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and other places. Brockweir is about nine miles as related by Regord, physician to Philip the Second. distant from Monmouth, and nearly the same distance The king was one day standing at one of the windows from Chepstow. A great many vessels, some of con- in his palace, on the banks of the Seine, when he was siderable burden, have been built here, and one or so annoyed by the sight and odour of the dust and two are always to be seen on the stocks.
rubbish in the streets, that he gave orders to have The river now meanders to Tintern, fringed on the them paved with stone at his own expense. This one side with thick woods, and on the other some occurred in the year 1184 ; and in the accounts of rich meadows terminate at the village of Tintern Gerard de Poissy, intendant of finances, it appears Parva. On rounding the point at Lyn-weir, the that 11,000 marks of silver were paid for this object. church of Tintern, close to the edge of the river, wears The marked improvement presented by the streets a singular and picturesque aspect.
Another turn of Paris stimulated the authorities of other cities discloses the ruins of the once magnificent Abbey to follow the example. In 1391 Dijon was paved, Church, a description of which we must reserve for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, contributing another paper. Here we pause.
2000 livres towards the undertaking. By the year 1424 the whole of the streets were paved, and one
favourable result was, that the health of the inhaTHE INTRODUCTION OF STONE PAVE.
bitants was not so liable as before to be affected by MENTS IN PUBLIC STREETS.
contagious disorders. One of the most prominent and marked symbols of It does not appear that London was paved in the advancing civilization or enterprise in a nation, or in eleventh century, if we may judge from the details of any of its cities, is when attention is paid to its public an accident which is said to have occurred in 1090. roads and thoroughfares. If communication and Bow Church, in Cheapside, was unroofed by a storm traffic between the inhabitants of different places be, of wind, and four beams, which formed part of the as the experience of many countries has shown it to roof, were precipitated to the ground, and penetrated be, a sure and advancing step in social improvement, the soft miry soil of the street to such a depth, that it is obvious that attention to the roads, paths, or only four feet of the length was visible above ground, streets leading from one place to another, becomes an although the entire length of the beams was twentyessential element in the progress of that communica- six feet. A royal command was issued in 1417, tion. If proof of this were required, the astonishing which stated, that “the highway called Old Bourne capital invested in stage-coaches, steam-vessels, ca- was so deep and miry, that many perils and hazards nals, and railroads, in our own country, would afford were thereby occasioned to the king's carriages ample proof.
passing that way, and to those of his subjects;" he, In early times the attention to roads and streets therefore, ordered two vessels, of twenty tons each, was very fitful and uncertain. It is probable that the to be employed, at his expense, in bringing stones to first attempts at paving, in the ancient cities, were pave the streets. Smithfield appears to have been effected by the wealthier inhabitants, who paved those first paved about 1614. parts of the streets immediately before their own The origin of paving in the city of Augsburg, in houses; it was, therefore, optional and uncertain. Germany, may be taken as a type of what occurred
In the eastern nations, although the cities were in other towns and cities. Hans Gwerlich, a rich built with great regard to luxury and magnificence, merchant, caused a neat foot-path to be laid before yet attention was not so necessary to the condition of his house in 1415; this gained so much approval the streets, since the almost utter absence of snow from the inhabitants, that the government shortly and ice, and the confinement of rain to a particular afterwards paved the whole city. season of the year, rendered the earth, or gravelly The paving of a street is obviously not the only paving, of the streets less liable to that process of thing necessary to the preservation of cleanliness ; destruction, which similar roads would experience in the accumulation of rubbish on the stone paving the more humid cities of Europe.
being a sure means of giving the streets of a town a The most commercial cities were the first to adopt dirty appearance. Accordingly we find that many the practice of paving public streets. It was from squabbles took place between the inhabitants and the Carthage that the Romans acquired their first idea of town authorities, respecting the cleansing of the its importance, and the city of Rome became paved streets. This was particularly observable in Paris. by degrees. It is related by Josephus, that the Jews After the city was paved, each inhabitant was ordered proposed to Agrippa, after the building of the Temple to keep clean the pavement opposite his own house ; was finished, to employ the workmen who had been but this order was so frequently evaded, that in the discharged from building the Temple, to pave the fourteenth century the streets became choked up with streets of Jerusalem; and it is recorded in the rubbish. In 1348 a law was passed to make the Talmud, that the streets of Jerusalem were swept order more peremptory, and in 1388 the enforcement every day
of the law was rendered more rigorous by heavy The remains of Herculaneum show that the streets penalties. The inhabitants hereupon clubbed together of that city were paved with lava, having a raised in small parties, for the hire of men and carts to path on each side for foot-passengers.
