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NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, AND THE GREAT NORTHERN COAL-FIELD.

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from this structure, which still exists, the town derives HISTORY OF NEWCASTLE-CASTLE AND TOWN

its present name. During the wars between the WALLS-CHURCHES-LITERARY SOCIETIES.

English and Scotch many sanguinary battles were NewCASTLE-U PON-TYNE, which within the memory fought in the vicinity of Newcastle, and it is plausibly of man was not undeservedly called “the Coal-hole conjectured that many of the pestilences which wasted of the North,” has within the present century become the town during this period were caused by the one of the most beautiful towns of England, rivalling heaps of slain left unburied, or but partially buried, the metropolis itself in its architectural decorations. after these ruinous combats. But it is not necessary Its situation on the crest of the eminences on the to dwell upon these almost forgotten struggles; and north side of the Tyne, pointed it out to the Romans we turn with pleasure to a much more important and as a desirable military post; and they occupied it interesting subject, the origin of the coal-trade, to protect the Ælian bridge, and defend the flank to which Newcastle owes its wealth and celebrity. of the wall erected to repel the invasions of the The first notice on the subject is found in a charter Picts and Scots. The modern bridge over the Tyne of Henry III., which grants permission to the buroccupies the place of the Roman structure, and the gesses of Newcastle to work the coal-mines in their termination of the Roman line of fortifications is neighbourhood. So eagerly did they avail themselves still called Wall's End, a name sufficiently familiar to of this grant, that in 1306 the parliament complained the citizens of London, who procure their best coals to the king that the atmosphere of London was from a colliery in its vicinity. After the Saxon in dangerously infected by the burning of northern vasion, Newcastle became one of the chief seats of coals, and begged that the use of this fuel should be the kings of Northumberland, who adorned it with restrained; and in 1325 coals were exported from so many monastic institutions that it received the Newcastle to France. name of Monkchester. When the Danes invaded During the long struggle between Charles I. and England, a great body of them settled on the banks his parliament, the citizens of Newcastle were disof the Tyne, and made Northumberland a principality tinguished by their fidelity to the royal cause; and enjoying a qualified independence. The Anglo-Danes when the unfortunate monarch had surrendered to were a more warlike people than the Saxons: they the Scotch, and was brought a prisoner into the town, continued their resistance to William the Conqueror they received him with all the usual honours of royafter the rest of England had submitted; but being alty, and showed much sympathy for his sufferings. defeated on Gateshead Fell, the cruel Norman levelled One anecdote of the fallen monarch, during his captiMonkchester with the ground. In the course of the vity at Newcastle, deserves to be recorded. In order Conqueror's subsequent wars with Scotland, the im- to conciliate the Scotch, Charles was constant in his portance of having a fortress to protect the passage attendance at Presbyterian places of worship, although of the Tyne became apparent, and a new castle was the Scotch preachers virulently assailed him from erected by Robert Curthose, the Conqueror's eldest the pulpit, and ascribed his misfortunes to the venson, on the height which commands the bridge, and, geance of heaven. One minister, after a sermon VOL. XIII,

412

fuli of coarse personal reproaches of his majesty, | modern improvements, we cannot but lament the called for the fifty-second psalm, which in the Scot. | destruction of the memorials of antiquity, especially tish version begins

when their removal is not demanded by imperative Why dost thou, tyrant, boast abroad,

necessity. The removal of Westgate in 1811 was Thy wicked works to praise ?

not, we think, required by public convenience; we upon which the king stood up, and called for the wish that this monument of the wealth and munifififty-sixth psalm

cence of Roger de Thornton had been spared. It is Have mercy, Lord, on me, I pray,

said that he rebuilt and beautified this gate to commeFor man would me devour.

morate the time when he entered the town in a state The congregation, in defiance of the tyranny then of great indigence, as the rhyming tradition states, exercised by the presbyterian clergy, showed greater

At the West gate came Thornton in deference for fallen royalty than for the minister, by

With a hap, a ha’penny, and a lamb-skyn. singing the psalm for which the king had called. The more recent removal of Newgate in 1822 was

