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Tower, fo called from an ancient tower built by an Earl of Flanders, part of which is standing in the baftion, and is at prefent converted into a powder magazine: the bastion is strengthened by two hornworks, planned by Vauban. Between this bastion and the next gate stands a small fort, called St. Saviour's, or Chrift's Fort, from the name of the parith in which it is built. It is fortified as well on the fide of the town as of the country, being entirely walled in, having a gate towards the town, and a large deep ditch, or foffe, full of water; fo that it is calculated as much for acting against the town, in cafe of infurrection, as against an enemy without.
La Porte des Malades, or Gate of the Sick, presents the next front: it takes its name from an hofpital to which it formerly led; but which is now demolished. Though it bears fo wretched a name, it is perhaps, without exaggeration, the finest and moft magnificent gate in the world: the front of it is allowed by all travellers, to be an exquifite piece of architecture: it was built by order of Louis the XIVth: it is lofty and majestic, nearly in the fhape of a triumphal arch, adorned with pillars or columns of the Dorick order; on one fide stands a Hercules; on the other Mars; Fame is founding her trumpet on high; and near the centre is a figure of Victory, crowning with laurel the buft of Louis the XIVth. About 200 yards from the gate, on the outfide, is a small field, which was confecrated on purpofe for the interment of fuch of the British prifoners who had been wounded in the bloody engagement at Fontenoy, in 1745, and died Catholicks, after they had been carryed to Lifle: and on one fide of the field a gentleman fhowed me a little road, about four feet broad, and zoo yards long, which he told me was made through another field, in which feveral hundreds of British prifoners, who had died of their wounds, had been interred: the reason why they had not been all buried together was, that the latter either died Proteftants or nothing. You may naturally fuppofe I was fhocked to find myself walking on a road, the fubftratum of which was compofed of LOND. MAG. April 1785.
the bones of my countrymen: I felt the greateft horror, and foon turned off into an adjoining field. You must not, however, from this circumftance imagine that the people of Lifle are deficient in charity and humanity; they
are charitable and humane almost to a fault; and while the British prifoners, of whom I have been juft fpeaking, were alive, there was not the leaft diftinction made about religion: the ftudies were fufpended in all the colleges in Lifle immediately after the battle of Fontenoy; and the claffes were filled with the English prifoners, where they were attended by the furgeons, and ferved with the greatest tenderness by the friars; the Jefuits in particular diftinguished themfelves on this occafion: their college was crowded, and what was fingular there was not a Roman Catholick prifoner to be found in the college; they were all Proteftants: When fuch of them as recovered were exchanged, they quitted the Jefuits. with tears in their eyes, faying they had never lived fo well, or experienced more tenderness in their own families. All this I have heard from refpectable people in the town, and it has been confirmed by an old officer in our fervice, whom I met here by chance; and whofe brother had been lodged by the Jefuits for three months, while he laboured under a wound he had received in the battle, which had fractured his fcull: as foon as he was able to take the air, they took him out as often as he wifhed in a coach to their countryhoufe, where they had fitted up an apartment for him, leaving it at his own option to lie in town or country: and when he was leaving them, they made him take a handfome fum of money to carry him to England, which was not unwelcome to an officer who was a younger brother, and no more than an enfign in the army.
I find I have travelled nearly round the town, as I have only two more gates to speak of, befides the citadel, and perceiving that I am at the end of my paper, I fhall break off here, and finish our journey round the ramparts, perhaps alfo round the citadel, in my next. Your's, &c.
FOR THE LONDON MAGAZIN E. MR. EDITOR,
UST before you informed us fome time fince in your Magazine why the grey mare is the better horfe, I was about showing you that it is not in England alone that the grey mares prevail: in the Auftrian Netherlands I believe there is not a fingle inftance where the wife does not govern; and to fupport their right, dignity, and power, on a certain day the women annually feife the perfons of their hufbands, and every male thing in their houfes, fwaddle them well up, and by
dint of violence put them to bed. On vifiting an American rebel (a friend, you know, I may now call him) at Bruffells, I found his face fcratched, and his eyes much difordered, and, upon enquiry, I was told his hoftefs had bedded him à-la-mode de Flandres, the preceding evening. This cuftom, however, prevails only, I believe, among the bourgeoifie and middling clafs of people; the better fort of ladies, I fancy, take their men to bed unfwaddled.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE.
O men inexperienced in the world nothing feems fo fure a recominendation to fame and public favour as the difplay of fuperiour merit. The utility of this prejudice to mankind at Farge is evident in the entertainment and pecuniary profit refulting from thofe ftrenuous endeavours that terminate in excellence. But the unfortunate projectors too frequently perceive with difguft and defpondence, as they fink in poverty and contempt, that the gay vifions which amufed their youthful fancy were but the dangerous enchantments of fimplicity and errour. No clafs of men is more numerously included in this defcription than the votaries of the mufe; and for none can be furnished a more natural apology.
