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in the Strand. Notwithstanding the proprietors had taken every precaution to keep the place of afcenfion a fecret, there was not an avenue for a confiderable diftance, but was crowded by twelve o'clock. The fpectators feemed totally infenfible of the cold; nor did the falling fnow drive them all away. The principal part of them continued to bid defiance to the weather till near four o'clock, when the two hardy adventurers took their aerial excurfion. Juft on the eve of their departure, a Mifs Grice, of Holbourn, offered to accompany the aeronauts, which offer was accepted, and the entered the car; but, notwithstanding they threw out a great quantity of ballaft, after making three or four attempts, the heroine was obliged to give up the pleasure of afcending, the balloon being incapable of taking more than the two gentlemen; on the lady's quitting her feat, it afcended with amazing velocity, and taking a fouthweft direction, in a fhort time was out of fight. Of the voyage we fubjoin Count Zambeccari's own hafty narrative, written immediately after his arrival in town the fame evening.

"Count Zambeccari, being returned to town, deems it his duty to give the public the following account of the various remarkable particulars which were observed during his aerial excurfion: -The balloon being about two-thirds filled with inflammable air, the boat was attached to it, and at 35 minutes after three o'clock, Admiral Sir Edward Vernon, Count Zambeccari, and a lady, entered the boat, and immediately the balloon was left to itself; but, after two or three attempts, its power being found inadequate to raise the annexed weight, the lady, who was enly an accidental paffenger, was obliged to leave the boat, which he did with evident reluctance. I then took in three facks of fand, weighing each twelve pounds, but as the wind was violent, and it was apprehended the balloon would not clear the houses, I threw overboard two of the facks, in confequence of which the balloon, with my intrepid companion, afcended very rapidly exactly at three quarters paft three o'clock, amidit the acclamations of an affembled multitude of fpectators of every rank. It went in the direction of S. W. by S. and fo rapidly, that in twenty minutes time it was fo far removed as to be just difcernible in the fky, which was very clear: the violence of the wind during the filling of the balloon not only damaged the net in various parts, but likewise broke the glafs at the lower part of the machine, through which the ftring of the valve paffed, in confequence of which a piece of filk was haftily adapted to stop that aperture; in doing which the ftring of the valve was left within the balloon, fo that there was no method left of opening the valve, and confequently of defcending at pleafure; and as the balloon had a great degree of levity, it afcended continually till it had paffed far above the clouds. Here the fun fhone very bright, and the vivifying heat of its rays rendered the air agreeably warm; but, whilst we were admiring the beauty of the fublime profpect, three of the cords, which held the boat, gave way, almoft at the fame time, which accident, added to the admiral's defire of approaching nearer to the surface of the earth, de

termined me to ufe every poffible means to de-
fcend; and as it was out of my power to open
the valve at the top of the balloon, I thought
proper to cut the filk tubes, which immediately
gave the neceffary exit to the inflammable air,
as the balloon was already much diftended;
and, in order to accelerate this evacuation,
threw overboard the remaining fack of fand,
imagining that the balloon, being lightened,
would afcend much higher; the inflammable
air of course, rarefying itself farther and farther,
would come out more eafily; and afterwards,
the leaft increase of cold would determine the
machine to defcend. The balloon went fo high,
that the clouds appeared at a great diftance be-
low, and the quickfilver in the barometer fell to
20.8 inches, whereas on earth it ftood at about
30.4 inches. In defcending, we paffed through
a denfe cloud, which poured fnow upon us, and
felt very cold. At last we defcended rather ra-
pidly, but quite fafe, at 35 minutes after four
o'clock, in a ploughed field, three miles beyond
Kingsfield, near Horsham, Suffex, diftant 35
miles from London, which distance we travelled
in less than one hour. The balloon, boat, &c.
being properly fecured, we fet off for London,
where we arrived at eleven o'clock the fame
evening. Three remarkable obfervations were
made during the aerial excurfion, which our li
mits will barely allow to be mentioned. The
firit is, the balloon kept continually turning
round its vertical axis, generally very flowly,
but fometimes fo rapidly, as to make each revo-
lution in about four or five feconds. The fe
cond is, a peculiar noife was heard among the
clouds, fomewhat like what is produced by the
wind
among the trees, though of a fhriller tone.
And lastly, in defcending through the clouds,
which was very rapidly, we felt a confiderable
cold wind, which agitated the loofe ropes and
other things about the machine. The difference
between 30.4 inches and 20.8 inches in the
height of the barometer, is, according to Mr.
de Luc, equivalent to 10,000 feet, or 3332
yards of elevation."

