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of great curiofity and importance to mankind, we cannot omit Mr. Coxe's account of the distribution of the hours of the day by the prefent Emprefs of Ruffia:

"Her Majefty ufually rifes about fix, and is engaged till eight or nine in public bufinefs with her fecretary. At ten fhe generally begins her toilet; and while her hair is dreffing, the ministers of state, and her aid-de-camps in waiting, pay their refpects and receive their orders. Being dreffed about eleven, fhe fends for her grandchildren the young princes Alexander and Conftantine, or vifits them in their own apartment. Before dinner the receives a vifit from the Great-Duke and Duchefs: and fits down to table rather before one. She has always company at dinner, ufually about nine perfons, confifting of the generals and lords in waiting, a lady of the bed-chamber, a maid of honour, and two or three of the Ruffian nobility, whom the invites. Their Imperial highnesses dine with her three times in the week, on which days the party is encreafed to eighteen perfons. The lord of the bed-chamber in waiting, who always fits oppofite to the Emprefs, carves one difh and prefents it to her; an attention, which after having once politely accepted, the afterwards difpenfes with. Her Majefty is remarkably temperate, and is feldom at table more than an hour. From thence the retires to her own apartment; and about three frequently repairs to her library in the Hermitage. At five fhe goes to the theatre*, or to a private concert; and, when there is no court in the evening, has a private party at cards. She feldom fups, generally retires at half paft ten, and is ufually in bed before eleven."

In accounts of Ruffia, we always look with avidity for anecdotes of its legiflator Peter the Great. Mr. Coxe has been at fome pains to gratify this curiofity. He draws this character of Peter:

"A royal hiftorian has juftly obferved of Peter, that he compenfated

the cruelties of a tyrant by the virtues of a legiflator. We must readily allow that he confiderably reformed and civilized his fubjects; that he created a navy; that he new-modelled and difciplined his army; that he promoted the arts and fciences, agriculture, and commerce; and laid the foundation of that glory which Ruffia has fince attained. But, inftead of crying out in the language of panegyric,

Erubefce, ars! Hic vir maximus tibi nihil debuit: Exulta, natura! Hoc ftupendium tuum eft: We may, on the contrary, venture to regret, that he was not taught the leffons of humanity; that his fublime and unruly genius was not controlled and improved by proper culture; nor his favage nature corrected and foftened by the refinements of art. And if Peter failed in enlightening the mafs of his fubjects as much as he wished, the failure was principally occafioned by his own precipitate temper, by the chimerical idea of introducing the arts and fciences by force, and of performing in a moment what must be the gradual work of time; by violating the established cuftoms of his people; and, in contradiction to the dictates of found policy, requiring an immediate facrifice of thofe prejudices which had been fanctified by ages. In a word, his failure was the failure of a fuperior genius wandering without a guide; and the greatest eulogium we can juftly offer to his extraordinary character, is to allow that his virtues were his own, and his defects those of his education and country."

The commonly received opinion of Peter's averfion to the water, Mr. Coxe ftrongly reprobates, and says, he feems always to have expreffed a strong attachment to that element. Of the feverity of his character, Mr. Coxe gives this remarkable instance:

"It is a well-known fact, that Peter was accustomed to affift at the examination of the prifoners who were accufed of high treafon; that he would be prefent at the tortures inflicted upon them, in order to force confeffion; that he would frequently attend at


An Italian opera; a fet of Ruffian and another of French players were, in 1778, maintained at her Majesty's expence, at which the spectators were admitted gratis.

their execution; that he would fome- fhould plead in his favour. Yet, alas! times himself perform the office of after behaving fo nobly during Peter's executioner; and would occafionally life-time, when left to herself, she confign that talk to his favourites and became a different perfon. Mr. Coxe principal nobles. Korb relates, that, fays of her, during her short reign, foon after the infurrection of the Stre- that her life was very irregular. She litz in 1698, Peter fcornfully re- - was extremely averfe to bufinefs; would proached many of the nobles who trem- frequently, when the weather was fine, bled at being compelled to behead fome pafs whole nights in the open air, rebels, adding, in a strain of fangui- and was particularly intemperate in nary justice, that there was no vic- the use of Tokay, in which the often tim more acceptable to the Deity than indulged herself to excefs. Mr. Coxe a wicked man. tells us, that she could neither read nor write, and that her daughter ufed to fign her public acts for her.-Of her perfon he fays, "that she was under the middle fize, and in her youth delicate and well formed, but inclined to corpulency as fhe advanced in years. She had a fair complexion, dark eyes, and light hair, which fhe was always accuftomed to dye with a black colour." (To be continued.)