-Tentanda via eft, qua me quoque poffim Tollere bamo, victorque virum volitare per ora, is a temptation that haunts them from the moment that infant imagination difplays her bloffoms. And what fo agreeable as the praife refulting from the communication of the most innocent of all pleasures? Deceived by the volumes that he admires, the young bard is incurably perfuaded, that
"Merit reigns here."-CHURCHILL. So certainly, that fhould the prefent generation prove ungrateful, pofterity
muft at faft make the due acknowledgement.
Yet it is probable that genius, even wafted on the wings of publication, has often wafted its fweetness on the defert air: and, among the number of writers who have been unjustly neglected, I would venture to rank the ingenious Mr. Henry Layng. There is a quarto volume of this gentleman's poems, chiefly tranflations; but in a ftyle and numbers fo excellent, as might well entitle him to the honour which he modeftly claims of having affifted Mr. Pope in his Homer:
"Peace to his honour'd fhade with laurels
Enthron'd heat; the bards ftood lift'ning round
This circumftance is omitted by Dr.
But while Layng has been forgotten by the world, Cawthorne has received its exuberant applause. It is my defign at prefent to propofe fome inftances that may determine with what impartiality.
It is the opinion of many, that when Pope's harmony expired, the beauties of his verfification were revived by Cawthorne. If weakness may pafs for energy, and puerility for manlinefs, Cawthorne deferves the tranfplanted laurel. But if even the indifputable merit of Pope could not fecure his fondnefs for antithefis from the objections of the critics; nor the fweet mufe of Jerningham bribe the Reviewer's approbation with
"All on the filken foliage of the rose;"
what must be the fate of fuch trivial lines as these?
The nerve to kindle, and the verfe to flow. The dirge to murmur, and the butt to rife. His fong to warble, and his wit to charm.
O come, in all the pomp of grief array'd.
Where all the battle burft in all its rage. The lift'ning ear, and open'd all the foul. With all the luxuries of found to move.
And all his image takes up all my breaft.
E'en now when all the vifion beams around.
O bleft with all that youth can give to please. In war while all the trumps of fame infpire. Light all their beams, and blaze upon thy duft.
The above at no great intervals : what follow in rapid fucceffion : Thou whofe quick eye has glanc'd thro' ev'ry age View'd ev'ry fcene, and studied ev'ry page, Teach me like thee, with ev'ry virtue bleft,.. To catch each eye, and steal to ev'ry breast, To rife to all that in each patriot fhone, And make each hero's happiness my own.
I hope that you will not think thefe quotations too numerous; it is the repetition of the faults that makes it particularly offenfive. Of Cawthorne's poems, Abelard to Eloifa may be the beft; but I own the Moonlight, which has fometimes been commended, pleases me better in the plate annexed than in the epiftle. Of the others, feveral are certainly bad, and the reft indifferent. But, that I may not give judgement without proof, nor extend thefe remarks beyond your ufual limits, perhaps I fhall resume this fubject at fome more convenient opportunity.
I am, Sir, your's, &c.
A CONSTANT READER.
FOR THE LONDON MAGAZINE. ORIGIN OF THE TERM, MAN OF THE PEOPLE.
WONSIEUR GOURVILLE, originally a domeftic of the Prince of Condé, raised himself by his merit to offices of great truft and employment. Such was the opinion of his abilities, that, on the death of the great minifter Colbert, it was a matter of difpute in the cabinet of Louis XIV. whether Gourville fhould not be appointed his fucceffor.
This gentleman arrived in England at the time when Charles II. and his parliament were at variance. Sir William Temple, who knew Gourville, and his faculty of difcernment, afked
him what he thought of the kingly power in England? His anfwer was remarkable: If (faid Gourville) the King of England could be prevailed upon to fall in with the general fentiments of his fubjects, and become the Man of his People, no prince in Europe would be his fuperiour; if not, he will be the moft infignificant of all monarchs."
Sir William had the honefty and courage to relate this converfation to Charles II. who declared that he "would be the Man of his People." But Charles did not keep his word.
LITERARY REVIE W.
COXE's Travels into Poland, Ruffia, Sweden, and Denmark. 4to. Two Vo(Continued from page 202.)
WE left our traveller proceeding on his journey from Mofcow to Peterfburgh, a route of not less than 500 miles, in almost a straight line, cut thro' the foreft. He defcribes it as extremely tedious and toilfome to pafs; the whole way lying chiefly through endlefs tracts of wood, only broken by here and there a village, round which the grounds are open and cultivated. The manner in which this road has been formed, and bottomed with felled trees, is very curious; but, for the particulars, we must refer to the book. Mr. Coxe's account of the Ruffian
peafantry conveys to us no very fayourable ideas of their improvement in civilization. The particulars which he relates will convince every reader, that they are ftill deeply immerfed in ignorance and barbarity.
Petersburgh has been very often defcribed by travellers; yet we cannot omit one paragraph, by Mr. Coxe, on the fubject:
"The views (fays he) upon the banks of the Neva exhibit the most grand and lively scenes I ever beheld. That river is in most places broader than the Thames at London: it is alfo deep, rapid, and as tranfparent as cryftal; and its banks are lined on each fide with a continued range of handfome buildings. On the north fide the fortrefs, the Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Arts are the moft friking objects; on the oppofite fide are the imperial palace, the admiralty, the manfions of many Ruffian -nobles, and the English line, fo called because (a few houfes excepted) the whole row is occupied by the English merchants. In the front of thefe buildings, on the fouth fide, is the Quay, which ftretches for three miles,
except where it is interrupted by the Admiralty; and the Neva, during the whole of that space, has been lately embanked, at the expence of the Emprefs, by a wall-parapet and pavement of hewn granite, a moft elegant and durable monument of imperial munificence."
