when, during fine weather, at the end of Spring, or the beginning of Summer, the fishermen lay their long lines, on a bank with a soft mud bottom, near the coast, when fishing for cod or haddock. It is considered by some, that the Myxine, which is without eyes, obtains access to the interior of the body of the fish by passing in at the anal aperture; others endeavour to account for its being found in the belly of a voracious fish, by supposing it had been swallowed; while many experienced fishermen still repeat their belief, that the Myxine enters the mouth of the cod-fish while it is hang. ing on the line. It is conjectured that the Myxine does not fasten upon any fish, unless it be either dead or hanging on a hook; but how a fish that is blind is able to find its way to a particular aperture, is a matter not easily explained. The eight barbules, or cirri, about the mouth of the Myxine are, there is no doubt, delicate organs of touch, by which it obtains cognizance of the nature and quality of the substances with which they are in contact, and its single-hooked tooth upon the palate enables it to retain its hold till the double rows of teeth, or the tongue, are brought
See page 178. into action, to aid the desire to obtain food." Along the whole length of the under surface of the
LONDON: body, from head to tail, there are two rows of mucous JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. pores, from which a large quantity of a gelatinous PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTA
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BPOTIIER OF TIIE MISERICORDIA
In our former notice of the Bishop of Ely's Chapel sure', contained twenty acres, or, as some say, and Palace in Holborn*, we brought down the memoir forty acrest,” in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The from the time of John de Kirkby, the original donor Bishops of Ely from that period lost all real possesof the property, (who was consecrated Bishop of Elysion of the property, by their own surrender; to in 1286, and died in 1290,) to the year 1531, when which, however, they were compelled by the crown. King Henry the Eighth and Queen Catherine were And this brings us to a painful period in our history: present at a banquet in the great hall of the palace. Elizabeth is said to have been struck with the Above is a correct sketch of the court-yard, the colon- graceful person and fine dancing of Sir Christopher nade, and south side of the old hall, over the chief Hatton, and to have promoted him to the office of entrance of which were carved the arms of the See Lord Chancellor, on the strength of these qualifi. of Ely; such having been the view which, before the cations. His attention to business, however, and the edifice was pulled down in 1772, met the eye on sagacity of his judgments, appeared afterwards to entering from that part of Holborn Hill where the justify the choice. Indeed, considering the penetrairon gates now stand. To give a correct idea of the tion displayed by that great queen in the selection of relative position of the buildings, it may be men- her ministers and advisers, we cannot help thinking tioned, that the ancient Chapel of St. Etheldreda that the story of Hatton's having danced into his stands somewhat further northward, and would, con- preferment, is a little piece of historical slander. sequently, be hidden by the hall. This hall, as seen Gray, speaking of this state Worthy, ironically in the engraving, is stated to have been a noble room, observes, in his Long Story, 74 feet long, standing east and west, lighted with six Full oft within the spacious walls, Gothic windows, and furnished in a manner suitable
When he had fifty winters o'er him, to the hospitality of the times.
My grave Lord-keeper led the brawls,
The seal and maces danced before him. The Ely estate in Holborn was so much enlarged and improved by purchases of land, and by buildings
His bushy beard and shoe-strings green, erected by successive prelates, that the whole, con
His high-crowned hat and satin doublet,
Moved the stout heart of England's queen, sisting of the palace, gardens, pastures, and enclo
Though Pope and Spaniard could not trouble it. See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XIII., p. 129,
+ Pennant, Vol. XIII.
