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in melted tin till it began to congeal.

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M. Fontana has conftructed thermometers of great, utility in meafuring the temperature of fluids. Their bulbs are fo fmall as not to exceed one-tenth of an inch in diameter, though the tube may even exceed ten inches in length. On account of the small mafs of these thermometers they almost inftantaneously acquire the temperature of the liquor into which they are immerged, and as quickly lofe it when taken out. The peculiar part of his method of conftructing thefe inftruments consists in taking a tube of a very fine capillary bore, fealing it hermetically at both ends, and grinding away nearly half its thicknefs. This flat furface is to be polished, and ferves to receive the graduations, which are drawn and marked with the fine point of a diamond. The other part of the furface of the tube must be deprived of its polish, in order that the fine capillary cylinder of mercury may be rendered more confpicuous and difcernible. In this cafe, the cavity of the tube being at a very finall diftance from the flat furface produced by grinding, there is little or no parallax occafioned by the thickness and refractive power of the glafs interpofed between the line of divifion and the column of mercury. It is unneceffary to defcribe the method of blowing the bulb, and filling the thermometer, fince thefe are well known to philofophers and artists.

The philofophical world have great reason to hope that the contefted and important question concerning the exiftence of phlogifton will either be decided or very much elucidated by Mr. Kirwan, who is at prefent bufied on that fubject. It is unneceffary for us to obferve that this gentleman, in, addition to the original mental powers and acquifitions he poffeffes, is undoubtedly more intimately acquainted with the prefent ftate of chemistry, and that immenfe mafs of facts, which is fcattered in a great variety of works in all languages, than any other philofopher in England, or perhaps in Europe.

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M. Moyroud, in the year 1782, having prefented to the minifter of the finances in France, a memoir, in which he afferts himself to be in poffeffion of a particular procefs, by which, in the fabrication of the natural fteel of Dauphiny, above a fourth part of the confumption of coal, and as great a portion of time, might be faved, without being of the leaft detriment to the quality of the fteel; this procefs appeared to deferve attention. M. Binelly, engineer, and M. Jars, infpec tor-general of the mines, were therefore appointed to affift M. Moyrond in the trials he offered to make before them, which were performed to their fatisfaction, and proved that the advantages to be derived from this procefs were really fuch as M. Moyroud had afferted.

After the reports of Meff. Binelli and Jars were made, a reward was granted to M. Moyroud, on condition of his publishing the procefs, that every manufacturer of steel might reap the advantage of this discovery, by working it in the manner made ufe of in Dauphiny.

In the ordinary manipulation, as foon as they have taken the melted mafs out of the melting pot in the furnace, they hammer it and suffer it to cool before they carry it to the refining furnace.

M. Moyroud's procefs fimply confifts in taking advantage of the heat the mafs of fteel is yet penetrated with, after it has been taken out of the melting pot and undergone the effect of the hammer, to refine it immediately, while hot, and extend it into plates or bars under another hammering. By thus taking the advantage of the heat the mafs had acquired in the first furnace, he faves the coals and the time which neceffarily muft have been taken up to restore the due degree of heat they had ufelefsly loft. But it must be observed, to obtain this advantage, that it is indifpenfably neceffary to have two forges and two anvils in the manufactory.

Mr. Nicholfon has contrived a new inftrument, by means of which the plus

and minus electricities, when ftrong enough to give the fpark, are inftantly diftinguished from each other. This may be of great advantage to philofophers whofe attention is directed to the obfervation of the phenomena of thunder clouds. It is well known how fallacious the form of the luminous appearance at the extremity of a metallic point is, when made ufe of for this purpofe; and the celebrated Beccaria, in his numerous obfervations, was under the neceffity of ufing a long pasteboard tube, in which was included two metallic points, whofe intervals were the difcontinuation of his conductor. The long tube was abfolutely neceffary to enable him to obferve the figure of electric luminous brush with fafety by day-light. Mr. Nicholfon's invention confifis in a metallic ball with which the fpark is to be follicited. By means of a fcrew, a fine fteel point is made to project about one thirtieth part of an inch, or lefs, as may be found most convenient, beyond the polifhed furface of the ball, through a very fmall hole. This point is prefented to the electrized body. If the electricity be plus no fpark will be drawn, but it will pafs to the point in filence, as ufual; but, if the electricity be minus, the uninfulated ball will give denfe and long fparks to the electrifed body.

We are informed that the fame gentleman, fome time ago, explained to a refpectable fociety in London, a new method for experimentally finding the quantity of terrestrial refraction, which is the principal impediment to the ac

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curate trigonometrical menfurations of the height of mountains. His method. is trigonometrical, but we do not hear that he has yet communicated to the public any memoir on the subject.