Mr. Coxe confirms the generally received account of Catharine's afcendency over her husband, Peter. This woman, who had been a peafant, could approach him when no one elfe durft, and was the mediatrix between the furious monarch and his fubjects. He would, it feems, frequently give orders for the execution of a criminal when she was abfent, for fear the

ART. CVII. Obfervations on the Animal Economy, and on the Caufes and Cure of Difeafes. By John Gardiner, M. D. Prefident of the Royal College of Phyfi cians, and Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

(Concluded from page 198.)

IN the feventh fection the author treats Of the Cholera. And here he enters pretty largely into the confideration of the effects of excefs of heat upon the body. Upon this disease the author's obfervations agree fo much with those of the generality of phyficians, that it would be altogether fuperfluous to lay a detail of them before the reader.

Section the eighth. Of the Bilious, Remitting, and Intermitting Fever. This fever, Dr. Gardiner obferves, appears under different forms, and hence has received different appellations. He is of opinion, however, whatever its variations may be, that it univerfally originates from the fame caufe, and is, in reality, at all times, one and the fame difeafe. The exacerbations and remiffions are accounted agreeably to the theory laid down in the subsequent fection.

In treating of the cure, the author gives fome ufeful cautions concerning venefection in fevers of this kind; in which, unless the fymptoms of inflammation run high, it is never to be

employed.- -Thefe cautions are followed by many judicious remarks upon the operation and exhibition of antimonials, in these disorders, and in febrile affections in general.

When the inflammatory fymptoms abate, and the fever puts on the intermittent type, the Peruvian bark is to be administered; and cordials, antifpafmodics, and antifeptics are to be had recourfe to when the powers of life begin to decline, the ftrength of the patient to be exhausted, and the fluids to become putrid. With regard, however, to the action of antifeptics; the author's ideas are fomewhat different from those of most others of the profeffion. It is generally fuppofed that they directly correct and put a ftop to the putrefcency by their operation upon the fluids themfelves! this notion the Doctor rejects, and adopts one which is much more confiftent with reafon and with phyfiology. He is of opinion that their action is chiefly upon the prime vie, which they corroborate, and, by corroborating them, invigorate and ftrengthen the whole


fyftem: and thus, mediately or indirectly, arreft or prevent the putrefaction of the fluids; their primary operation being, in this manner, upon the folids.

The ninth and laft fection treats Of Intermittents. After having deservedly cenfured thofe phyficians who are fond of multiplying the fame difeafe into almoft endless fpecies and varieties, and of giving to each of these a peculiar name; the author proceeds to explain the manner in which marsh miafmata enter into and operate upon the human body: and in doing this he unfolds to the reader, more completely than he had before done in any of the preceding fections, his own doctrine concerning the proximate caufe of fevers.

He fuppofes that the marfh miafma, as he had before obferved of other contagions, is fwallowed with the faliva into the ftomach, and that it there acts as a ferment upon the fluids contained in the ftomach, the coats of which are, in confequence, fo much irritated, as to pour out mucus for their glands preternatural both in quantity and quality. When this mucus, or, as the author terms it, febrile ftimulus, is accumulated to a certain quantity, it fo irritates and diforders the ftomach and by fympathy the whole body, as to occafion the phenomena attendant upon the cold ftage, during which the febrile ftimulus, lodged in the prime via, is gradually abforbed; till, at length, it is fo fufficiently removed as to no longer disturb, in any great degree, the ftomach and the reit of the fyftem: the cause, therefore, of the cold fit being thus removed, the effect, the cold fit itfelf, neceffarily ceafes, the warmth of the body returns, the pulfe from being weak becomes full and ftrong, and the visage from pale becomes red, i. e. the hot fit comes on, being the confequence of a plethora induced by the abforption of the mucus from the alimentary canal, and of the fluids from other cavities of the body into the blood. And, now, the cuticular pores, which, during the cold fit had been conftricted, are relaxed by the heat which the body

has acquired: hence a fweat appears, which, together with the urinary dif charge, carrying off the fluids which had been abforbed into the veffels, removes the plethora, and confequently puts a ftop to the hot fit which depended upon or confifted in that plethora.

