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his family, and of which an humble and generous gift was made by the fame to her Imperial Majefty; but also by granting fome confpicuous marks of her generofity on this afflicted family by fuch a lofs, every individual of which is highly deferving of fo amiable and fo great a father.
I think I may conclude this account by mentioning the diftinguished honours conferred by the Emprefs on the illuftrious President of the two above Imperial Academies, by appointing the Princefs de Dafchkaw to bear in her arms the great Duchefs, lately born,
to the Bateffimal fountain at the folemnity of her being chriftened; this being a nomination to which other ladies of the firft rank had a claim, grounded on their feniority at the Court. Her Imperial Majefty has befides honoured the fame Princefs with her portrait in a medal, furrounded with precious diamonds, to be wore on her neck; adding, that it was but a temporary mark of her esteem; and that a much more precious and beautiful medallion was already ordered by her command, as a further mark of her affection.
THE LIFE OF EDWARD BENTHAM.
city of Briftol, whofe character, as a scholar and a member of parliament, rendered him defervedly esteemed by the lovers of literature and of their country. In company with this gentleman, and another intimate friend, Dr. Ratcliff, afterwards mafter of Pembroke college, Mr. Bentham made, at different times, the tour of part of France, and other places. Having taken the degree of bachelor of arts, he was invited by Dr. Cotes, principal of Magdalen-hall, to be his viceprincipal; and was accordingly admitted to that fociety on the 6th of March, 1729-30. Here he continued
only a fhort time; for, on the 23d of April in the year following, he was elected fellow of Oriel college, in the room of Mr. Martin. In Act term, 1732, he proceeded to the degree of mafter of arts, and, about the fame time, was appointed tutor in the college; in which capacity he difcharged his duty, in the most laborious and confcientious manner, for more than twenty years. This is apparent, as well from the grateful fenfe his pupils have ever expreffed of his care over them, as by the many letters, introductions, &c. which were drawn out and calculated for their improvement; and alfo from the great refort of perfons of the firft rank to that college.
As a member of the fociety at large, no man could be more valuable, or more efteemed, for he not only punctually and chearfully difcharged that part of college duties and offices which fell to his hare, but was willing to affift others, and even to take their burthen on himfelf. No one excelled him in thofe fmaller attentions to the intereft and pleasure of his friends, which, though they do not of themfelves conftitute a great character, are certainly the best recommendations of it: and, indeed, few men, however willing they might be, were capable of being fo generally ufeful. By a conftant and unwearied application to whatever he undertook, he had at length acquired fuch a readiness and facility of mind, that as fcarcely any kind of bufinefs could occur for which he was wholly unprepared, fo he tranfacted the ordinary courfe of it with the utmost eafe and convenience to himself; and his advice and affiftance were the more eagerly fought for, as they were not only fatisfactory and beneficial, but communicated without the leaft degree of parade and oftentation. On the 26th of March, 1743, Mr. Bentham took the degree of bachelor of divinity; and on the 22d of April, in the fame year, he was collated, by Bishop Egerton, to the prebend of Hundreton, in the cathedralchurch of Hereford. On the 8th of July, 1749, he proceeded to the degree of doctor in divinity; and in April 1754, upon the death of Dr. Newton, canon of Chrift-Church, he was promoted to the fifth ftall in that cathedral. Here he continued the fame active and useful courfe of life for which he had always been diftinguished. He ferved the offices of fubdean and treasurer, for himself and others, above twelve years. The affairs of the treasury, which Dr. Bentham found in great confufion, owing to the negligence of the deputy, he entirely new-modelled, and put into a train of bufinefs in which they have continued ever fince, to the great eafe of his fucceffors, and benefit of the fociety. So intent was he upon the regulation and management of the con
