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him to remove the deposits ; but the Secretary viewing CHAP: the measure as unnecessary, unwise, arbitrary, and unjust,” refused. The President immediately dismissed 1833. him from office, and appointed Roger B. Taney, the present Chief Justice, in his place, who hastened to issue an order to the collectors, forbidding them to deposit the public moneys in the Bank of the United States. The intention being to withdraw the funds already in its possession, as they should be needed in defraying the current expenses of the government.

The measure spread distrust through the whole mercantile community, and destroyed that confidence which is essential to the success of business transactions. The notes of the Bank were at par throughout the Union, but now the whole system of exchange was thrown into confusion. Universal distress prevailed. The wages of daily laborers were especially depressed. Memorials from all parts of the country poured into Congress, asking it to adopt measures that would give relief. After a time, the State banks endeavored to relieve the monetary distress by liberal loans. These loans, in turn, were the occasion of exciting a spirit of speculation that produced still greater evils.

The Administration was not exempt from Indian troubles. Some of the north-western tribes, led by Black Hawk, a chief of the Sac nation, made incursions against 1832. the frontier settlements of Illinois. The government sent troops, under General Atkinson, who soon, with the aid of the militia, drove the savages beyond the Mississippi. In one of the skirmishes, Black Hawk himself was captured. To impress him with the greatness of the nation, he was first taken to Washington, and then to visit the principal eastern cities.

Two years afterward an attempt was made by the government to remove the Seminole Indians beyond the

CHAP: Mississippi River. They refused to emigrate, and another XLVIII.

Indian war was the consequence. Skulking through the 1834. swamps and woods of Florida, the savages would suddenly

dash into the settlements to murder and destroy. Many valuable lives were thus lost. Among these were Major Dade, and more than a hundred men, who all perished by falling into an ambuscade. On the same day, the United States' agent, Mr. Wiley Thompson, and five of his friends were killed and scalped by Osceola, the leading chief of the Seminoles. The year before, Thompson had injudiciously offended the savage, by confining him in irons for a day. Though he feigned friendship, his proud spirit thirsted to revenge the insult. The Creeks joined the Seminoles, and attacked several villages, both in Georgia and Alabama. The unhealthy vapors of the swamps, the bites of poisonous snakes and insects, inflicted intense sufferings upon the troops. It was impossible to subdue the Indians, who, after their attacks upon the Whites, would retreat to their hiding-places in the swamps. Led by Osceola, the war, or rather skirmishing, continued for years ; the troops were baffled again and again. At length his own policy, of making treaties only to break them, was practised upon himself. One day he appeared

under a flag of truce at the American camp. General 1837. Jessup, who was in command, immediately made him

prisoner, with all his followers. Osceola was sent to Charleston, and while there confined in Fort Moultrie, a fever terminated his eventful life.

Colonel Zachary Taylor, afterward President of the 1842. United States, was sent to succeed Jessup. Taylor, by

great exertions, brought the war to a close, but not till

it had lasted altogether seven years, and cost the nation 1836. many lives, and thirty millions of dollars.

During this administration, died John Marshall, one of the most remarkable men of the time, at the age of four-score. He had served in the army of the Revolution,

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