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jointed piece; and expofe it in its principal parts to a wild, ungoverned contingency, without any intermediate bands to connect them with one another, and with the whole, as one and the fame piece.
If the will, with the operations by a neceffary connection in the order of caufes, be united to the whole, and compofe with the other effects of the divine power one entire work, anfwerable to one perfect and immutable defign, framed in the idea, and produced by the energy of the eternal and infinite fpirit, that will cannot act independently, nor can any of its determinations be cafual or fortuitous.
To my weak understanding, I muft acknowledge, that a created will, abfolute and arbitrary, determined in its decifions by no light of truth or motives of good, leads a man into a wilderness where there is no guide to direct the mind to any certain path; it thrufts him forth without ballaft or rudder, compafs or Pole ftar, to drive at all adventure on an unknown and tempeftuous fea.
But what a golden thread of harmony guides us through the nature of things, when we confider them from the greateft to the least in the whole circuit of being, above and below, in all their varieties and operations, tendencies and effects, as things fettled and determined; and that determination as the refult of wisdom and love, united as one principle, containing all variety originally in its own eternal effence, and by this variety diffufing itfelf through all.
With what fatisfaction doth a benevolent and enlightened mind reft in the firm belief of the highest goodnefs, defigning, difpofing, and working all in all-even all conceptions in all understandings, and every motion in every will, human, angelic, and divine!
Let not any man rafhly queftion the clofe contexture of the whole work of God through all the feveral parts and conduct of it by an invariable union of caufes and effects, like links in a chain, from the beginning to the end, because he meeteth with a hell as well as a heaven, as one of the ex4
"All are your's," fays St. Paul, to the faithful in his day; "" and ye are Chrift's, and Christ is God's."-How beautiful this circle, and how harmonious in its parts! All things; the wicked world, death itfelf-yea, hell and the fecond death-death to come as well as prefent-are neceffary and radiant links in this golden chain, faftened to a higher link, even the true Chriftian, as he is fastened to a ftill higher, even Jefus Chrift, who is "the image of the invifible God, and the firft born among many brethren, that in all things he might have the pre-emi
Homer veiled an important truth be neath the drefs of poetic imagery, when he fung in fuch fublime ftrains of a chain fastened to the throne of Jove, which reaches down to the earth. The poet reprefents the father of the gods as addreffing himself to Neptune, Minerva, and the other powers around him, to whom was committed the government of the fea and fkies-of earth and hell-and affuring them that if they fhould fufpend the whole weight of their empires on the great chain that defcends from his throne, he would at pleasure draw them up to himself.
The throne of the Moft High God is the "throne of grace." All nature defcends from it, and hath its top faftened to it. Whatever the weight may be at the bottom of this chain of things, yet that Grace, which fits upon the throne, as it lets down this chain from itself, fo draws it up again by the order of fucceffive links to the
eternal joy and glory of itself. Na- perfons endowed with fuch excellent ture in its beauty and in its deformity -life and death-earth and hell-are God's.
Perfons, who have efpoufed the different parts of the question concerning liberty and neceffity, are equally honoured by me, and equally dear to me. I know many of each fide of the controverfy whofe understanding, ingenuity, integrity, and learning, fet a value on their writings, and give a luftre to their characters. The ends aimed at by both parties are, I am convinced, truly good. It is the defign of one party to heighten the grace of God in its value to individuals, by reprefenting it as peculiar and appropriate. It is the defign of the other to enhance the glory of this grace by its extent and amplitude. One admires and adores the Jovereignty; another the goodness of God. On the one fide is a laudable jealousy for the unity of the divine nature and the purity of his attributes, left God fhould be imagined like the natural day, made up of two contraries, coordinate and equally predominant, like day and night-and the others are equally jealous of the fame unity and fimplicity of the divine nature, left the eternal power, and of confequence the very effence of the Godhead, fhould be divided between the Creator and his creatures: left in effect two Gods fhould be fet up, and the dream of the Manicheans of a fountain of good and a fountain of evil fhould obtain credit: and left the divine glory fhould be darkened, or the divine power controled in the universe, and the harmony of nature broken by taking away in any part of creation the fixed fubordination of caufes and effects. Happy would it be for the Christian world, if
qualifications, and who act on such pious and laudable motives, would, inftead of oppofing each other, unite and blend together the best part of their feveral arguments, and making their end one and the fame, mutually agree to lend their force towards it, and leave contention behind them! St. Paul fays, "If the falling away of the Jews be the bringing in of the Gentiles; what fhall the return be but life from the dead?"If (as we may argue by a parity of reafon) the divifions and difputes of thefe parties have brought fo much light to the church, what will the reconciling and uniting of their glorious and benevolent ends be but as the raifing the church militant to the church triumphant, and replanting Paradife afresh.
