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CHAP. While this was under consideration, George Rogers Clarke, XXXV.

an adventurous Virginian, set out from Pittsburg on an 1779. expedition against Kaskaskia, an old French town on the

Mississippi. Clarke, though a backwoodsman of Kentucky, acted under the authority of Virginia. With two hundred men he floated in boats down the Ohio to the Falls, and there, on an island, thirteen families, his followers, made a settlement. Joined by some Kentuckians, he proceeded down the river, to near its mouth. Then hiding his canoes, the company struck through the woods to Kaskaskia. This town was claimed by the English since the surrender of Canada. The inhabitants were at once conciliated, when they heard of the alliance between the

United States and France, and when they saw their relig1778. ion respected and their property protected. Clarke also July

entered into friendly relations with the Spaniards west of the Mississippi, at St. Louis. When he returned to the Falls, he built a stockade fort on the south side of the Ohio ; this was the germ of the present city of LOUISVILLE. Virginia claimed the region north of the Ohio, as conquered territory, erected it into the county of Illinois, and made arrangements to keep possession of it.

Other bold pioneers were, about the same time, penetrating the wilderness further south. James Robertson, from North Carolina, who, eleven years before, led emi

grants to settle on the head-waters of the Tennessee, now, May, with a company, crossed over into the valley of the Cum

berland. They passed down that river till they found a desirable location, a bluff on its south shore. The company altogether amounted to nearly fifty persons. There, in the midst of the primeval forest, more than a hundred miles from the nearest settlement, they cleared some land and planted corn. Three of their number remained to guard the growing crop, and the others returned to bring their families. Emigration now began: one party set out through the wilderness, driving their cattle before them ;

NASHVILLE-JOAN PAUL JONES.

465

another, with the women and children, went on board of CHAP. boats, on the head-waters of the Tennessee. They were to pass down that river to its mouth, thence find their 1779. way up the Cumberland to the chosen spot. A laborious journey of more than six months brought them to their anxious friends. The settlement increased with great rapidity, notwithstanding the hostility of the Indians. Such were the beginnings of the now prosperous and beautiful city of NASHVILLE.

in

Congress, from time to time, made efforts to increase 1779 the continental navy, but many of the vessels had been lost. The privateers had aroused the ire and the vigilance of the entire British navy. Yet some American cruisers, fitted out in France, fearlessly sailed in quest of the enemy. The most distinguished of these commanders was John Paul Jones, a native of Scotland, but who had been brought to Virginia in childhood. He was one of the first officers commissioned by Congress for the navy. Jones, command of the Ranger, of eighteen guns, spread terror around England, and even made a descent on the coast of Scotland.

A small squadron of five French and American ships was fitted out at L'Orient, and placed under his command, to cruise in the British seas. Off the coast of Scotland, he met with a fleet of merchantmen, convoyed by a frigate and another armed vessel. It was night, and

Sept the battle, the most desperate in the annals of naval warfare, lasted three hours. Jones lashed his flag-ship, the Richard, to the British frigate Serapis, and thus, muzzle to muzzle, they poured into each other their broadsides. At length, both the English ships surrendered. Jones' flag-ship was so damaged, that in a few hours it went to the bottom.

23

CHAP. While this wa
XXXV.

an adventuro 1779. expedition a

Mississippi.
tucky, acte
hundred m
Falls, and
ers, made

”TER XXXVI.
proceeded
his canoe

THE REVOLUTION-CONTINUED.
kaskia.
surrende

whers-British Success at the South.-Colonel Tarle

- il capitulates.—Defeat at Waxhaws.-Rer. James Cald. ciliated

10 Jersey.--Fleet at Newport.—The South unsubdued; United

Laders.--Gates sent to take Command.—Disastrous Bat. 1778. ion re

ande-Deatb of De Kalb.-Sumter's Success and Defeat.July.