In March 1576, on the queen's solicitation, Dr. ¡ liament, on bringing in the bill, was full of invective. Richard Cox, Bishop of Ely*, granted to Hatton This speech, and the unreasonable charges against the gate-house and other portions of the palace, the bishop, form, together, a very curious document, including the long gallery, fourteen acres of land, and Wren was imprisoned during the whole of the Rebelthe keeping of the garden and orchards for twenty- lion, in which time the greatest and best part of the one years; the latter paying at Midsummer-day a mansion was pulled down, the garden was built into red rose for the gate-house, with ten loads of hay tenements to the yalue of several thousands per an. and 101. per annum for the garden. The bishop suc- num, and Ely House was reduced to a very dark ceeded in reserving to himself and his successors free inconvenient dwelling, without any remains of its access through the gate-house, walking in the gardens, former splendour, except the ancient hall and chapel
. and gathering twenty bushels of roses yearly. Hatton In January, 1613, this once magnificent palace having undertaken to repair, and make the gate-house was ordered by the Parliament to be converted into a convenient dwelling, laid out large sums upon a prison; and the serjeant-at-arms was appointed the estate (about 20001.), and, on this pretext, in- keeper, with a special charge that the chapel, the treated the queen to require the bishop to alienate it garden, and trees should receive no injury. to him wholly, including the garden. Cox, how- During the troublous times which succeeded, Ely ever, in a well-written Latin letter, remonstrated | House was made the receptacle of wounded soldiers against this proposition, pointing out the inconve- and sailors. Numbers of the poor creatures, who nience which would ensue to himself and his suc- died there between 1648 and 1660, were brought cessors, from such a spoliation :
to be buried in the churchyard of St. Andrew's, That they would miss the orchard and meadow; besides, Holborn. The registers of burials in that parish that his conscience would not allow him to accede to such abound with entries of this kind: there are literally a piece of sacrilege. That on becoming Bishop of Ely, he hundreds. The following are extracts : had received into his hands certain farms, houses, &c., which former pious sovereigns had thought fit to assign to
1650 December William Shawe a captaine out of Ely
louse dier and was bur 19th the See. Of these things he ought to be a steard, ilot a He reminded the queen of that golden rule,
1650 William Ward a man a victler by Ely House
Gate died and was bur 31st Dec Not to do that to another which one would not have done to oneself; And that the profit of one person is not to be
1652 December Elizabeth Vien a nurse-keeper to increased by the damage of another. He added, that he
souliers in Ely House was bur the 22nd could scarcely justify those princes who transferred things | buried 16 of Aprill 1653 But noe body knew his name
1653 Aprill A souldier dyed in Ely House and was intended for pious uses, to purposes less pious.
He came in over night and dyed in ye morninge Neither these arguments, however, nor the acknow- 1653 June A Dutchman whose name was not known, ledged merits of the prelate, were allowed to prevail : dyed in Ely House and was buryed the 18th against these were set the queen's regard for Hatton, 1653 Aug Robert Barker a man sometimes porter of and a debt which he owed to her Majesty, for she had | Ely House and was buried the 21 accommodated him with money, which he was unable buryed ye 28!! Oct 1653
Oct Hannah Browning a maide in Ely House Fas to raise. The issue of the correspondence was this; that the bishop should, by way of mortgage, convey ander Rigbey, one of the barons of the Exchequer
We also meet with the register of burial of Alexto the queen, and the queen to Hatton, the house, gardens, &c., which were at that time on lease to him, who died in Ely Rents, and of many other persons but that they should be redeemable on the payment of who occupied portions of these extensive buildings as the sum which was stated to have been laid out upon it.
tenants. By the last-mentioned entry, it appears The of
that the baron died on the 18th of August 1650, years after Bishop Cox's death, no distinguished and was carried away the 2nd of September following churchman being willing to accept a dignity burdened to bee buried in Lancashire." with such heavy charges and subjected to so many
In March, 1660, it was referred to a Committee of grievous annoyances as this appears to have been.
the House of Commons to consider, “how the widows Heton, who was the next bishop, demurred to the and orphans of the maimed soldiers at Ely House terms imposed, on which he received from the queen a
could be provided for and paid for the future, with strong letter beginning“ Proud Prelate !" Understand the least prejudice to the nation; and how a weekly ing" that he was backward in complying with his
revenue might be settled for their maintenance, and agreement, she would have him to know, that she
how the maimed soldiers may be disposed of, so as who had made him what he was, would unmake him;
the nation may be eased of the charge : and how they and if he did not forth with fulfil his engagement, may be provided of a preaching minister." she would immediately unfrock him.” This peremp
Neither Wren, nor any of his immediate successors, tory epistle was signed “Yours, as you demean by whom bills were exhibited in Chancery for the yourself, ELIZABETH.” Nothing was done towards recovery of the property to the see, were able to make paying off the mortgage above mentioned till the
much progress in the matter, till Bishop Simon Patrick time of the learned and excellent Bishop Lancelot put an end to the law-suit which had so long existed, by Andrews, who commenced proceedings in earnest to accepting a fee-farm rent for himself and his succesthis effect, but was prevented from carrying them sors, amounting to 1001. a year, settled on the bishopric. further by his translation from the See of Ely to
It is no wonder that the several bishops in succesthat of Winchester.