The very great delay in launching the balloon, which occafioned its not being liberated till near four o'clock, we are told, was caufed by the interference of feveral foreigners in filling the balloon. It had been undertaken, it feems, by thofe engaged, that this operation fhould be performed in an hour and a half, but the liquor for producing the gaz having been too much lowered by the above meddlers, and the netting afterwards breaking, this neceffarily occafioned its being protracted till matters could be reaccommodated. The ftorm of hail and fnow then coming on with great fury, brought with it a fecond fufpenfion, and it was imagined would have caufed the defign to be entirely laid aside. But the fky foon after clearing up, the aerial navigators would not be disappointed in their views, and therefore fet off with great spirit, amid the acclamations of a furrounding multitude.

The balloon itfelf, which was for a great while fufpended in the fight of every body, appeared to be very large, of an elegant oval form, and coloured pea-green, with ftripes of orange.

PRICES of STOCKS, &c. in MARCH, 1785.

Compiled by C. DOMVILLE, Stock-Broker, No. 95, Cornhill.

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THE

LONDON MAGAZINE,

ENLARGED AND IMPROVED,
FOR APRIL, 1785.

THE HISTORY OF THE SECOND SESSION OF THE SIXTEENTH PARLIAMENT OF GREAT-BRITAIN.

MR.

Begun and bolden at Westminster, on the 25th of January, 1785.

R. Pitt begged the attention of the House for a few moments, as he should confine himself entirely to the queftion before the Houfe; a great deal of extraneous matter had been introduced, equally as irregular as foreign to the purpofe, which he however intended carefully to avoid. The question merely was, whether any bill ought to be introduced by the title of the one then propofed; this was a very fimple queftion in itself, and might be very eafily decided upon, but gentlemen feemed to be fond of the fubject; and therefore it was not furprising they had enlarged upon it. The honourable member, indeed, who had opened the bufinefs, appeared on his favourite topic, and from animadverting on it, with his ufual ability, had been particularly attended to by the Houfe; but for his part he must confefs he had been very much difappointed by the honourable member's not having once touched upon that point, which on a former day he had ftated he should fo fully enter upon, as a moft effectual means of convincing this House the prefent bill ought not to be brought up, namely, its interference with the navigation act; but he fuppofed the honourable gentleman had feen his error, and therefore had paffed his effectual measure over in filence; he had now found out a new point to object to it upon, which perhaps upon a mature reflection he might be equally as ready to forego, and as nothing very material had been urged LOND. MAC. April 1785.

against it by the other fide of the Houfe, at leaft nothing but what had been fo clearly controvered by his honourable friend (Mr. Jenkinson) near him, it would not appear any way strange that he should still profess himfelf a friend to it; convinced, as he was, befides of the great attention that had been paid in drawing of it up, and the neceffity there was for fuch a meafure being adopted; he was firmly of opinion it could not be of any injury to the merchants of this country, and might be of great fervice to thofe for whom it was intended. The evils that had been afferted it would be productive of, he believed were rather the offspring of the lively fancy which had framed them, than any real inconveniences that even the honourable member himself thought would happen, or were to be apprehended. Some pains had been taken to defend the act and proclamation which had paffed for the opening the trade with America, and fome reflections had been cast on him and his colleagues for having repeated the proclamation more than once with all its abfurdities; this was a measure that certainly was entitled to fome fhare of blame; but then it was to be obferved, that neither he or any who acted with him, framed that proclamation, but took it as it was left by their predeceffors in office, and that the abfurdity was not in the fubftance, but in the wording; this being the fact, there was not any thing very reprehenfible in it, and he would take Hh

care

care it fhould be amended in future. Before he fat down, he begged the Houfe would indulge him in taking notice of one circumftance which had fallen in the course of the debate, although it was not connected with the bufinefs before them, but had forcibly been dragged into it, he would not fay purpofely with any bad intentions, but it was certainly without thought, rafhly, and inconfiderately; he fhould have paffed it over with filence, had it not fallen from one, whom every man in that Houfe looked up to whenever he got up to deliver his fentiments, and very juftly put confidence in his affertions, when he gave himself time to think. Falling, therefore, from fuch weight, it was abfolutely neceffary it fhould meet with fome notice. The noble lord, by his introducing the fubject, which his experience, if he had fo wifhed, would have taught him to avoid, perhaps has given the alarm to Ireland; they are jealous, he fays himfelf, and therefore he was willing to roufe their jealoufy, or he would not have fo forcibly dragged them into a connection with a bill, in which one would have thought the ingenuity of man could not have made them concerned. To be the means of exciting thofe jealoufies, he conceived would ever be avoided by thofe who wished well to the two countries; and no man, in his opinion, would fpread the alarm, that was not inimical to their continuing, as he hoped they ever would do, in mutual love and fifterly affection, in defiance of any infinuation that might be thrown out to endeavour to fever them.

Lord North rofe to explain: he denied having forcibly dragged Ireland into the debate; the very title of the bill had Ireland upon the face of it; all fhips belonging to his Majefty's European dominions-and furely no man would fay Ireland was not part of his Majefty's European dominions; were not the fhips fitted out in Ireland to be fubject to the reftrictions of this bill? if they were, it was the framer of the bill, and not he who had excited the alarm; he found it connected with bufinefs before the Houfe; he

felt its confequence, and therefore had given minifters the caution to be careful of the danger; but what was the return they made? why charge him with wifhing to excite a rebellion in Ireland; but confcious as he was of his own attachment and love to both fifter kingdoms, and convinced that every candid man knew his character better than to let fuch an invidious infinuation weigh a moment with them, he fhould treat it with the contempt it merited.