remove the rubbish. But still the order was negThe
government of the Saracens, or Moors, in lected by the nobles, who conceived that they ought Spain, during the middle ages, was marked by many to be exempt from such a duty; the consequence enlightened and valuable improvements, in matters was that many of the public squares, or “ places," connected both with the mental culture of the inha- still remained receptacles for rubbish of all kinds. A bitants and with the advancement of commerce; and subsequent law made it incumbent on all to perform this, too, at a time when the rest of Europe was this public duty; but at last, the government adopted plunged into a state but little removed from barbarism. the only efficient means of insuring the proper perAmong these improvements was the paving of the formance of the necessary cleansing of the streets, city of Cordova, so early as the year 850, by Abder- by making it a national undertaking ; they contracted rahman the Second, the fourth Spanish caliph. with certain parties to cleanse the streets at a certain
The first introduction of pavements into Paris is sum per annum,—the amount first devoted to this said to have originated in the following circumstance, purpose being 70,000 livres per annum.
Sauval, in his History of Paris, relates a circum- RECREATIONS IN NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. stance which occurred in that city, considerably
No. IX. earlier than the events which we have just detailed,
CENTRE OF GRAVITY (continued). and which is at once characteristic of the dirty state of the streets, and of the power of the ecclesiastics When we have determined the exact spot where the at that period. King Philip was passing St. Gervais centre of gravity is situated in any solid, a perpenon horseback, on the 2nd of October, 1181, when a dicular line drawn from such centre, to the centre sow ran against his horse's legs, made him stumble, of the earth, is called the line of direction ; and along and threw the king to the ground with so much vio- this line every unsupported body endeavours to fall : lence that he died the next morning. On account of if this line fall within the base of a body, such body this accident an order was issued, that no swine will remain at rest; if otherwise it will fall. should be suffered in future to run about the streets; This will explain to us why it is that a body stands but this was opposed by the abbot of St. Anthony, firmly and steadily in proportion to the breadth of its on this ground, that it was contrary to the respect basel; and the difficulty of supporting a tall body due to their patron saint, to prevent his swine from upon its narrow base. It is not easy to balance a enjoying the liberty of going where they thought peg-top upon its peg; or a hoop upon its edge; while, proper. It was found necessary, therefore, to grant on the contrary, the cone and the pyramid stand firm the clergy an exclusive privilege, and to allow their and immovable, since the line of direction falls within swine, provided they had bells to their necks, to pro- the middle of the base, and the centre of gravity in menade in the dirt of the streets without molestation. such bodies is necessarily low down near the base.
In many of the continental cities, as it was found All the art of a rope-dancer consists in altering bis almost impossible to compel the inhabitants to clean centre of gravity upon every variation of the position that portion of the paving which was opposite their of his body, so as to preserve the line of direction own doors, the irksome office was shifted on to the within the base. He is assisted in this by means of shoulders of persons who were generally held as being a long pole, the ends of which are loaded with lead; of mean condition; sometimes the skinners had this this pole he holds across the rope, and fixes his eyes tax imposed upon them, at other times the servants steadily upon some object near the rope, so as to of the public executioner had to bear the burden, and detect instantly the deviation of his centre of gravity in many instances, this office was added to the num- to one side or the other. If this centre deviates for ber of the indignities which were so liberally heaped an instant to one side, he would be liable to fall off on the Jews in those days. But perhaps the oddest the rope on that side; but he preserves his position mode of causing the streets to be cleansed was that by lowering the end of the pole on the opposite side, adopted at Berlin in 1671, when it was ordered, that and thus constantly maintains the line of direction every countryman who brought goods into Berlin for within the very narrow base on which he stands. We sale at the public markets, should take away a load frequently use our arms in the same manner as the of rubbish on his back.
rope-dancer uses his balancing pole. If we stumble The gradual spread and improvement of the prac. with one foot, we extend the opposite arm. In walktice of paving the streets of populous cities, in our own ing along a very narrow ledge, we balance our bodies day, are too familiar to every one to render a detailed by means of our arms; a man carrying a pail of notice of them necessary.