Nothing has perplexed phyficians more than to account for the periodical returns of the paroxyfms in intermittent fevers. The author of the prefent work attempts the explanation in the following manner: "By the time (fays he) the fweating ftage is finifhed, I have fuppofed the acid fluids in the alimentary canal, on which the febrile ftimulus depended, to have been fo far carried off by abforption, that what remained gave little or no difturbance to the fyftem. Although an intermiffion takes place, yet, as the fecretions in the prime via continue in the fame morbid state, it is reasonable to fuppofe, that the acrid fluids will again collect, after a certain interval, to fuch a quantity as fhall be capable of renewing the paroxyfm. This return, however, of the fit with fo much regularity, in twenty-four or fortyeight hours, as is commonly obferved, has, next to the acceffion itfelf, always been the most unaccountable circumftance attending an intermittent. But, when we feriously confider the great uniformity of Nature in all her operations, it is eafy to conceive, that near an equal quantity of bile and of the gaftric fluids will be fecreted in equal times; and when the patient gets over thofe irregular returns of the paroxyfms which fometimes accompany an intermittent at its commencement, and the difeafe comes to affume the regular type of a quotidian, tertian, or quartan, then we say, that twentyfour, forty-eight, or feventy-two hours muft elapfe before that quantity of fluids neceffary to bring on a paroxyfm can be fecreted, or, that they can acquire by ftagnation and heat the degree of acrimony requifite to produce that effect.”

For a confirmation of this theory we are referred to the confideration of the operation and effects of the medi


cines ufed in the cure of thefe and other fevers. From fuch confideration it will appear that thofe medicines which cleanse the prima vie, which diminish the preternatural irritability in the fyftem, which correct the contents of the inteftinal canal, and laftly, which give tone and ftrength to the whole body, are the medicines which remove thefe difeafes, and that they effectuate this end by throwing the febrile ftimulus out of the body, or by defending it against the action of fuch of the ftimulus as may remain within it. In enumerating the remedies which are to be employed for the removal of intermittents, the author makes particular mention of the Peruvian bark, and prefents us with feveral ufeful obfervations relative to its exhibition in thefe cafes.

The remainder of the fection confifts of remarks on the ufe of aftringents, opiates, and antifpafmodics in intermittent fevers; and with these remarks, together with a few prophylactic obfervations, the whole of the work is brought to a conclufion.

Thus have we endeavoured to lay before our readers fome account of Dr. Gardiner's book. The theory which is delivered in it concerning the proximate cause of intermittents and other fevers in general is, it will be feen, entirely new. From its fimplicity the author flatters himself that it is entitled to the notice of, and deferves fome credit amongst medical men.

That the ftomach is, as the author throughout the whole of his work has attempted to fhow, the grand feat of difeafes, that it is the part which, in moft febrile diforders, is primarily affected, that it is fo fympathetically connected with the whole fyftem that, when it is disturbed, the rest of the frame is foon afterwards deranged, many circumftances feem ftrongly to prove: and although the objections which the Doctor has brought against the general opinion, that contagion enters by the lungs into the blood, be not fufficient to prove that it is impoffible that infection fhould be received in that way: yet it cannot be denied that there is the greateft probability LOND. MAG. April 1785.

and the fullest prefumptive proof, that the contagious particles are admitted into the ftomach, and that they do there operate in the manner which has been defcribed.

At the fame time, however, that this is faid, it must be confeffed, that this theory which the Doctor has advanced, is, like all others which have preceded it, liable to many objections. The abforption of the collected mucus from the prima via during the cold ftage, and the fuppofed confequent plethora during the hot fit, fome, però haps, will call in queftion or even deny: and, it may be urged, that if this theory were true, every physician would have it in his power to prevent, in any cafe whatever, the paroxyfms, either entirely or in part, by evacuating the ftomach and inteftines of the febrile ftimulus accumulated in them, just be fore the time of their ufual acceffion.