The day will arrive when men fhall fay, "Bleffed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord!" Peace and felicity on him who reconcileth the freedom and peculiarity of divine grace with its full amplitude and extent, and thereby raifing its honours to their perfect heights: who brings the fovereignty of God into concord and alliance with his goodnefs, and makes that goodnefs abfolute and fovereign: who through the infinity of the Godhead, and the whole compafs of created beings, difclofes to the eyes of men by the evidence of undoubted truth, the purity and perfection of the divine nature-the unity of his great defign, and the power of his almighty hand, fhining through all the varieties of creation, and from its innumerable parts completing one beautiful and perfect work.
Perhaps fome one will fay, "Who is this that thus preaches love to the world? Is he himself the unfullied pattern of it?" No! Far be it from him to pretend to fuch praife. The only diffinition he would prefume to claim is that of a "voice in the wildernefs" a wilderness of many deformities and distractions within as well as without-crying" Prepare ye the way of divine love, make itraight paths for this celeftial vifitant by bringing down every mountain of vanity
and pride, intereft and ambition, and by filling up the mournful vallies of loft, dejected, defpairing fpirits."
He, who thus cries to you from his obfcure retreat in the lonely and unvifited defert, hath too frequently and too deeply pierced the fide of this facred gueft: but from the wounded heart blood and water flowed forththe one as a healing balfam to infuse freth vigour through his frame, and renew life even from the fhades of death itfelf:- the other, as a pure a pure fping to wash away the pollution and
FOR THE LONDON MAGAZINE.
REFLECTIONS ON THE CHARACTER AND CONDUCT OF OMAI. By the late CAPTAIN COOK.
T was no fmall fatisfaction to reflect, that we had brought him fafe back to the very fpot from which he was taken. And, yet, fuch is the ftrange nature of human affairs, that it is probable we left him in a lefs defirable fituation, than he was in before his connection with us. I do not by this mean, that, becaufe he has tafted the sweets of civilized life, he must become more miferable from being obliged to abandon all thoughts of continuing them. I confine myself to this fingle difagreeable circumftance, that the advantages he received from us, have placed him in a more hazardous fituation, with refpect to his perfonal fafety. Omai, from being much careffed in England, loft fight of his original condition; and never confidered in what manner his acquifitions, either of knowledge or of riches, would be estimated by his countrymen, at his return; which were the only things he could have to recommend him to them now, more than before, and on which he could build either his future greatnefs or happiness. He feemed even to have miftaken their genius in this refpect; and, in fome meafure, to have forgotten their cuftoms; otherwife he must have known the extreme difficulty there would be in getting himfelf admitted as a perfon of rank, where there is, perhaps, no inftance of a man's being raifed from an infe
rior ftation by the greatest merit. Rank feems to be the very foundation of all diftinction here, and, of its attendant, power; and fo pertinacioufly, or rather blindly adhered to, that, unless a perfon has fome degree of it, he will certainly be despised and hated, if he affumes the appearance of exercising any authority. This was really the cafe, in fome measure, with Omai; though his countrymen were pretty cautious of expreffing their fentiments while we remained amongst them. Had he made a proper ufe of the prefents he brought with him from Engand, this, with the knowledge he had acquired by travelling fo far, might have enabled him to form the moft ufeful connections. But we have given too many inftances, in the course of our narrative, of his childifh inattention to this obvious means of advancing his intereft. His fchemes feemed to be of a higher, though ridiculous nature; indeed, I might fay, meaner; for revenge, rather than a defire of becoming great, appeared to actuate him from the beginning. This, however, may be excufed, if we confider that it is common to his countrymen. His father was, doubtlefs, a man of confiderable property in Ulietea, when that ifland was conquered by thofe of Bolabola; and, with many others, fought refuge in Huaheine, where he died, and left Omai, with
fome other children; who, by that means, became totally dependent. In this fituation, he was taken up by Captain Furneaux, and carried to England. Whether he really expected, from his treatment there, that any affiftance would be given him against the enemies of his father and his country; or whether he imagined that his own perfonal courage, and fuperiority of knowledge, would be fufficient to difpoffefs the conquerors of Ulietea, is uncertain; but from the beginning of the voyage, this was his conftant theme. He would not liften to our remonftrances on fo wild a determination; but flew into a paffion, if more moderate and reasonable counfels were propofed for his advantage. Nay, fo infatuated and attached to his favourite scheme was he, that he affected to believe thefe people would certainly quit the conquered ifland, as foon as they fhould hear of his arrival in Otaheite. As we advanced, however, on our voyage, he became more fenfible of his error; and, by the time we reached the Friendly Islands, had even fuch apprehenfions of his reception at home, that, as I have mentioned in my journal, he would fain have stayed behind at Tongataboo, under Feenou's protection. At these islands, he fquandered away much of his European treafure very unneceffarily; and he was equally imprudent, as I alfo took no tice of above, at Tiaraboo, where he could have no view of making friends, as he had not any intention of remaining there. At Matavai, he continued the fame inconfiderate behaviour, till I abfolutely put a ftop to his profufion; and he formed fuch im proper connections there, that Otoo, who was at firft mnch difpofed to countenance him, afterward openly expreffed his dislike of him, on account of his conduct. It was not, however, too late to recover his favour; and he might have fettled to great advantage in Otaheite, as he had formerly lived feveral years there, and was now a good deal noticed by Towha, whofe valuable prefent of a very large double canoe, we have feen above. The objection to admitting him to fome rank