water has his centre of gravity thrown on one side by the weight of the pail; he, therefore, curves his body
away from the pail, and extends the opposite arm, To be truly and really independent, is to support ourselves position. A man carrying a sack of wheat on his
and thus maintains his centre of gravity in its proper by our own exertions. -PORTER.
back, leans forward, and thus prevents the weight
from throwing the line of direction beyond the base CONSCIENCE, like all other powers, comes to maturity by behind him.Numerous other examples of a similar insensible degrees; and may be more aided in its strength kind will readily occur to the intelligent reader : we and vigour, by proper culture.-Reid.
now proceed to supply instances which are not so
obvious. SEVERAL species of phosphorescent lichens, especially “subcorticalis, subterranea, and phosphorea,” are occa
In fig. 1, a weight g is attached to a bent wire F, sionally phosphorescent, and more or less luminous in the
and the latter is fixed at its upper extremity to 8 dark; and hence they often give to the cellars and mines in which they grow an extraordinary and brilliant appear
Fig. 1. ance. In the coal-mines in the vicinity of Dresden, they are said to be so abundant and so luminous, as even to dazzle the eye by the brilliant light that they afford. This light is increased by the warmth of the mines; so that, hanging in festoons and pendent from the roof of the various excavations, twisting round the pillars, and covering the walls, they are said, by their brightness, to give to the Dresden coal-mines, in which they abound, the semblance of an enchanted palace. Mr. Erdman, the commissioner of mines, thus describes the appearance of the Rhizomorphæ in one he visited :~"I saw the luminous plants here in wonderful beauty; the impression produced piece of wood which rests at its edge upon the table. by the spectacle I shall never forget. It appeared, on
Now nothing more is necessary in order that the chanted castle. The abundance of these plants was so piece of wood should tilt over; but a careful attention descending
into the mine, as if we were entering an en- weight should fall to the ground, than that the small great, that the roof, and the walls, and the pillars, were entirely covered with them, and the beautiful light they cast board, the weight g must rise towards the inner part
to the figure will show, that in order to overturn che around almost dazzled the eye. The light they give out is of the table ; and as almost the entire weight (and could readily distinguish their bodies. The lights appear consequently the centre of gravity) of the whole
, to be most considerable when the temperature of the mines resides in the weight G, it is contrary to the law of is comparatively high."
gravitation for G to ascend, and as the board cannot
upset without raising the weight G, the whole may be mass but is on one side of it as at E. Now in fig. 7, made to swing to and fro without falling.
Fig. 7. A similar fact is more strikingly shown by suspending a pail of water, as shown in another part of fig. 1. The pail G is supported by a string or handle
, which is secured to a board or stick, rather more than half of which rests upon the table.
If the pail were allowed to hang with the handle upright, the whole assemblage would, of course, upset, since the the point of support is d, and a perpendicular from greater part of the weight would be beyond the edge the centre of gravity E falls above the point of supof the table, and the stick is not at all fixed to the port, so that the cylinder rolls upwards until it falls table. But the whole acquires stability by merely to the position shown in fig. 6; such, that a perpenplacing a stick F in the position E G. The
dicular from the centre of gravity meets the point of is inserted into a notch in the stick at E, while the contact D, when it will remain stationary, although lower end presses against the pail, and forces the
on an inclined plane. handle h out of the vertical position. Now no motion can be given to the pail without raising the experiment. The dotted line is the path of the centre
Fig. 8, is a further illustration of this interesting centre of gravity of the whole arrangement, and such an elevation being contrary to the laws of gravity,
Fig. 8. the position of the pail is one of stable equilibrium, which a slight disturbance is not sufficient to destroy.
Figures 2 to 9 are additional illustrations of the truth that the centre of gravity always seeks the lowest point. They seem, at first view, to be exceptions to the law; for a body
of magnitude of the cylinder up-hill; but the curved does not naturally roll up
line is the path of the centre of gravity, so that it will hill, as in the following cases,
readily be seen that the cylinder has a tendency to but we shall find that they
roll a short distance upwards, in order that the centre are as perfect illustrations of
of gravity may assume the lowest possible position the law as any that we have
whereby stability is acquired. before given.
