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CHAP: land ; the North was dependent upon commerce and fish-

eries ; both precarious. Since the Revolution, the South 1828. had exported more in value than three times all that the

mines of Mexico had produced for the same period, yet
she did not prosper. This effect she attributed to the
protective tariffs of the National Government. She failed

to notice that this decline began before these tariffs were May imposed. Other causes aided in the result.' A bill 15.

passed Congress, imposing higher duties upon cottons and
woollens, and also other foreign articles, which would come
into competition with those of domestic origin. The dis-
satisfaction felt in South Carolina led, two years after, to
the open avowal on her part, of the doctrine of nullifica-
tion and secession, based upon the ground that the act
was unconstitutional.

The contest for the office of President was between
Adams and General Jackson. The “ era of good feeling"
had passed away, and party lines were stringently drawn.
The spirit of the contest was more violent than ever be-
fore ; and the whole nation seemed moved to its very
centre. The denunciation of the candidates and their
principles was, on both sides, unjust, unreasonable and
disgraceful. The choice fell upon Jackson as President,
and Calhoun as Vice-President, The election over, the
excitement calmed down. This fact, as usual, was ad-
duced as an evidence of the stability of our institutions,
and of the willingness of the people to submit to the will
of the majority. Yet who does not lament such exhi-
bitions of party strife, or their demoralizing effects ?

The nation had never been in a condition so prosperous as at this time. The national debt was much diminished, and a surplus of more than five millions of dollars was in the public treasury. The blessings of peace had been showered upon the land, and it was rejoicing in prosperity and abundance—the rewards of active industry.

* Benton's Thirty Years' View, Chap. xxxiv.. Vol. i.

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Appointments to Office.- Removal of the Indians from Georgia. -Bank of

the United States.—Hayne and Webster's Debate.- Nullification. The
Compromise Bill ; its final Passage. Removal of the Deposits.-
Effect upon the Country.-Indian Wars.-Black Hawk; Osceola.-In-
demnity for French Spoliations.


The new President nominated the members of his cabi- CHAP.

XLVIII. net, at the head of which he placed Martin Van Buren as Secretary of State. The Postmaster-General was now 1829.

. for the first time admitted as a Cabinet Officer.

The President professed to take the Constitution as the chart by which he should be governed in fulfilling the duties of his office; rather, it would seem, as he himself understood it, than as expounded by the Supreme Court of the United States. His vigorous arm was immediately exerted in favor of his political friends, and this gave to his administration a decided partisan character. The former Presidents, during a period of forty-four years, had removed sixty-four persons from office ; during his rule of eight years, Jackson removed six hundred and ninety, and put in their places his political friends. These sweeping removals secured ardent partisans, as well as produced bitter opponents; but regardless of either friend or foe, the President pursued the course he had marked out, with his wonted determination.

CHAP. During his administration, an unusual number of er: XLVIII.

citing questions came up for consideration, and the many 1829. interests thus involved affected the people in every State

in the Union. The first important measure, was the removal of the Cherokee Indians from the State of Georgia. They had been protected by the General Government, under Adams. The Supreme Court of the United States had decided in their favor, and against the action of the State ; but that decision had little influence with the President. He did not rebuke the State, when she began to drive them from their homes, and to distribute their lands, many of them cultivated farms, among her own citizens. He sent General Scott with troops to remove them, and his kindness and persuasions induced

them to migrate peacefully ; yet with lamentations, they 1834 took leave of "the beloved land.”

Their sacrifices as a people were very great, not only in the loss of property, but in the check given to their industrial and moral progress. The self-denying labors of missionaries and teachers had enabled them to advance rapidly toward a Christianized civilization. They derived their sustenance from their own cultivated fields; they clothed themselves almost entirely with the fabrics which their women spun and wove; they lived in settled habitations, some of wood and some of brick; they made provision for the education of their children-five hundred of whom were in schools—besides endowing a National Academy for the youth further advanced. They also established a newspaper, printed partly in English, and partly in their own language. We hope,” said they, “that with God's blessing the time will soon come when the words war-whoop and scalping-knife will be heard no more.

Two of their missionaries, the Rev. S. A. Worcester and Dr. Elisur Butler, were ruthlessly imprisoned in the penitentiary by the authority of the State of Georgia,

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