The attention of the philofophical world is much excited by fome experiments lately made by Dr. George Fordyce and Dr. Crawford. With a pair of fcales capable of exhibiting the three thousandth part of a grain, the quantity of about two ounces of water in a glafs veffel, hermetically fealed, was weighed. The water was then frozen, care being taken to make the furface of the glafs perfectly clean. Its weight when frozen was one fixteenth of a grain more than when fluid. The temperature both of the ice and the water was conftantly 32°, and therefore the condenfation of vapour that might be imagined to take place on the glafs muft have been alike in both cafes. Befides which, the experiment has been frequently repeated as well when the temperature of the room was below as when above 32°. And it is to be prefumed that no condenfation could take place when the air itself was colder than the glafs veffel.

From thefe experiments it fhould feem either that the matter of heat is poffeffed of pofitive levity, or that it is only the privation of the matter of cold; or, laftly, if heat and cold be mere modifications, it appears that heat is a modification which not only counteracts and destroys the effects of the cohesive attraction, but even those of gravity.



From the Italian. By a poor MONK.

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O, Metaftafio! heavenly bard!

The drama's lord confeft,
While tafte fhall claim a dear regard
In every gentle breast.

Sweet harmony! Italia's boaft!

Thy poet's name revere,

Who calls from Heaven th' angelic host
Thy rapturous founds to hear.
Rameau with philofophic art
The tuneful note effays;


In vain-when all untouch'd the heart Withholds her pureft praife.

A French compofer.


Thou, Nature, never would'ft prefide
When he with fruitless care,
Has oft to thee his strains apply'd,
For, ah! thou were not there!

But thou wert present whilst infpir'd
With fcenes, by Heav'n impreft,
Th' Olympiad all the genius fir'd
Of Pergolefi's breast.

My lov'd Olympiad! oft in thee,
How oft, alas! renew'd,
The image of my heart I fee;

This heart with woe fubdu'd!

The fun when funk beneath the hill,

Leaves me with thee to weep, With thee he finds me weeping ftill,

When he forfakes the deep. What tribute can be paid by me, In humble life conceal'd? Can I an equal praise to thee

(Great Nature's painter!) yield? Thou shedst the nectar of delight That all my foul infpires,

Thy mufe, when the extends her flight, Adds wing to my defires,

Can I to celebrate thy name

This hand untutor'd truft;

And like another Pigal + frame
For thee the breathing buit?

Here, on the left, by Arbia's fide,
Arbia that gently leads

With murm'ring found his flender tide
Along the Roman meads,

A graffy hillock rifes fair,

Begirt with filent bowers,
A dwelling oft to fhield from care
The poet's penfive hours.
Thus Horace in the Sabine grove
Attun'd his amorous lyre,
Ani fung, for Lalage, his love,
The queen of his defire.

The juniper and laurel here,

By Phoebus ever fam'd,
A verdant altar grace, which near
My pious hand has fram'd.
For every wondrous work of thine,
With endless glory crown'd,
A chofen garland fee me twine
And hang the trophies round.
Where fair engrav'd the happy few
The pleas'd attention claim,
Regulus, Artaxerxes view,

Titus and Dido's name.

But where th' Olympiad holds a place
Upon the cedar's rind,
There thrice I Metaitafio trace,

And there three garlands bind.

And thrice each day my votive lays
Th' ingenuous notes prolong,
A ruftic priest that dares to raise
To thee the ruftic fong!

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LL hail thou tyrant Love, whose power controuls

The fecret will and paffions of our fouls.

Love is a fecret motion of the mind, To certain objects, where it hopes to find Both reft and fatisfaction. Every breast By love predominant is still poffeft, That o'er our other paffions hath a sway And the beloved object we obey. This Love, we perfect or imperfect find As is the object which attracts our mind. The heart, that's fix'd on objects vile and bafe, Brings on itfelf dishonour and difgrace. And he, whofe heart is fix'd on things fublim'd Thus may acquire an elevated mind.

Love raifes in our minds an ufeful thought Of that beloved object, which hath caught Qur very fouls. This object then employs Our fecret thoughts; our peace it then destroys. In dreams by night it then disturbs our sleep, And from our thoughts by day we can't it keep. A lover's mind is like a ftormy fea That's in perpetual motion; and we fee The foul is feiz'd by love, as is the blood By agues; first a fhiv'ring, then a flood Of burning heat: fo love will always show Of fear and hope, perpetual ebb and flow.

In Love, the hero's courage we may view, The man's fears, the madman's folly too; And at first fight, we equally may fee

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'Tis raging madness, then neceffity.

It is now joy, then grief-now hopes, then fears,
And all that's ferious, calm, and fierce appears.
'Tis Love infpires the eloquence of men,
And Love it is infpires the poet's pen.