sion should have suffered great inconvenience from Bishop Matthew Wren afterwards tendered the the despoiled and dismantled state of the palace. money, and obtained a sentence in the Court of The gate-house having been taken down, they were Requests; but the Long Parliament put a stop to compelled to enter the apartments reserved for them the measure in 1641, by the imprisonment of the by an old back way. The rooms under these apartbishop in the Tower, he having been impeached in
ments were occupied by tenants, to whom the prothe House of Commons for certain alleged practices perty had been underlet. Half of the Crypt, which is in his diocese tending to popery.
The speech of stated to have been once used for the interment of Sir Thomas Widdrington, a puritan member of par- persons dying within the precinct, was frequented as a * This learned and pious Prelate took a leading part in the cation of triose assembled frequently interrupting
drinking place, where liquor was retailed; the intoxiin drawing up King Edward the Sixth's First Common Prayer Book. I the performance of divine service in the chapel abave!
of the bishops of Ely who afterwards resided in The expectations which had been formed having, the palace, some died there; and by the Chapel re- in a great degree, failed, the Chapel was closed; but gisters, it appears, that several baptisms and marriages on the occasion of an appeal being recently made to were solemnized in it, by different clergymen, but the public, for supplying means towards the erection principally by the bishops or their chaplains.
of additional churches in the metropolis, it became The premises at length fell into ruin and neglect, a subject of regret, that an ancient ecclesiastical until, in 1772, in the time of Bishop Edmund Keene, building, in every respect calculated for the puran Act of Parliament was procured, enabling the See poses of religious worship, should remain unoccupied. of Ely to dispose of the whole. Thus, after a posses- Accordingly, in the year 1836, at the instance, and sion of nearly five hundred years, Ely-House and the under the sanction, of the Archbishop of Canterbury reserved grounds were conveyed to the crown for and the Bishop of London, Ely Chapel, after having 65001., and an annuity of 2001., payable to the bishops been closed for five years, was re-opened for Divine of Ely for ever; the town residence of those prelates service, which is now regularly performed, morning being transferred to Dover-street, Piccadilly. The and evening. site and materials of the old buildings were purchased by Mr. Charles Cole, architect and deputy A VISIT TO THE BLIND SCHOOL, surveyor for the crown. He built Ely-place, of which he was the proprietor, and to which the chapel served
** * There was no public exhibition, but a private as a place of worship.
visit, with an order from a superintendent, furnished In February, 1781, a trial took place in the court
us with a much more favourable view. When I think of King's Bench before William, earl of Mansfield, of those sightless orbs, I can hardly realize that my Lord Chief Justice, and a special jury, in which the
name, which I now see so neatly printed, together said Mr. Cole, then an inhabitant of Ely-Place, was
with the watch-guard round my neck, in which I can the plaintiff, and two magistrates of Middlesex were
detect no false stitch, is their work. After we defendants, in an action of trespass for taking the entered, the teacher asked if I would like to have my plaintiff's watch to pay a poor's rate, under a warrant
name printed; on my answering in the affirmative, of distress signed by the defendants. The jury, he called Mary Ann! A very pleasing looking girl of without going out of court, found a verdict for the fifteen groped her way easily to the table, where the plaintiff, on the ground of the place being extra
box of blocks was placed; the letters are pricked, not parochial, which was entirely in accordance with the
coloured. While Mary Ann was forming my name, judge's charge. Lord Stowell remarks, that this she held a kind of converse with the blocks, now verdict was probably obtained on the assumption of jesting, now scolding if the right letter did not meet mistaken facts, or on some insufficient statement of her touch, but all in a low, pleasant tone. The name all the circumstances. Ely-place has since been ruled
was completed without mistake in a few minutes. A to be liable to rates.