cerns of the college, that he refused feveral preferments which were offered him, from a confcientious perfuafion that the avocations they would produce were incompatible with the proper discharge of the offices he had voluntarily undertaken. Being appointed by the King to fill the divinity chair, vacant by the death of Dr. Fanfhawe, Dr. Bentham was, with much reluctance, and after having repeatedly declined it, perfuaded, by Archbishop Secker and his other learned friends, to accept of it; and, on the 9th of May, 1763, he was removed to the eighth tall in the cathedral. willingness to appear in this ftation was increased by the business he had to tranfact in his former fituation, and which he was afraid would be impeded by the acceffion of new duties: not to fay that a life spent in his laborious and fedentary manner had produced fome unfavourable effects on his conftitution, and rendered a greater attention than he had hitherto fhewn to private eafe and health, abfolutely neceffary. Befides, as the duties, when properly difcharged, were great and interefting, fo the station itself was of that elevated and public nature to which his ambition never inclined him: latere maluit atque prodeffe. The diffidence he had of his abilities (that fure criterion of real merit) had ever taught him to fufpect his own fufficiency; and his Inauguratory Lecture breathed the fame fpirit, the text of which was, "Who is fufficient for these things?" But whatever objections Dr. Bentham might have to the profefforship before he entered upon it, when once he had accepted of it, he never fuffered them to difcourage him in the leaft from exerting his moft fincere endeavours to render it both useful and honourable to the univerfity. He fet himself immediately to draw out a course of lectures for the benefit of young ftudents in divinity, which he conftantly read at his houfe at Chrift-Church, gratis, three times a-week during termtime, till his decease. The courfe took up a year; and he not only exhibited in it a complete fyftem of divinity, but recommended proper books,
fome of which he generously diítributed to his auditors. His intenfe application to the purfuit of the plan he had laid down, together with thofe concerns in which his affection for his friends, and his zeal for the public good in every fhape, involved him, proved more than a counterbalance for all the advantages of health and vigour that a ftrict and uniform temperance could procure. It is certain that he funk under the rigorous exercife of that conduct he had propofed to himfelf: for though fixty-eight years are a confiderable proportion in the ftrongeft men's lives, yet his remarkable abftemioufnefs and felf-denial, added to a difpofition of body naturally ftrong, promised, in the ordinary courfe of things, a longer period. Dr. Bentham was a very early rifer, and had tranfacted half a day's business before many others began their day. His countenance was uncommonly mild and engaging, being strongly characteristic of the piety and benevolence of his mind; and, at the fame time, it by no means wanted expreffion, but, upon proper occafions, could affume a very becoming and affecting authority. In his attendance upon the public duties of religion, he was exceedingly ftrict and conftant; not fuffering himfelf ever to be diverted from it by any motives, either of intereft or pleasure. Whilst he was thus diligent in the difcharge of his own duty, he was not fevere upon those who were not equally diligent. He could fcarcely ever be prevailed upon to deliver his opinion on fubjects that were to the difadvantage of other men; and when he could not avoid doing it, his fentiments were expreffed with the utmost delicacy and candour. No one was more ready to difcover, commend, and reward every meritorious endeavour. Of himfelf he never was heard to speak; and if his own merits were touched upon in the flightest manner, he felt a real uneafinefs. Though he was not fond of the formalities of vifiting, he entered into the fpirit of friendly fociety and intercourfe with great pleafure. His conftant engagements, indeed, of one kind or other, left him
not much time to be devoted to company; and the greater part of his leifure hours he spent in the enjoyment. of domeftic pleafures, for which his amiable and peaceable difpofition feemed moft calculated. Till within the laft half-year of his life, in which he declined very faft, Dr. Bentham was fcarcely ever out of order; and he was never prevented from difcharging his duty, excepting by a weakness that occafionally attacked his eyes, and which had been brought on by too free an ufe of them when he was young. That part of his laft illness which confined him, was only from the 23d of July to the 1ft of Auguft. Even death itfelf found him engaged in the fame laborious application which he had always directed to the glory of the Su preme Being, and the benefit of mankind; and it was not till he was abfolutely forbidden by his phyficians, that he gave over a particular courfe of reading, that had been undertaken by him with a view of answering Mr. Gibbon's Roman Hiftory.