At the time of the Revolution the people of New opposed by many of the inhabitants, who appealed castle were conspicuous for their zeal to establish a

in vain to the council for its preservation, but since protestant government. They hurled into the river that time the people of Newcastle have become chary a beautiful statue of James II. in copper, which had of their remaining antiquities, and anxious to preserve had been erected in front of their Excnange; and all existing memorials of the time when their town wben it was subsequently taken up, they used the was the great fortress of the North. metal to cast bells for the churches, as we find by

Among the ancient edifices of Newcastle, the church the following curious entry in the books of the corpo- of St. Nicholas * is most conspicuous; the original ration :-"Ordered, that All Saints have the metal structure, erected by Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, A.D. belonging to the horse of the said statue, except a 1091, was destroyed by fire A.D. 1216, and the present leg thereof, which must go towards the new casting building was not completed until A.D. 1359, since of a bell for St. Andrew's parish.” Ever since that which it has received frequent and extensive repairs, time the burgesses of Newcastle have been zealous not always in the best taste. The steeple of this adherents to the Hanoverian succession, and have church is one of the most singular creations of Gothic embraced every opportunity of proving their loyalty. architecture; from the base of the four pinnacles on

Turning from the history of Newcastle to a de- the top of the tower spring two lofty arches which scription of its present condition, the most remark- intersect each other, and bear on their vertex a light able characteristic that we observe is the mixture of square lantern, decorated with pinnacles similar to ancient and modern styles; all the features of an old those of the tower. From the top of the lantern a feadal garrison existing amidst the bustle of com- tapering pyramidal spire rises tipped with a light merce, the most sumptuous modern edifices, and a vane, which gracefully harmonizes with the surroundforest of masts from every quarter of the globe. ing pinnacles. No description can convey an adequate This is peculiarly remarkable in the vicinity of the idea of its effect, and accordingly Ben Jonson amused Castle, which, though frequently altered and repaired, himself by describing it in the following enigma, which has not lost much of its original character as a border

has been preserved traditionally, and is therefore fortress. Its chapel especially is an exquisite speci- pobably corrupted :men of the rich and beautiful style of architecture

My altitude high, my body four-square, adopted by the Normans in their ecclesiastical edifices,

My feet in the grave, my head in the air, and there is no difficulty in tracing

In my sides are my eyes, I've five tongues of my own,

Thirteen heads on my body, and all of hewn stone;
The battled towers, the donjon keep,

I can direct you where the wind it doth stray,
The loophole grates where captives weep,

And I tune God's precepts through twice in the day;
The flanking walls that round it sweep.

I am seen where I am not and heard where I is not, These outer walls were of great strength, and en- Tell me now what I am, and see that you miss not. closed an area of three acres and one rood. The St. Andrew's Church is said to have been erected grand entrance was through the Black Gate, which by David, king of Scotland, who occupied Newcastle was an outwork of considerable strength, defended from 1135 to 1153 : it suffered considerable damage by two portcullises, two drawbridges, and two bar- in the siege of 1644. This church, and those of St. bicans, or flanking towers. Its remains are so sur- John's and All Saints, have been so modernized, that rounded by masses of houses huddled together with they have quite lost their original character. out system or design, and by no means remarkable

Passing over the episcopal chapels and those befor their cleanliness, that it is difficult to determine longing to various classes of dissenters, we shall now its dimensions. There were three other entrances direct attention to the edifices built for secular purthrough posterns; the southmost of which led to the poses, and first notice the Guildhall, or Exchange. Castle Stairs, an immense flight of steps leading from This edifice is situated in the lower and old part of the top of the hill to the river, with houses at each the town, on the Sand-hill, near the south entrance of side, nearly all of which are tenanted by cobblers, the town by Tynebridge. The houses in the neighso that the visiter can scarcely divest himself of the bourhood are interesting and picturesque specimens notion that he is ascending or descending a pyramid of the old English style of architecture, but they are of old shoes.

in many cases crowded together and pierced by lanes The town-walls were twelve feet high on the inside, and passages, dark, dirty, and inconvenient. The and eight feet thick; their extent from end to end was original edifice was erected by Robert Trollop, an about two miles and one-eighth; they were defended eminent architect. He lies buried in Gateshead by embattled gates and bastion towers, which, united churchyard, on the opposite side of the river, and to the natural fortifications of the Ouseburn glen and the following quaint epitaph alludes to his building Pandon Burn ravine, rendered Newcastle one of the the Guildhall and Exchange:strongest places in England. Since 1745, the last

Here lies Robert Trollop, time that they were put into a state of defence, great

Who made you stones roll up ; · masses of the fortification have been removed, either

When death took his soul up, to open commercial thoroughfares, or to make room

His body filled this hole up. for new edifices. However we may be pleased with

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., 41.