Mr. Eden likewife defired to make a fingle remark on what had fallen from the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The honourable member had charged him with flying from his word in not combating the prefent queftion, as he had faid on a former day he would do, with the navigation act; but he begged to remind the House, that on the commencement of what he had troubled them with, that he protested against having a defire of introducing any altercation, and that he fhould purpofely avoid attending to any thing which had paffed before; but, however, the Chancellor of the Exchequer muft either have a very bad memory, or not have read the navigation act for a confiderable time, or he must have obferved that he had referred to it feveral times; nay, had even quoted from it this very day; therefore, it was plain he neither had, nor was likely to change his opinion.

The Attorney-General entered into a very elaborate legal difcuffion of the meaning and extent of the different acts which have been paffed fince the navigation act in the reign of King Charles the Second. He attempted to ridicule the act paffed for opening the trade with America, as containing the moft abfurd claufes that ever were penned, particularly that which fays that on their entering the English ports with certain commodities, they fhall be excufed from producing certificates, cockets, &c. and in the very fame claufe granting his Majesty in council, power by proclamation, to make what alterations he may find neceffary. If his Majefty was to be alowed fuch power, where was the ufe

of

of mentioning certificates, &c. It was abfurd to mention them at all; because who were bound to produce thefe certificates? Why, British built fhips cleared out according to law; then of course, if thefe fhips were cleared out, according to law, there was no occafion to pafs an act for their admiffion, and if they were not according to law, they could not poffibly have procured a certificate. He then adverted to Lord North's having alluded to Ireland as connected with this bufinefs; and though he had a high opinion of his lordship's character, he thought he had been guilty of rafhnefs in giving birth to an alarm of that nature.

Mr. Fox faid. he should detain the Houfe for a very fhort time; as his noble friend had fo clearly pointed out the abfurdity of the bill, there was little left for him to fay on the fubject; and as the right honourable gentleman on the other fide feemed to please himfelf with a fancied triumph over another right honourable friend of his, who opened the bufinefs, he was almoft induced to indulge him for once, and let him enjoy it. Indeed it was not the leaft furprising he should catch thus at the fhadow of a triumph, when it was fo very feldom he could obtain even the appearance: but, as he ufed fome high-founding words againft his noble friend, he thought a word or two on that head would not be entirely out of time; not because he conceived that it was in the leaft neceffary to defend his noble friend from fuch imputations, but because he had the very fame opinion upon the fubject. The title of the bill clearly and indifputably carried Ireland upon the face of it, as plainly as though it were there particularly named; and yet no fooner had the noble lord alluded to what was in legible characters before him, than he was charged with giving an alarm that might excite rebellion: but let the gentleman only fee for a moment to whom he gave the alarm, why, to his Majefty's minifter; feeing him on the brink of danger, he kindly cautions him to proceed with a wary ftep, left he should stumble; but he, instead of receiving the friendly

caution with gratitude, exclaims against his adviser, tells him he wants no affiftance, that he is fufficient in himfelf to overcome all difficulties. On what did the noble lord raife this alarm, which is to be attended with fuch tremendous confequences? Not on a bill that has paffed the Houfe; not on a bill before the House; but on the title of a bill that perhaps is to be brought up: on the title of a bill, that the very man who penned, cannot say has any other meaning than what the noble lord put on it; but it was wrong to mention Ireland, and therefore he muft be condemned; but for his part, he conceived his noble friend had acted as a true lover of his country; he no fooner faw what appeared to him as likely to be dangerous, than he gave minifters an immediate alarm, even while they had time to prevent its being of any ill confequence; he always had confidered the earliest intimation the moft effectual for prevention; he always had given it, and determined ever fo to do. The learned member who fpoke last, had been at infinite pains to condemn an act that he had brought into that Houfe, which had been paffed for a temporary purpose, and which the honourable member and his colleagues, with all its faults, had not failed to make ufe of: he likewise had ridiculed one of the claufes as abfurd; and asked why certificates, &c. were mentioned in it, when the fame claufe was to give his Majesty full power to make whatever regulations he might find neceffary; to which he fhould reply, that every thing that was thought of at the time, was inferted, that the legislature might know what was its purpofe, and that as little fhould be left to the King as poffible. Mr. Fox then obferved, that an honourable member having thought proper to allude to a worthy admiral, and as it appeared to him with a view to cenfure his conduct on the affair at Newfoundland, he could not refrain giving it as his opinion, that even admitting Admiral Campbell had acted wrong in that affair, it was of too light a nature to deferve any cenfure. After dwelling fome little time on

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