Hope is the lover's refuge, and he'll find,
That one kind look will eafe his tortur'd mind.
His down-caft heart ne'er knew a found fo fweet,
His heavy ears ne'er heard fuch concords meet.
Not all the founds of martial mufic, join'd
In concert with the warbling birds and wind,
And murm'ring waters, that through vallies glide
With all the pow'rs of vocal charms befide,
Could in his foul fuch pleafing raptures move,
As when his dear Louifa faid, "I love."
Soon as a foul is seiz'd by Love, 'twill know,
'Tis fweet, 'tis bitter, rapid 'tis, and flow,
Famine or time may well perform a cure,
But if not, and the flame you can't endure,
Go hang thyfelf-a remedy that's fure.
Great is its influence, boundlef's is its reign,
Nought can its actions check, or will reftrain.


An Italian compofer.

A French fculptor.

The winged infects, and the reptile tribe,
The finny race that in the waters glide,
The fhaggy beafts, and rangers of the air,
Can well its influence tell and pow'r declare.
The air, the fea, the earth, and flow'ry plain,
Extend its uncontrol'd and boundless reign,
In a defencelefs and unarmed state

It braves the world, and rules both fmall and great.
The wife, the prudent, and the virtuous breast,
Th' imprudent and unwife it hath poffelt.
With all our arts we cannot fhun the stroke,
We must submit unto its heavy yoke.
The nauseous draught of life we can't drink down
Unless this drop, this cordial drop is thrown
Into our cup and then we know

It fmooths the edge of all our fmarting woe.
Maidstone, March 9, 1785.

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On Ida's lofty hill, by Paris feen,

When on her form the fhepherd fix'd his eyes,
And the all-conquering gain'd the golden prize.
Three goddetles did then in war engage,
Dire in the war of beauty was their rage;
More generous females grace our modern days,
They only here contend who moft shall praife.
The fairest in the throng, where all are fair,
Freely thy worth, refplendent nymph, declare
Thy elegance of form, and charm of face,
Thy manners dignified, and artlefs grace,
When in the courtly minuet you advance,
Or form the movements of the swifter dance,
Light as young fancy, or the fun's gay i m
That gilds the mountain's top, or dances on the

Thro' all the maze of life, where'er you bend
Your steps, may harmony and joy attend; `
And when pale Death fhall-start not, gentle

For Death will come, and that fine form will fade,
Late be the hour--and gentle be the dart-
And may thy guardian genius ne'er depart;
Spreading his filver wings, divinely bright,
May he then bear thee thro' the fields of light;
On golden clouds thou fhalt immortal rife,
And reign for ever blooming in the skies.

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Stella foar on (to nobler objects true)
Pour out your foul with your lov'd Montague.
But, ah! hould either have a thought to fpare,
Slight, trivial, neither worth a fmile nor tear,
Let it be mine-when glowing raptures rife,
And each afpiring feeks her native skies,
When fancy wakes the foul to extacy,
And the wrapt mind is fir'd with Deity,
Quick let me from the hallow'd spot retire,
When facred genius lights his awful fire:
Yet fhall your bounty warm my feeble state,
With chearful luftre gild my gloomy fate;
In that lone hour, when angry storms defcend,
And the chill'd foul forgets the name of friend,
When all her sprightly fires neglected lie,
And gloomy objects fill the mental eye;
When hoary Winter ftrides the northern blast,
And Flora's beauties at his feet are cant;
Earth by the grilly tyrant defert made,
The feather'd warblers quit the feather'd shade,
Quit those dear fcenes where life and love began,
And cheerlefs feek the favage haunt of man;
Then fhall your image foothe my penfive fout,
When flow-pac'd moments big with mischief roll;
Then fhall I, eager, wait your wish'd return
From y bright fair who decks a Shakspeare's un
With deathlefs glories, ev'ry ardent pray'r
Which gratitude can waft from fouls fincere,
Each glad return to gen'rous beauty due,
Shall warm my heart for thee and Montague.
Bleft pair!-O had not fouls like your's been


The dubious Atheist well might doubt a heaven:
Convinc'd, he now deferts his gloomy stand,
Owns mind the greatest proof of a creating hand.
Galen's converfion, by externals wrought,
Dropp'd far beneath fublimity of thought;
But could he thofe exalted virtues find,
Which form and actuate your gentle mind,
How would the Heathen, ftruck with blest surprise,
Atoms deny, while Spirit fill'd his eyes!



this dim cave a druid fleeps,
Where tops the paffing gale to moan;
The rock he hallow'd o'er him weeps,
And cold drops wear the fretted ftone.