little boy spelt at my request, and Mary Ann was A register book belonging to the chapel, which
next called to read a chapter from one of the Gospels is continued from one in the custody of the bishop in raised letters. She reads rapidly, but no oratorical of Ely, shows various entries of baptism between tone has ever fallen with such power on my ears as 1780 and 1802. A “memorandum" in the more
the words of Jesus from the lips of that blind girl. modern book records, that Mr. Cole thoroughly The teacher then gave out arithmetical questions of repaired the chapel, and that it was re-opened in great difficulty, which he himself worked on the December, 1786.
black-board. Nothing could be more earnest or amWith reference to an excellent clergyman, formerly bitious than the air with which they went to work to the minister of this chapel, the following melancholy calculate, or the look of triumph assumed by those notice occurs in the Gentleman's Mugazine for 1798.
who were the quickest or the most successful. Died, November 4, of malignant fevers,
At this period their music-master came. There The third son of the Rev. Mr. Faulkner: On the 8th, aged forty, after preaching three times on
was great eagerness and interest in their manner,
and the Sunday before, the Rev. William Elisha Faulkner, many a sly joke was whispered. They began with a lecturer of St. Giles in the Fields, and minister of Ely German chorus, each part nobly sustained, the girls Chapel :
remaining in one room and boys in the other. I had And on the 12th, his youngest son.
been carried along by the variety and interest of the · His wife and second son were also attacked by the same scene up to this point, not a little aided by the vivadisorder, and have recovered.
city, even drollery, which characterized the manners It now remains shortly to trace the history of the of many of the girls; but now that their countechapel to the present time. On the establishment of nances were fixed, their sightless orbs mostly turned the Central School in Baldwin's Gardens, under the upward, and their voices swelling in a rich concert of superintendence of the National Society for the Edu- praise and thanksgiving, my tears could not be cation of the Poor in the principles of the Established restrained; fortunately the air ceased, and one of Church, the benevolent Treasurer of that institution Mary Ann's slily whispered jokes restored me to selfconsidered Ely Chapel to be a suitable place of possession. After the German followed several worship for the children and their parents. Acting English airs, which were succeeded by instrumental upon this good design, he purchased it at a con- music, combining violins, clarionets, flutes, horns, siderable cost, and presented it to the Society in bassoon, bass-viol, forming in all a grand concert. 1820; assigning the whole management and direc- The music being over, the girls separated, and we tion to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishop visited the sewing apartment, where they began to of London, for the time being. It being supposed collect, going unaided to their various occupations, that the inhabitants of Ely Place and the adjoining making rugs, straw baskets, watch-guards, beadneighbourhood would continue to rent the pews, the bags, &c. &c. As we descended to another room, we middle and side aisles were offered for their accom- found Mary Ann at an elegant harp, which has lately modation ; and when the Central National School was been presented to the Institution by a Philadelphian. transferred from Baldwin's Gardens to Westminster, She was very shy, but consented to give us her first the galleries which had been erected for the children tune; another young lady played on the pianowere refitted for general use.
RECREATIONS IN NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. ported, the tendency of the body to tilt up, or upset, No. VIII.
is just as strong on one side as on the other, so that
it remains neutral. An athletic man is sometimes CENTRE OF Gravity.
exhibited, who places a child on the top of a ladder, Tue beam of a pair of scales supported in the middle, and rests the bottom of the ladder on his own chin, remains in a horizontal position, and this it does even and thus bears the whole, In this case, there is when we add many pounds' weight to the ends, really but a small portion of the child's body exactly provided the weight at one end is exactly equal to
over the man's chin, (which is the point of support,) that at the other. The point of support upon which but the man so regulates the position of the ladder
, the beam turns, bears not only the balance-beam, that the centre of gravity of the whole shall be in a but the weights attached to such beam also. In vertical line with his chin, so that the weight on each every solid, or collection of solids, there is a similar side is equal, and the tendency of the child to fall on point of support, about which all the parts of such one side is exactly equal to its tendency to fall on solid balance each other exactly, so that the whole the other side, by which opposition of forces the mass is at rest : this point is called the centre of child is equally balanced. gravity; and although the attraction of gravitation
Similar instances may be met with under every acts upon every atom of the mass, provided the variety of circumstances. We will state a few of the centre of gravity be supported, the whole mass is in means for which the young student can himself equilibrium, that is, it is equally balanced.