The same principle has been applied to make a Figure 2, is a double cone
watch show time by rolling slowly down an inclined of wood, which rolls up the inclined plane A B CD, plane. Fig. ", is the section of a cylinder, which fig. 3. The sharp edge formed by the two bases of the cones is placed at c, and the cones roll to AB:
but although they appear to move up the inclined
would roll down the inclined plane quickly but for a in the effect produced. But cf is actually the path heavy body P, which is so adjusted, that the cylinder of the lowest part of the cone, and da the path of the
turns round once in twelve hours, while the weight p axis, both of which incline downwards.
maintains a constant direction with respect to the In fig. 5, the cylinder, of which aki is a section, axis of the cylinder; so that the wheel to whose axis if placed on an inclined plane c, it will roll down, it is attached does not move round, but allows the because the centre of
cylinder to move round it.
The other wheels are gravity not being sup
under the control of the central wheel, and act the ported in the line of
usual parts of clock-work. On one end of the direction HID, it falls
cylinder is a clock-face, the hands to which are beyond the point of sup
attached to the axis of the central wheel. port F, and the line F does not coincide with the line of direction.
He submits to be seen through a microscope, who suffers But if the cylinder be
himself to be caught in a fit of passion.- LAVATER. not homogeneous; if it be formed partly of wood
He that does not know those things which are of use and
necessity for him to know, is but an ignorant man, whatever and partly of lead, as in
he may know besides. -TILLOTSON. figs. 6 and 7, where the shaded parts E p represent the lead, the centre of A man can always conquer his passions if he pleases ; but gravity is no longer the centre of magnitude of the he cannot always please to conquer his assions.-D. B.
A SCENE IN RUSSIA.
was my beau ideal of a queen, in appearance and
They bowed as they passed, and, as I GREAT FETE AT PETERHOFr.
thought, being outside of the line of Russians, and The whole population of Petersburgh was in motion easily recognised as a stranger, their courtesy was di, on the day appointed for the great fête at Peterhoff. rected particularly to me; but I found that my comIt was expected that the entertainment would be more panion took it very much to himself, and no doubt than usually splendid, on account of the presence of every long-bearded Russian near us did the same. the Queen of Holland, then on a visit to her sister In justice to myself, however, I may almost say that the empress; and at an early hour the splendid equi- I had a conversation with the emperor; for although pages of the nobility, carriages, droskeys, telegas, his imperial highness did not speak to me, he spoke and carts, were hurrying along the banks of the Neva, in a language which none but I (and the queen and while steam-boats, sail-boats, row-boats, and craft of his jockey outriders) understood; for, waving his every description, were gliding on the bosom of the hand to them, I heard him say in English, ‘To the river.
right. Peterhoff is about twenty-five versts from St. Peters- After this interview with his majesty, we walked up burgh, and the whole bank of the Neva on that side to the palace. The splendid regiments of guards is adorned with palaces and beautiful summer resi- were drawn up around it, every private carrying himdences of the Russian seigneurs. It stands at the self like a prince; and I did not admire all his palaces, mouth of the Neva, on the borders of the Gulf of nor hardly his queen, so much as this splendid body Finland. Opposite is the city of Cronstadt, the sea- of armed followers. Bebind the palace is a large port of St. Petersburgh, and the anchorage of the plain, cut up into gravel-walks, having, in one place, Russian fleet. It was then crowded with merchant- a basin of water, with water-works of various kinds, ships of every nation, with flags of every colour among which were some of peculiar beauty, falling in streaming from their spars, in honour of the day. the form of a semi-globe.