In this dim cave, of different creed,
An hermit's holy ashes reft:
The fchool-boy finds the frequent bead,
Which many a formal matin blest.
That truant-time full well I know,
When here I brought, in stolen hour,
The druid's magic miletoe,

The holy hermit's paffion-flower.
The offerings on the mystic stone

Penfive I laid, in thought profound,
When from the cave a deepening groan
Iffued, and froze me to the ground.

I hear it ftill-Doft thou not hear?
Does not thy haunted fancy ftart?
The found ftill vibrates thro' mine ear-
The horror rushes on my heart,

Unlike to living founds it came,

Unmix'd, unmelodiz'd with breath;
But, grinding thro' fome fcrannel frame,
Creak'd from the bony lungs of death.
I hear it still-" Depart," it cries;
"No tribute bear to fhades unbleft:
Know, here a bloody druid lies,

Who was not nurs'd at Nature's breast. Affociate he with dæmons dire,

O'er human victims held the knife, And pleas'd to fee the babe expire,

Smil'd grimly o'er its quivering life. Behold his crimson-streaming hand Erect!-his dark, fix'd, murderous eye!" In the dim cave I faw him ftand;

And my heart died-I felt it die.

1 fee him ftill-Dott thou not fee
The haggard eye-ball's hollow glare?
And gleams of wild ferocity

Dart thro' the fable fhade of hair?

What meagre form behind him moves,
With eye that rues th' invading day;
And wrinkled afpect wan, that proves
The mind to pale remorfe a prey?
What wretched-Hark!-the voice replies,
Boy, bear thefe idle honours hence!
For here a guilty hermit lies,

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Untrue to nature, virtue, fenfe.

Tho' Nature lent him powers tɔ aid

The moral caufe, the mutual weal: Those powers he funk in this dim shade, The defperate fuicide of zeal. Go, teach the drone of faintly haunts, Whofe cell's the fepulchre of time; Tho' many a hely hymn he chaunts,

His life is one continued crime.

And bear from hence the plant, the flower;
No fymbols thofe of fyitems vain!

They have the duties of their hour--
Some bird, fome infect to fuftain."

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In what receffes of the brain?

What corner of the mind?
Amazing faculty! In vain we try,
In vain our mental pow'rs apply,
Thy wond'rous fource to find.
By thee we call paft fcenes again to view,
By thee they're acted o'er anew

Within th' attentive mind:
There, in progreffive order rang'd, we fee
The traces ftrong, which Memory
Of facts has left behind.

Without the aid which we receive rrom thee How fhort-liv'd would the pleafures be Which moft our fancy fire!

Like bubbles floating on the filver stream, As tranfient as a midnight dream,

As fuddenly expire.

Thy faithful records long imprefs'd retain The fenfe of pleafure, and of pain, LOND. MAG. April 1785.

When pain or pleasure's o'er :
To thee how many comforts do we owe!
Without thee love and friendship too
Would give delight no more!

When ev'ry prefent object fails to please,
We recollect the hours of ease,

When pleasure did abound:

Thus we can trace the beauties of the spring, And to our minds its fragrance bring,

When winter reigns around.

By thee alone all knowledge we attain;
Without thee our pretence is vain
To learning's facred lore:
Thy aid invigorates the poet's lay,
Without thy strong retentive ray
Vain his attempts to foar.

In vain fair science spreads her ample store,
Turning inftructive volumes o'er,
With modern learning fraught:
Though all antiquity holds forth to view
Be reprefented to us too,

It will avail us nought.

E'en Tully's eloquence in vain would charm, Or Plato's heavenly wisdom warm,

If traces none remain

Of what we read, or what attentive hear: The mind a defert must appear

Where Mem'ry does not reign.

O, Pow'r Supreme! from whom alone mankind Derive this faculty of mind,

Vouchfafe to hear my prayer:

All bad impreffions from my breast remove,
Nor aught but what thou dost approve

Be ever treafur'd there.

Teddington, Feb. 17, 1785.




Written the 30th of March, 1784.

O! Winter still obfcures the chearful day, And with his ruffian blafts affrights the fpring!

No fprightly notes are warbled from the spray;
Scarce e'en the red-breaft now attempts to fing!
Untimely fnows again deform the fields,

Nature again a wintry garment wears,
To cold and itorm the lovely feafon yields,
Nor one bold plant its tender stalk uprears!
With anxious look we caft our eyes around,

No leaves, no flow'rs, no bloffoms we descry:
No fpringing grafs now carpets o'er the ground,
But dead the vegetable kingdoms lie!
Yet ftill beyond thefe gloomy profpects we,
Led on by hope, that foother of the mind,
Reviving Nature foon expect to see,

And all her vernal charms once more to find. So when the clouds of black misfortune rife, And unforeseen diftress the breast affails, Should we look forward to ferener skies, And cherish hope of more propitious gales. CLASSICUS.

Teddington, March 12, 1785.

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