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Trollop added to these buildings å picturesque tower | in preparing works for the press, such as permitting or steeple, said to have been very beautiful; but it them to have several sets of books at a time, and was removed at the close of the last century, and its to retain them for a longer period than ordinary place supplied by an unmeaning front of plain ma- readers. In the library are two noble pieces of stasonry. The old tower obtained some notoriety from tuary, the work of a native artist named Lough, who the circumstance of a pair of crows having built worked as a stone-mason at the building of the their nest on the weathercock in March, 1783. The library, but who has since carried a very high repunest was attached with great ingenuity to the hollow tation by his works as a sculptor. It contains, also, tube on which the vane was then fixed, and the nest the busts and portraits of several eminent persons, was therefore turned round with every change of the mostly natives of Newcastle. wind; for several years the same crows built their The rooms of the Natural History Society adjoin nest and reared their young ones in this singular the library, and comprise a Museum of Natural Hisposition.

tory, a Geological Museum, the meeting-room of the The Mansion House is not far distant from the Antiquarian Society, a room of Egyptian antiquities, Exchange; it was rebuilt in 1691 at a cost of 60001., a gallery of Roman altars, &c., and several store-rooms. and was fitted up very sumptuously; its wainscots | All these are open to the public, free of charge, every and staircase of carved oak are particularly worthy day except Sunday, from eleven to four o'cock; they of notice. After the Municipal Reform Act, the new are, also, occasionally opened in the evening, to afford town council came to a resolution not to continue the labourers and mechanics an opportunity of visiting establishment; the furniture was sold by auction, them; and it is truly gratifying to add, that for and the mansion itself let as a lumber warehouse. several years no instance of ingratitude or dishonesty Fortunately the present tenant takes all possible care has occurred. It deserves to be added, that the taste of the carvings and decorations, but he cannot pre- for literature is widely disseminated in Newcastle, vent the accidents resulting from the passing and and that the average sale of books in proportion to repassing of labourers with heavy loads, and unless the population, is greater than in any other part of the staircase and wainscots be speedily removed, their the world. destruction is inevitable.

Newcastle being a county in itself, it has courthouses of its own in the Town Hall; but the court

THE HYDRAULIC RAM. houses for the county of Northumberland are erected Tue Hydraulic Ram is a simple machine, by which on the Castle Hill, at a very inconvenient distance water can be raised to a considerable height above its from the Town Hall; the nearest communication natural level ; it is more frequently employed in between them being up an almost precipitous ascent. France than in this country, but the simplicity of its The county courts are very convenient and elegant, construction, combined with its self-acting power, but as they are within the precincts of the old castle, make it a desirable means for its intended purpose, the access to them is very unpleasant. It has been where there is an abundance of water, and where the proposed to erect both town and county courts in water which it would otherwise waste can be emone building in the new part of the town, and it is to ployed for other purposes. Montgolfier, the celebe wished that this useful improvement may en- brated aëronaut, was the inventor of the Hydraulic counter no obstacle from local interests or prejudices. Ram. He had observed, that if water was conducted,