Thus he died at his poft, like a faithful foldier, in the exercife of his religion. That ferenity of mind and meeknefs of difpofition, which he had manifefted on every former occafion, fhone forth in a more especial manner, in his latter moments; and, together with the confcioufnefs of a whole life fpent in the divine fervice, exhibited a fcene of true Chriftian triumph. After a few days illnefs, in which he fuffered a confiderable degree of pain without repining, a quiet figh put a period to his exiftence below, on the first of August 1776, when he had entered into the 69th year of his age. His remains were depofited in the west end of the great aifle in the cathedral of Chrift-church, Oxford. Dr. Bentham refided the principal part of the year fo regularly at Oxford, that he never miffed a term from his matriculation to his death. In the fummer he generally made a tour of fome part of the kingdom with his family; and, for the laft thirty years of his life, feldom failed in carrying them to meet all his brothers and fifters at Ely, amongst whom the greatest harmony and af
fection ever prevailed. One of his brothers is the Rev. James Bentham, prebendary of Ely, to whom the antiquarian and biographical world is fo highly indebted for his excellent Hiftory and Antiquities of the Conventual and Cathedral Church of Ely. Dr. Bentham married Elizabeth, the fecond daughter of Thomas Bates, Efq. of Alton, in Hants, by whom he had three children, Edward, Thomas, and Elizabeth, the first of which died young: the two others, together with his widow, furvived him. His fon Thomas is M. A. and student of Chrift
Befides Dr. Bentham's great intimacy with Mr.Hoblyn,and Dr. Burton already mentioned, he enjoyed alfo the friendfhip of Archbishop Secker, the late Duke of Marlborough, Dr. Butler, and Dr. Egerton, Bishops of Durham, Dr. Hayter and Dr. Lowth, Bishops of London, Dr. Pearce, Bishop of Rochefter, and Dr. Tucker, Dean of Gloucefter. With the Archbishop he was peculiarly intimate, a correspondence being conftantly kept up between them till that eminent prelate's death; and fcarcely either of them appeared in any public tranfaction before the other had been previoufly informed and confulted. Dr. Bentham's conftant refidence in the Univerfity exempted him from what was naturally very irkfome to him, a perfonal attendance upon great men; and as he was not eagerly bent on the purfuit of worldly honours, and was ever of opinion, that what he had to communicate was best done by letters, he was rarely feen at levees and at
court. Whenever he did appear at thefe places, he certainly was a much more agreeable vifitant, because he had no favours to follicit. Such were his friends; and as they were men who were highly valuable, both for their private virtues and their public zeal in the common caufe of religion and learning, fo it will be thought, no diminution of their characters that they are recorded among the friends of Dr. Bentham.
On the whole, when we reflect on Dr. Bentham's fincere and unaffected piety, on his extenfive comprehenfion in the feveral branches of liberal fcience and claffical knowledge, on his confcientious attention to the intellectual and moral improvement of his pupils, on the zeal he difplayed for their benefit in his ufeful writings*, on his ftrict regard to order and difcipline, on his diligence and prudence in the management of the temporal affairs of the focieties he belonged to, on the exactnefs and credit with which he difcharged every part of his office as Regius Profeffor of Divinity, on the meeknefs and mildnefs of his temper, joined with a due degree of fenfibiliy; on the conftancy and ardour of his friendfhips, and, in fhort, on the uniform tenour of his conduct, in all the duties of public and private life, we cannot hesitate in pronouncing that he was a diftinguifhed ornament of the Univerfity of Oxford, of the Church of England, and of the general cause of religion and literature.
* Dr. Bentham's publications were as follow: 1. "The Connection between Irreligion and Immorality. A Sermon preached at St. Mary's in Oxford, at the Affizes: before the Honourable Mr. Juftice Dennifon and Mr. Serjeant Birch, and before the University, on March the 1ft, 1743-4.” 8vo, 1744. 2. "An Introduction to Moral Philofophy." 8vo, 1745. A fecond edition was publifhed in 1746. To this tract is annexed, firft, a Table of Reference to English Difcourfes and Sermons upon moral Subjects, ranged according to the Order of the Introduction; and, fecondly, a Table of feveral of the principal Writers in Moral Philofophy. 3. "A Letter to a young Gentleman." 8vo, 1748. 4." A Letter to a Fellow of a College. Being the Sequel of a Letter to a young Gentleman of Oxford." 8vo, 1740. Thefe two letters are upon Difaffection to Government, and were intended to promote in the Univerfity the principles of the Revolution, and a fpirit of loyalty to the prefent royal family. 5. " Advice to a young Man of Rank upon coming to the Univerfity." 6. "A Sermon preached before the Honourable House of Commons, at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on Tuesday, January 30, 1749-50. Being the Anniversary of the Martyrdom of King Charles the Firft." 4to, 1750. 7. "Reflexions on Logic." 8vo. A fecond edition came out in 1755. At the end is added, a Table of the principal Writers of Logic. Our author having been charged, in the Biographia Britannica, under the article Locke, with a defign of excluding from the fchools that great man's Effay on the Human Understanding, he fubjoined, in 1765, a thort but fatisfactory vindication of himself, to the remaining copies of the Reflexions,
THE LIFE OF MERIC CASAUBO N.