Thefe, and fuch like objections, it is true, may be opposed to the theory of the author. They are not, however, of fuch a nature as to affect it very materially: and, upon the whole, when we reflect upon the facts on which it is founded; when we revert to the arguments by which it is fup ported; and, above all, when we confader its great fimplicity, and the cafy and fatisfactory folution which it af fords of many of thofe morbid phe nomena which have hitherto fo much confounded and perplexed the most difcerning phyficians: when all these circumstances are feverally and duly revolved and weighed in our minds, we fhall perceive that this theory does credit to the penetration of him from whom it proceeds, and we fhall rea dily allow that, however imperfect it may be, it is far lefs exceptionable than any of those which, on the fame fubject, have appeared before it.

As for the work in general: from the account which we have given of its contents, the reader will fee that the fubjects of which it treats are the most important of any in medicine. Throughout the whole of it are dif perfed many valuable phyfiological and practical obfervations. In particular feveral curious facts are mentioned from



the Medical Annotations of Sir John Pringle, bequeathed (on condition of non-publication) by him to, and now depofited in the library of the Edinburgh College of Phyficians. Of Sir J. Pringle's writings Dr. Gardiner, indeed, feems to be exceeding fond, and his partiality in this refpect, almoft extends to a cenfurable length.

Perhaps the author in fome of his explanations has had too much recourfe

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ART. CXVIII. The Life of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. William Gilpin, M. A. Prebendary of Salisbury, and Vicar of Boldre, in New Foreft, near Lymington. 8vo. 3s. 6d. Boards. Blamire. 1784.

THIS ingenious writer is already well known, not only by the Life of Bernard Gilpin, his ancestor, but alfo by lives of feveral of the firft reformers and early proteftants*, which are held in just estimation. The prefent publication will not detract from his merit. He enters, however, with diffidence on his office, fince, as he obferves, the character of Cranmer has been equally the fubject of exaggerated praife, and undeferved cenfure; the latter from the Papifts, the former with the Proteftants. This author's defign is to give an impartial account; for, as he properly remarks, "Every caufe in which truth is concerned, is the better for having all things but truth fifted from it." He adds, and we believe with juftice too, on the prefent occafion, we shall not eafily find a character that can allow deduction fo well."

Cranmer was not merely diftinguished by his capacity and his rank, but alfo, and chiefly, by the critical, ha zardous, and remarkable period in which he lived. In more eafy times, many a perfon might fit in that chair, which he fo eminently filled, who would fink to the grave in peace with. out much notice or regret. But to Cranmer the eyes of the world were directed the times marked him out: it required all the ability and virtue, all the faith and piety, a human being can be fuppofed to poffefs, to perfevere, through every oppofing difficulty, with integrity, benevolence, and honour. We fhall not wonder then, fince he was a human being, if there are in


ftances in which he failed; though it. must be acknowledged, fome are of a kind that will admit very little to be faid in their vindication. His biographer, while he venerates his memory, as we think a good man muft, deals very fairly in relating his errors, and at the fame time offers fuch pleas as fituation and circumftances prefent for their alleviation,

The conduct of Dr. Cranmer, in the earlier parts of his life, and inferior ftations, was fuch as became the ftudent, and bespoke the man of worth. His temper mild and pleafing, yet ftrict in the obfervance of rectitude and order, and his attention bent to the real improvement of himfelf and others. That he had formed to himself views of the ambitious kind does not appear; nor was it very likely, if he had any fuch, that they fhould be gratified, The firft opening to his farther advancement feemed like a mere incidental circumstance. He was occa fionally at the houfe of a gentleman, at Waltham, with whom Mr. Fox and Mr. Gardiner (afterwards Bishop of Winchefter) were lodged. They were at that time in the retinue of the King (Henry VIII.) who came to the place on a journey. The converfation turne ed on the fubject of the divorce, which the King had fo much at heart, and refpecting which he found fo much diffimulation and obftruction from the court of Rome. Then it was that Cranmer accidentally, as it should feem, made the propofal of collecting the opinions of the different univerfiWycliffe, &c.


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