The Library of the Literary and Philosophical by means of a leaden pipe, from a cistern placed at Society, stands near the junction of Westgate-street a considerable height, immediately its flow was stopand Collingwood-street. No provincial town in ped by turning the cock, a sudden shock was felt, Britain, and perhaps not even the capital itself, pos- which, in many cases, would burst the pipe by its sesses an institution better managed, and in every violence; this arose from the impetus the water had way more creditable to its founders and supporters, received in its descent being suddenly checked ; than the Literary and Philosophical Society of New- reasoning on this fact, he contrived to avail himself castle. It was founded in the year 1793, principally of this power, which would otherwise have been lost, by the exertions of the Rev. William Turner, who in the construction of his Hydraulic Ram. still survives to witness its beneficial effects. The Professor Millington mentions a circumstance, street front gives a very inadequate notion of the which produced similar results, and which occurred extent of the accommodations within. The principal before Montgolfier's invention, It was necessary to entrance is from Westgate-street. The ground-floor conduct the water from a cistern, placed about halfcontains a law library, a medical library, a spacious way between the ground and the top of a large buildlecture-room, capable of accommodating five hundreding in Bristol, to a place in the lower part of the persons, and an apparatus-room containing an exten- house; this was effected by means of a long leaden sive selection of chemical, electrical, optical, and pipe, but it was found that almost every time the mechanical instruments, for the use of lecturers and cock was turned the pipe burst. To remedy this, a the members generally. The separation of the pro- smaller pipe was soldered to the lower end of the fessional from the general library is a very great supplying pipe, and conducted upwards to the cistern advantage; it is obviously capable of further exten- from which the water descended; this was done to sion, and we believe it is contemplated to add both prevent the waste of the liquid. When the success military and waval libraries, amply provided with of this contrivance was put to the test, it was found plans, maps, charts, &c. A handsome double stair- that the force acquired by the water in its descent, case, ornamented with casts from the Elgin and other was not only more than sufficient to drive a portion of marbles, leads to the principal floor of the building. it back again to the cistern through the smaller pipe, The library is eighty feet in length, by forty in but capable of carrying a jet of water to a considerable breadth, and is forty feet high ; it contains nearly height above that level; the small pipe was then confourteen thousand volumes. The books are allowed tinued to a considerable height farther, but still a jet to circulate among the members, who may, if they of water was produced ; advantage was taken of this choose, take out all the volumes of any work at the result, and a reservoir of water was kept constantly same time. The council, with very creditable libe- supplied at the top of the house without any addirality, affords additional facilities to persons engaged tional exertion. Many improvements have been made

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in the Water Ram since it was originally constructed,

ELECTRICITY. and the annexed engraving, although not representing

No. IV. one of the most modern construction, will, perhaps,

ELECTRICAL MACHINES. render the principle on which it acts more intelligible than if a more complicated machine were referred to. HAVING described electrical machines, as they are usu

ally constructed, we shall next endeavour to give some account of what we consider the best means of operating with them; explaining as we go along the use of each particular part of these instruments.

We begin with a cylindrical machine, which we must suppose to have been carefully cleaned, some fresh amalgam applied to the rubber, and the framework of the machine secured by a clamp to a strong table. The latter should be so placed that it may not be in contact with the walls or furniture of the room, and, if it can be avoided, not near a window, nor in a direct line between the fire-place and the door.

These arrangements being completed, if the machine is in good order, on turning the cylinder, its motion will be accompanied by a crackling noise, and, if the room be darkened, flashes of pale white light will be seen to issue from between the cylinder and the rubber, which passing underneath the silk flap, will illuminate the points on the side (or end) of the prime conductor.

To give proper effect to the machine, it is necessary Let A be the reservoir from which the water is that the negative conductor (that to which the rubber derived; this will flow along the pipe bc with a

is attached) be made to communicate, by means of a velocity equal to the perpendicular height from B to small chain, with the wall or floor of the room;

The water flowing along the level part of the which being done, the electricity excited can only be pipe c, will at first escape through the opening at E, received from the positive conductor; and it is in conbut it will quickly by its force raise the hollow brass sequence called positive electricity. This will be shown ball, or valve, v, so as to close the opening at E, and by holding the knuckle near to the positive conprevent its further escape; thus checked in its course, ductor, when brilliant sparks will pass from it in it presses with a sudden jerk against the valve F, rapid succession, producing a sharp snapping sound, which it raises from its support, and opens a way for and causing in the hand a sensation of pain, greater its escape into the chamber G, and the ascending tube in proportion to the space which the spark traverses. H; as soon as the effort of the water is exhausted, the So long as the conditions ain as we have just valve F sinks into its bed, and prevents the water described them, on presenting the knuckle to the that has been introduced into the chamber above it negative conductor, no spark will be emitted by it; from returning into the pipe B C.