Maac recorded in our laft month's
May 8, 1618, and that of master,
June 14, 1621, being even at that time eminent for his extenfive learning. For, the fame year, though he was but two and twenty, he published a book in defence of his father, against the calumnies of certain Roman Catholics*. This book made him known to King James I. who ever after entertained a good opinion of him. It alfo brought him into reputation abroad, efpecially in France, whither he was invited with offers of promotion, his god-father Meric de Vicq, being then, or foon after, keeper of the great feal of that kingdom. Three years after, he published another vindication of his fathert, written by the command of King James I. About that time he B b
« Τῶν Παλαιῶν, &c. Επιτάφιοι.” "Funeral Eulogies upon Military Men from Thucydides, Plato, Lyfias, Xenophon. In the original Greek. To which are added, Extracts from Cicero. With Obfervations and Notes in English." 8vo. The fecond edition, with additions, appeared in 1768. The impreffion is beautiful, and the Notes and Obfervations fhew Dr. Bentham's great acquaintance with claffic antiquity, and the Greek language. 9. "De Studiis Theologicis Prælectio." 1764. 10. "Reflexions upon the Study of Divinity. To which are fubjoined, Heads of a Courfe of Lectures." 8vo, 1771. This tract contains many judicious obfervations; and the Heads of a Course of Lectures exhibit, perhaps, as complete a plan of theological studies as was ever delivered. 11. " De Vita et Moribus Johannis Burtoni, S. T. P. Etonenfis. Epiftola Edvardi Bentham, S. T.P. R. ad Reverendum admodum Robertum Lowth, S. T. P. Episcopum Oxonienfem." 12." A Sermon preached in the Parish-Church of Chrift-Church, London, on Thursday, April 30, 1772: Being the Time of the Yearly Meeting of the Children educated in the Charity-Schools in and about the Cities of London and Weftminiter." 4to. 13. "An Introduction to Logic, scholastic and rational." 8vo, 1773. The Specimen Logicæ Ciceronianæ annexed, difplays Cicero's clofe attention to the ftudy of logic, and our author's intimate knowledge of Cicero. 14. " De Tumultibus Americanis deque eorum Concitatoribus fenilis Meditatio." This was occafioned by fome members of parliament having cenfured the Univerfity of Oxford for addrefling the King in favour of the American war. Dr. Bentham, like many other wife and good men, did not imagine that the contest would turn out to be fo formidable as it hath fince appeared. He takes occafion, in the course of the pamphlet, to pay a high compliment to his friend Dr. Tucker.
The title of it is "Pietas contra maledicos patris nominis & religionis hoftes. Londini, 1621 8vo." In this book he mentions feveral particulars of his father's life, and vindicates him against the calumnies of Cafpar Scioppius, Julius Cæfar Boulanger, Andreas Eudæmon-Joannes, Heribert, Rofwed, and others, who had caft odious imputations upon his morals and religion.
It was intitled "Vindicatio patris adverfus Impoftores, qui librum ineptum & impium de origine Indolatriæ nuper Ifaaci Cafauboni nomine publicarunt Londini, 1624, 4to." It is inferted, as well as the foregoing, in Mr. Almeloveen's edition of Cafaubon's letters. The occcafion of this book was as follows: In 1624 there was published at London a treatise entitled, The Origin of Idolatries, or the birth of Herefies. First faithfully gathered out of fundry Greek and Latin authors, as alfo out of divers learned Fathers, by that famous and learned Ifaac Cafauban, and by him published in French, for the good of God's church, and was tranflated into English for the benefit of this monarchy, by Abraham Darcie." It was dedicated to Prince Charles, and prefented to King James I. and to all the lords of the council. The end of it was to prove, "That the Mafs (a word of great extent and antiquity, which made the authors of the Auguftane Confeffion fubfcribed by Calvin fay, Falfe accufantur Ecclefiæ noftræ, quod Mifam abcleant, retinetur enim Missa apud nos, & Jumma reverentia celebratur) or rather indeed the whole Liturgy, antient and late, and every part of it was derived from ancient Heathens. Numa Popilius, &c. and fome part also taken out of the Alkoran: which to prove, his authors for the most part are fome late collectors of Roman Anquities, as Blondus, Alexander ab Alexandro, and the like, who fay no fuch thing; but from what