From the time when we entered the grounds, until A little before dark, we retired to a refectory under we left, at one o'clock the next morning, the whole was a tent, until the garden was completely lighted up, a fairy scene. The grounds extended some distance that we might have the full effect of the illumination along the shore, and the palace stands on an embank. at one view; and when we went out, the dazzling ment, perhaps a hundred and fifty feet high, command brilliancy of the scene within the semicircular illuing a full view of the Neva, Cronstadt, with its shipping, mination around the water-works, was beyond deand the Gulf of Finland. We followed along the scription. This semicircular frame-work enclosed, banks of a canal, five hundred yards long, bordered in a large sweep, the three basins, and terminated at by noble trees. On each side of the canal were the embankment in which the palace stands, prelarge wooden frames, about sixty feet high, filled with senting all around an immense fiery scroll in the air, glass lamps for the illumination; and at the foot of sixty or eighty feet bigh, and filled with all manner each, was another high frame-work, with lamps, of devices; and for its background a broad sheet of forming, among other things, the arms of Russia, the water, falling over a range of steps, with lighted double-headed eagle, and under it a gigantic star, lamps behind it, forming an illuminated cascade, thirty or forty feet in diameter. At the head of the while the basins were blazing with the light thrown canal was a large basin of water, and in the centre of upon them from myriads of lamps, and the colossal the basin stood a colossal group in brass, of a man figures, of a reddened and unearthly hue, were tearing open the jaws of a rampant lion; and out of spouting columns of water into the air. More than the mouth of the lion rushed a jet d'eau, perhaps one two hundred thousand people were supposed to be hundred and fifty-feet high. On each side of this assembled in the garden, in every variety of gay, basin, at a distance of about three hundred feet, was brilliant, and extraordinary costume. St. Petersburgh a smaller basin, with a jet d'eau in each, about half was half depopulated, and thousands of peasants its height, and all around were jets d'eaux, of various were assembled from the neighbouring provinces. I kinds, throwing water vertically and horizontally; was accidentally separated from all my companions ; among them I remember a figure larger than life, and, alone among thousands, sat down on the grass, leaning forward in the attitude of a man throwing the and for an hour watched the throng passing through discus, with a powerful stream of water rushing from the illuminated circle, and ascending the broad steps his clenched fist. These basins were at the foot leading toward the palace. of the embankment on which stands the palace. In Among all this immense crowd there was no the centre was a broad flight of steps, leading to the
but palace, and on each side was a continuous range of intermingled with the ordinary costumes of Euromarble slabs, to the top of the hill, over which poured peans were the Russian shopkeeper, with his long down a sheet of water, the slabs being placed so high surtout, his bell-crowned hat, and solemn beard; and far apart as to allow lamps to be arranged be- Cossacks and Circassian soldiers, and Calmuc Tartars, hind the water. All over, along the public walks, and cavalier guards; hussars, with the sleeves of and in retired alcoves, were frames hung with lamps, their rich jackets dangling loose over their shoulders, and everywhere, under the trees, and on the open tossing plumes, and helmets glittering with steel, lawn, were tents of every size and fashion, beautifully intermingled throughout with the gay dresses of ladies, decorated; many of them, oriental in style and while near me, and, like me, carelessly stretched on elegance, were fitted up as places of refreshment. the grass, under the light of thousands of lamps,
Thousands of people, dressed in their best attire, was a group of peasants from Finland, fiddling and were promenading the grounds, but there were no dancing; the women, with light hair, bands around vehicles, until, in turning a point, we espied, at some their heads, and long jackets enwrapping their square distance up an avenue, and coming quietly towards forms, and the men with long great-coats, broadus, a plain open carriage, with two horses, and two brimmed hats, and a bunch of shells in front. English jockey outriders, in which were a gentlemen Leaving this brilliant scene, I joined the throng on and lady, whom, without the universal taking off of the steps, and by the side of a splendid hussar, hats around us, I recognised at once as the emperor stooping his manly figure to whisper in the ears of a and empress. He looked every inch a king, and she lovely girl, I ascended to the palace, and presented
my ticket of admission to the masked ball. I had about one o'clock in the morning left the garden. A not been presented at court, and consequently, bad frigate brilliantly illuminated was firing a salute, the only admission to the outer apartments with the flash of her guns lighting up the dark surface of the people. I had, however, the range of a succession water, as I embarked on board the steam-boat. At of splendid rooms, richly decorated with vases and two o'clock, the morning twilight was like that of tazzas of precious stones, candelabras, couches, otto- day; at three o'clock, I was at my hotel, and promans, superb mirrors, and inlaid floors; and the bably at ten minutes past, asleep.--? centre room, extending several hundred feet in length, had its lofty walls covered to the very ceilings with portraits of all the female beauties in Russia, about eighty years ago
Go forth, thou care-worn man, I was about being tired of gazing at these pictures
And roam the woods once more, of long-sleeping beauties, when the great doors at
The forest pathway tread, one end were thrown open, and the emperor and
And by the lake's calm shore ; empress, attended by the whole court, passed through,
Forget thy hoarded gold,
Thou reckless man of sin, on their way to the banqueting-hall. Although I
And let this Summer morning had been in company with the emperor before, in the
A short-lived homage win. garden, and though had taken off my hat to the
Go forth, thou sin less child, empress, both passed without recognising me.