At the same

but if the chain by which it communicates with the time the valve D, falls into its bed, and leaves floor be removed, and attached in a similar manner the hole at e open ; the water again escapes for to the positive conductor, then will sparks pass a time, again lifts the valve D and closes the between the knuckle and the negative conductor, and opening, and again rushes into the chamber G, and not from the other; and the electricity excited by the this reciprocating action continues as long as water machine under these circumstances is called negative is supplied from the cistern A. The upper part electricity. of the chamber G is occupied by air, which, being

We have already stated that an electrical machine compressed by the entrance of the water, by its elas is composed of two classes of materials, called, in ticity assists in forcing it up the tube h.

The reference to their electrical habits, or properties, nonnumber of strokes produced by these machines conductors and conductors. Thus, by the judicious varies much, but they amount not unfrequently to combination of dried wood, glass, hair, and silk, from fifty to seventy in a minute. The loss of water which belong to the first mentioned class of bodies, when not wanted for other purposes is considerable, and of brass, or some other metal, belonging to the varying to from fifty to thirty per cent. of the total second class, we are enabled to excite electricity in quantity discharged from the reservoir.

any required quantity, detaching it for a time from substances with which it was previously united, and

compelling it to enter others in such quantities as to A man would do well to carry a pencil in his pocket, and produce effects, which, under crdinary circumstances, write down the thoughts of the moment. Those that come and without such powerful agency, we have no opunsought for, are commonly the most valuable, and should be secured, because they seldom return.-LORD BACON.

portunities of witnessing.

The source of electricity, as obtained by the THose who know the value of human life, know the im- machine, is the glass cylinder, the materials composing portance of a year, a day, and even an hour; and these, the rubber, and the amalgam interposed between it when spent amid the full enjoyment of the vital functions, and the cylinder. But although the glass and the of how much importance to our whole existence! It is rubber are what are termed electrics, and, consetherefore an eternal and irreparable loss, when time is not quently, very susceptible of electrical excitation, it enjoyed as it ought. -STRUVE.

would be impossible to obtain by them electricity in We ought, in humanity, no more to despise a man for the control, if the conductors, as well as the other parts effected by means of the glass pillars which support It is difficult to define the precise meaning of the the cylinder and conductors, and the necessity for terms positive and negative, as applied to electrical which will be seen in a moment on attaching a chain phenomena. Some maintain that there are two disto both conductors, thus making them communicate tinct kinds of electricity. Others contend that there with the floor. In that case the electricity excited by is only one kind, which exists in opposite states. the friction of the cylinder against the rubber will According to the latter theory, electrical excitation is pass from the negative to the positive conductor, and supposed to depend on certain properties of bodies, thence down the chain to the floor, so that it will be which admit of the accumulation of electricity among impossible to obtain the slightest indication of its the particles of one class, and the separation of it from presence. The same will happen if we connect the those of another class. Hence when, by contact, by two conductors, by a chain or wire, without letting it friction, or by some other means, electricity is extouch the stand of the machine; the electricity then cited, that body which has received more than its passing from the negative to the positive conductor, ordinary share, is said to be positively electrified, and and back from the positive to the negative, in an that which has been deprived of a portion of what it uninterrupted circuit, so long as the rotation of the previously contained, and consequently has less than cylinder continues.

any considerable quantity, or to have it at all under misfortunes of the mind, than for those of the body, when they are such as he cannot help; were this thoroughly con

of the machine just referred to, were not insulated, sidered, we should no more laugh at a man for having his

that is, detached, in an electrical sense, from the brains cracked, than for having his head broke.—-Pope. floor, and all surrounding substances. This object is