iluolu.-Major André.--Movements of Cornwallis.—Colonel enter

Battle of King's Mountain.—Tarleton repulsed. — General the

Command.-Rancorous Spirit between the Whigs and ToFal issutså triumphant.--Affairs in Europe. - Henry Laurens.—Dan. O

gland; her Energy. V

winter, like the preceding, witnessed the hardships

i wldiers, who were often in great straits for prowithing and other necessaries. The depreciation of the corney continued ; Congress was in debt, without money con without credit. To preserve the soldiers from starta...2, Washington was under, to him, the painful necessity lis' levying contributions upon the people of the surround128 country. Jersey was drained almost to exhaustion ; but her patriotism rose in proportion to her sacrifices; at one time, when deep snows cut off supplies from a dis

4, the subsistence of the whole army devolved upon b. "The women met together to knit and sew for the molliory," and the farmers hastened to the camp with provinions, "stockings, shoes, coats, and blankets.”

A committee sent by Congress to inquire into the condition of affairs at Morristown, reported : “That the army was live months unpaid ; that it seldom had more than

BRITISH SUCCESS IN THE SOUTH.

467

ays' provisions in advance, and was, on several occa- CHAP.

XXXVI. for sundry successive days, without meat; was desite of forage ; that the medical department had neither 1780. gar, tea, chocolate, wine, nor spirits.” No other priniple than true patriotism could have held men together in the midst of privations and sufferings such as these. In preparation for the ensuing campaign, Congress made great exertions to increase the army ; large bounties were offered, yet recruits came in slowly.

The winter was exceedingly severe. The waters around New York were frozen, communication with the sea was cut off, so that the garrison and the citizens suffered for provisions. Knyphausen was alarmed lest the Americans should pass on the ice and attack the city ; his ships of war were frozen fast, and no longer useful to defend it. He transferred the seamen to the shore, and formed them into companies, and placed the entire male population under arms. But his apprehensions were groundless, as Washington was too deficient in men and means to make a successful attack upon the garrison.

Jan

In the South, the British were very successful. When Clinton arrived at Savannah, he immediately went North for the purpose of blockading Charleston. General Lincoln made every exertion to fortify the city. Four thousand of its militia enrolled themselves; but the assistance received from the surrounding country numbered only two hundred men. South Carolina had represented to Congress her utter inability to defend herself, “by reason of the great number of citizens necessary to remain at home to prevent insurrection among the negroes, and their desertion to the enemy." The only hope of Charleston lay in the regiments then on their march from Virginia and North Carolina. These regiments increased Lincoln’s

CHAPTER XXXVI.

WAR OF THE REVOLUTION-CONTINUED.

Hardships of the Soldiers.—British Success at the South.-Colonel Tarle

ton.-Charleston capitulates.-Defeat at Waxhaws.-Rev. James Cald. well.-Maraud into Jersey.--Fleet at Newport.—The South unsubdued; her partisan Leaders.—Gates sent to take Command.—Disastrous Battle of Camden.-Death of De Kalb.-Sumter's Success and Defeat.Treason of Arnold.—Major André.—Movements of Cornwallis.—Colonel Ferguson.—Battle of King's Mountain.—Tarleton repulsed.—General Greene in Command.—Rancorous Spirit between the W] and Tories.-British triumphant.-Affairs in Europe.--Henry Laurens.-Dan. gers of England; her Energy.

CHAP. This winter, like the preceding, witnessed the hardships XXXVI.

of the soldiers, who were often in great straits for pro1780. visions, and other necessaries. The depreciation of the

currency continued ; Congress was in debt, without money and without credit. To preserve the soldiers from starvation, Washington was under, to him, the painful necessity of levying contributions upon the people of the surrounding country. Jersey was drained almost to exhaustion ; but her patriotism rose in proportion to her sacrifices ; at one time, when deep snows cut off supplies from a distance, the subsistence of the whole army devolved upon her. “The women met together to knit and sew for the soldiery,” and the farmers hastened to the camp with provisions, “stockings, shoes, coats, and blankets.”

A committee sent by Congress to inquire into the conMay. dition of affairs at Morristown, reported : “That the army

was five months unpaid ; that it seldom had more than

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