With that archly-beaming eye, The court at St. Petersburgh is admitted to be the
Shout forth thy buoyant gladness, most brilliant in Europe ; the dresses of the members
And nature will reply ; of the diplomatic corps, and the uniforms of the general
Thy favourite brook is trilling and staff officers, being really magnificent, while those
A mirthful glee to-day,
And countless voices calling, of the ladies sparkled with jewels. I saw them
“ Forth to the woods, away !” enter the banqueting-hall, painted in oriental style to
Go forth, thou maiden fair, represent a tent, and might have had the pleasure of
Where glides the peaceful stream, seeing the emperor and empress and all that brilliant
Where woodland flowers are springing, collection eat; but turned away from a noise that
A waking vision dream ; destroyed much of the illusion, namely, the clatter of
O joy that never wearies ! knives and forks.
On thy lover thou art dwelling; I turned to the illuminated scene and the thronging
Thy deeply-shrouded secret
That blush is boldly telling. thousands below, descended once more to the garden, passed down the steps, worked my way through the
Go forth, aspiring youth,
To ponder daring schemes ; crowd, and fell into a long avenue, like all the rest of
Thou wilt come yet once again, the garden, brilliantly lighted, but entirely deserted.
To mourn those fatal dreams ; At the end of the avenue, I came to an artificial lake,
And marvel thou couldst leave opposite which was a small square two-story cottage,
Yon sweet secluded glen, being the old residence of Peter the Great, the
To win the phantom glory, founder of all the magnificence of Peterhoff. It was
Among thy fellow men. exactly in the style of our ordinary country houses,
Go forth, thou languid form, and the furniture was of a simplicity that contrasted
Thou who art doomed to die, strangely with the surrounding splendour.
Whose fate is written on that flush,
And in that glassy eye; The door opened into a little hall, in which were
Go forth, and once again two old-fashioned Dutch mahogany tables, with oval
Revel in this pure air ; leaves, legs tapering and enlarging at the feet into
Unconscious of the future, something like a horse-shoe. In a room on one side
Pour forth a hopeful prayer. was the old Czar's bed, a low, broad wooden bedstead,
And thou, whose poet's soul with a sort of canopy over it, the covering of the
Worships each dale and wood, canopy and the coverlet being of striped calico; the
Thy airy visions weave whole house, inside and out, was hung with lamps,
In yon sweet solitude ;
Though counselled by the wise illumining it with a glare that was almost distressing,
And cold to shun such lure, contrasted with the simplicity of Peter's residence;
O, keep that inner fount and, as if to give greater contrast to this simplicity,
Of thought and feeling pure !---A. E. while I was standing in the door of the hall, I saw roil by me, in splendid equipages, the emperor and empress, with the whole of the brilliant court which All deception in the course of life, is indeed nothing else I had left in the banqueting-hall, now making a tour but a lie reduced to practice, and falsehood passing from
words into things.—South's Sermons. of the gardens. The carriages were all of one pattern, long, hung low, without any tops, and somewhat like It is with our judgments as our watches: none go just omnibuses, except that, instead of seats being on alike, yet each believes his own.-POPE. each side, there was a partition in the middle, not higher than the back of a sofa, with large seats like Truth will be uppermost, some time or other, like cork, sofas on each side, on which the company sat in a
though kept down in water.—Sir William TEMPLE. row, with their backs to each other; in front was a
Reason requires culture to expand it. It resembles the high and large box for the coachman, and a footman fire concealed in the flint, which only shows itself when behind. It was so light that I could distinguish the struck with the steel.—GERDIL. faces of every gentleman and lady as they passed ; and there was something so unique in the exhibition, WITHOUT recurring to any effects produced upon the that, with the splendour of the court dresses, it general system, every individual in every stage, and under seemed the climax of the brilliant scenes at Peterhoff
. every circumstance of existence, has a post to maintain,
in which he is placed by the Sovereign Disposer of the I followed them with my eyes till they were out of universe: on a diligent attention to the duties arising from sight, gave one more look to the modest pillow on that situation, whatever it be, and not from a desertion of which old Peter reposed his careworn head, and at it, must all our happiness depend.—Mrs. CARTER.