its ordinary share, is said to be negatively electrified. But whilst the efficiency of an electrical machine is Without entering at length upon this subject, we destroyed by connecting both conductors with the remark that our chief business is to investigate, and floor, or with each other, it is necessary that one of endeavour to understand the facts of the science. them should be in communication either with the floor In pursuing a series of illustrative experiments, it or the walls; and as it is more convenient to operate matters not which theory is most correct, provided with the positive than with the negative conductor, our practice is conformable to well-ascertained princithe latter most commonly has a chain attached to it, ples. Whether there be two kinds, or two states, of as already described. The use of this chain is to keep electricity, we must ever bear in mind that bodies up a supply of electricity to the rubber, for without similarly electrified always repel, those dissimilarly it, after turning the cylinder for a few minutes, the ma- electrified always attract, each other; that both kinds, chine would become almost inactive, in consequence or states, of electricity, are produced simultaneously, of the electricity of the rubber being exhausted. It and in equal proportions; and that the electricity is true that electricity is always present in the atmos- we intend to operate with can be subjected to our phere, sometimes in greater proportions than at control only by means of an insulated or nonothers; but as air is a very slow conductor, excepting conducting substance. when it is heavily charged with moisture, the supply In the cylindrical machine the rubber is always from thence would be inadequate and uncertain. negative, the cylinder always positive; the hair with From the earth electricity may be obtained in any which the rubber is made, and the silk flap attached required quantity, at all times, and in all places. to it, answering precisely the same purpose in refe

Before we proceed further, it may be as well to rence to the cylinder, as a silk handkerchief does in enter a little more into detail respecting positive and reference to a glass rod. By the insulation of the negative electricity. We have shown that when glass negative conductor we are enabled to operate, if we and silk, or sealing-wax and woollen cloth, are rubbed wish to do so, with negative electricity; but if there against each other, electrical excitation ensues; that be only one kind of electricity, that which appears to produced by the friction of the two former being proceed from the negative conductor must in reality called positive, that of the two latter, negative, electri- be passing towards it. Excepting for the sake of city. We have also stated that on holding an excited illustrating a few matters connected with the elements glass rod near to a feather, or other light substance, of electrical science, there is no necessity for a placed under favourable circumstances, the latter is negative conductor. The plate machine for general first attracted and then repelled. The same happens purposes is more convenient, more easily excited, and when excited sealing-wax is used in a similar manner. with the same amount of labour yields a greater If, however, the excited glass and wax are alternately quantity of electricity than the cylindrical machine. brought near the feather, it will be found that when In the plate machine, as it is commonly made, the repelled by the glass, it is invariably attracted by the only part requiring to be insulated is the conductor. wax, and when repelled by the wax, it is with equal The electrical relations of the rubbers and the plate certainty attracted by the glass. Hence we learn are the same as we have just described; but although that whenever the electricity excited upon glass is we know the rubbers are charged with negative eleccommunicated to some other substance, that substance tricity, we have no means of exhibiting its effects immediately exhibits a repulsive habit in reference separately. The rubbers of the plate machine being to all others similarly electrified; whilst with equal in contact with the frame of the machine, they of energy, but of an opposite kind, it attracts substances course communicate directly with the flvor. In this in a quiescent state, as it does also those imbued respect they resemble the rubber of the cylindrical with electricity produced by the friction of wax. machine when a chain is attached to the negative

In every instance of electrical excitation two or conductor. It will therefore be seen that the action more substances are necessarily concerned; and it is of both machines is exactly alike when positive elecimportant to remember that the rate (or amount) of tricity is required from them. disturbance in the electrical relations of bodies, is equally great in what is termed the exciting body, as

He that wants good sense is unhappy in having learning, it is in that excited; nor is it possible, under any for he has thereby only more ways of exposing himself; and circumstances, to produce one state (or kind) of elec- he that has sense, knows that learning is not knowledge, tricity, without producing by the same means, at the but rather the art of using it. —TaTLER. same time, and to the same extent, the other. Thus, by rubbing a rod of glass with a silk handkerchief, Though every old man has been young, and every young

one hopes to be old, there seems to be a most unnatural the glass becomes positively, and the silk negatively, misunderstanding between those stages of life. This un electrified. Adopt a similar process with red sealing happy want of commerce arises from the insolent arrogance wax and woollen cloth, the wax will be negatively or exultation in youth, and the irrational despondence or and the cloth positively, electrified,

self-pity in age.

STEELE.

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