provide. Insert the points of two knives into a It becomes, therefore, an important question how stick, as in fig. 1, and the stick may be balanced we are to know whether a body will fall when one on the end of the finger without the slightest diffipart is supported, and the rest is not. We ascertain culty. In this case, if we look at either knife sepathis by finding out the centre of gravity. This we rately, we shall see that it is wholly unsupported by generally do instinctively, without any foreknowledge the finger, for no part of it is directly over the finger
, of the mechanical properties of solids ; but there is and its tendency is to bear the stick down in that a large variety of instances where the architect or the direction ; but if we regard the other side, we find engineer would be sadly at fault, unless he were
that the other knife is placed similarly to the first, enabled to determine the exact situation of the centre and that the tendency of one knife to fall, is precisely of gravity of the solid masses with which his works are counterbalanced by the similar tendency of the other constructed, and the situation of the same centre in a knife; neither one, therefore, can fall, and this complete work which is intended to endure for ages. explains what we mean by saying that, when the
If a solid be regular in its form, and uniform in centre of gravity is supported, a body cannot fall. its substance, such as a globe or cube of metal, the There is another important remark connected with centre of gravity is evidently the centre of the figure; this experiment, namely, the situation of the point of but in solids of irregular forms, a little calculation is support with respect to the centre of gravity. necessary, in order to determine the exact position of The reader may possibly be surprised, to learn that such centre.
the centre of gravity is not always situated within If a solid be attached to a string hanging from a
the body which is supported, but may actually be at hook in the ceiling, such solid being under the influ- a considerable distance from it. This requires explaence of gravity, will descend to the lowest possible nation. We have said that the centre of gravity is point, and the string will, of course, be vertical. that particular spot, about which all the parts of a The centre of gravity, then, in every suspended
solid balance each other : but it may so happen that solid, tends to the lowest situation which its support
at such spot there is a vacant space. A ring, for exallows of. This is a consequence of the attraction of ample, has for its centre of gravity the centre of the gravitation. The centre of gravity is in a right line circle which such ring describes. We all know the with the point of suspension, and can therefore be extreme difficulty, and, to most persons, the imposfound easily. If we bore a hole through the solid, sibility of balancing a ring on the tip of the finger
, in the exact direction of the string, so that if the and the reason is, because the centre of gravity is latter were continued below the point at which it is above the point of support : but we may easily attached to the solid, it would pass through this
balance such ring upon the point of a pin, by placing hole ; and if we suspend the solid by different points the pin within the ring, so as to balance it from the on its surface, and bore holes through it from each upper part of the inner circumference, in which case point, as in the first instance, we shall find, on cutting the centre of gravity will be below the point of supopen the solid so as to discover the directions of the port, as, indeed, is the case in the illustration afforded several holes, that they all cross each other at one point by fig. 1. within the solid, which point is its centre of gravity.
Fig. 2. The reader may try this experiment for himself with a piece of pasteboard of an irregular form.
Fig. 1. Suspend it from its edge by means of a piece of string, and draw a line across the surface of the board in the exact direction of the string. Then let it be suspended from another part of the edge, and draw another line in a similar manner. The two lines will cross each other, and the point of intersection will be the centre of gravity of the pasteboard; for if a stout pin be thrust through this centre, the board may be made to turn upon the pin as an axis, and will remain at rest in any vertical position, whatever part of the edge may happen to be uppermost.
Fig. 2 is an amusing example of a similar kind, We see, then, that the centre of gravity in a solid, where a shilling is made to turn upon its edge on the is such a spot that the weight of matter on opposite point of a needle. Into the cork of a wine bottle sides of it is equal, so that when that spot is sup- insert a needle in a vertical position with its point