In his account of the famous coloffal ftatue of Peter the Great, executed by Mr. Falconet, Mr. Coxe fays, " If there be any defect in this figure, it confifts in the flat pofition of the right hand, a very trifling defect indeed in a figure fo ftupendous in fize, fo magnificent in defign, and fo mafterly in execution."
From this exhibition of dead excellence we are led to the contemplation of living worth in the perfon of the prefent Emprefs, whofe appearance at court Mr. Coxe thus defcribes:
"The chief officers of the household, the miftrefs of the robes, the maids of honour, and other ladies of the bed-chamber, advancing two by two in a long train, announced the approach of their fovereign. Her Majefty came forward with a flow and folemn pace, walking with great pomp, holding her head very high, and perpetually bowing to the right and to the left as the paffed along. She stopped a little way within the entrance of the drawing-room, and spoke with great affability to the foreign minifters while they kiffed her hand. She then advanced a few fteps, and we were fingly prefented by the vice-chancellor Count Ofterman, and had the honour of kiffing her Majefty's hand. The Emprefs wore, according to her ufual cuftom, a Ruffian drefs, namely, a robe with a fhort train, and a veft with fleeves reaching to the wrift, like a Polonaife;
Polonaife; the veft was of gold brocade, and the robe was of light green filk; her hair was dreffed low, and lightly fprinkled with powder: fhe wore a cap fet thick with diamonds, and had a great deal of rouge. Her perfon, though rather below the middle fize, is majeftic, and her countenance, particularly when the fpeaks, expreffes both dignity and fweetnefs. She walked flowly through the drawing-room to her apartment, and entered alone."
Speaking of the court of Ruffia, he fays, "The richness and fplendour of this court furpaffes all the ideas which the most elaborate defcriptions can fuggeft. It retains many traces of its ancient Afiatic pomp, blended with European refinement. An immenfe retinue of courtiers always preceded and followed the Emprefs; the coftlinefs and glare of their apparel, and a profufion of precious tones, created a fplendour, of which the magnificence of other courts can give us only a faint idea. The court dress of the men is in the French fashion: that of the ladies is a gown and petticoat, with a fmall hoop; the gown has long hanging fleeves and a fhort train, and is of a different colour from the petticoat. The ladies wore, according to the fashion of the winter 1777 at Paris and London, very lofty head-dreffes, and were not fparing in the ufe of rouge. Amidst the feveral articles of fumptuoufnefs which diftinguish the Ruffian nobility, there is none perhaps more calculated to ftrike a foreigner than the profufion of diamonds and other precious ftones, which sparkle in every part of their drefs."
Speaking of their nobility, Mr. Coxe fays they are diftinguifhed for their hofpitality towards foreigners.
"We were (adds he) no fooner prefented to a perfon of rank and fortune, than we were regarded in the light of domeftic vifitants. Many of the nobility keep an open table, to which one invitation was confidered as a ftanding paffport of admiffion. The only ceremony neceffary to be obferved on this occafion, was to make inquiry in the morning if the mafter of the house
dined at home; and if he did, we, without further ceremony, prefented ourfelves at his table. The oftener we appeared at these hospitable boards, the more acceptable guests we were efteemed; and we always feemed to confer, inftead of receiving an obligation.
"The tables were ferved with great profufion and tafte. Though the Ruffians have adopted the delicacies of French cookery, yet they neither af fect to defpife their native difhes, nor fqueamishly reject the folid joints which characterife our repafts. The plaineft, as well as the choiceft viands, were collected from the most diftant quarters: I have frequently feen at the fame time fterlet from the Volga, veal from Archangel, mutton from Aftrachan, beef from the Ukraine, and pheasants from Hungary and Bohemia. Their common wines are chiefly claret, Burgundy, and Champaigne, and I never tafted English beer and porter in greater perfection and abundance. Before dinner, even in the houfes of perfons of the first distinction, a small table is spread in a corner of the drawing-room, covered with plates of caviare, dried and picked herrings, fmoked ham or tongue, bread, butter, and cheese, together with bottles of different liqueurs; and few of the company of either fex omitted a prelude of this kind to the main entertainment. This practice has induced many travellers to relate, that the Ruffians fwallow bowls of brandy before dinner. What are the ufages of the vulgar in this particular I cannot determine; but among the nobility I never obferved the leaft violation of the moft extreme fobriety: and this custom of taking liqueurs before dinner, confidering the extreme fmallnefs of the glaffes ufed on this occafion, is a very innocent refreshment, and will not convey the fainteft idea of excefs. Indeed the Ruffians in no other wife dif
fer from the French in this instance, than that they taíte a glafs of liqueur before their repaft, while the latter defer it till after dinner."
The manner in which eminent perfons spend their time being an article