would have also been much leffened, if he had fixed at Otaheite; as a native will always find it more difficult to accomplish fuch a change of state amongst his countrymen, than a stranger, who naturally claims refpect. But Omai remained undetermined to the laft, and would not, I believe, have adopted my plan of fettlement in Huaheine, if I had not fo explicitly refufed to employ force in reftoring him to his father's poffeffions. Whether the remains of his European wealth, which, after all his improvident waste, was ftill confiderable, will be more prudently adminiftered by him, or whether the steps I took, as already explained, to infure him protection in Huaheine, fhall have proved effectual, must be left to the decifion of future navigators of this ocean; with whom it cannot but be a principal object of curiofity to trace the future fortunes of our traveller. At prefent, I can only conjecture, that his greatest danger will arife from the very impolitic declarations of his antipathy to the inhabitants of Bolabola. For these people, from a principle of jealoufy, will, no doubt, endeavour to render him obnoxious to those of Huaheine; as they are at peace with that ifland at prefent, and may eafily effect their defigns, many of them living there. This is a circumftance, which, of all others, he might the moft eafily have avoided. For they were not only free from any averfion to him, but the perfon, mentioned before, whom we found at Tiaraboo as an ambaffador, prieft, or god, abfolutely offered to reinftate him in the property that was formerly his father's. But he refufed this peremptorily; and, to the very laft, continued determined to take the fiet opportunity that offered of fatisfying his revenge in battle. To this, I guess, he is not a little fpurred by the coat of mail he brought from England; clothed in which, and in poffeffion of fome fire-arms, he fancies that he shall be invincible.
Whatever faults belonged to Omai's character, they were more than overbalanced by his great good-nature and docile difpofition. During the whole
time he was with me, I very feldom had reafon to be seriously displeased with his general conduct. His grateful heart always retained the highest fenfe of the favours he had received in England; nor will he ever forget thofe who honoured him with their protection and friendship, during his ftay there. He had a tolerable fhare of understanding, but wanted application and perfeverance to exert it; fo that his knowledge of things was very general, and, in many inftances, imperfect. He was not a man of much obfervation. There were many useful arts, as well as elegant amusements, amongst the people of the Friendly Iflands, which he might have conveyed to his own; where they probably would have been readily adopted, as being fo much in their own way. But I never found that he used the least endeavour to make himself mafter of any one. This kind of indifference is, indeed, the characteristic foible of his nation.
Europeans have vifited them, at times, for thefe ten years paft; yet we could not difcover the flighteft trace of any attempt to profit by this intercourse; nor have they hitherto copied after us in any one thing. We are not, therefore, to expect that Omai will be able to introduce many of our arts and cuftoms amongst them, or much improve thofe to which they have been long habituated. I am confident, however, that he will endeavour to bring to perfection the various fruits and vegetables we planted, which will be no fmall acquifition. But the greatest benefit thefe islands are likely to receive from Omai's travels, will be in the animals that have been left upon them; which, probably, they never would have got, had he not come to England. When thefe multiply, of which I think there is little doubt, Otaheite, and the Society Iflands, will equal, if not exceed, any place in the known world, for provifions.
FOR THE LONDON MAGAZINE.
ON WARM COLOURING.
VERY one feems to be fatisfied the fun is two degrees high, the yel
to a good picture: but what is warm colouring is not determined. Some have joined the idea of warmth to yellow, others to red, others to the compound of both, the orange-they alfo differ in the degrees of each. A warm picture to fome, is cold to others; and vice versa. Lambert's idea of warmth, was to make his pictures appear as if they were behind a yellow glafs. Vanbloom's have a red glafs before them. Both's an orange colour. Each has its admirers, who condemn
order of these, and it is the coming on of the evening. All these hues then exift in nature, and one is just as right as the other.
It is neceffary to diftinguish between the painter's warmth, and the fenfation. A picture, that has most warmth of colouring, reprefents that time of the day when we feel leaft. A true reprefentation of noon must have no tinge of yellow or red in the fky; and yet from its being noon, one might be led to imagine it must be warm. It is the critic, and not the artist, which confounds the meaning of these terms. In like manner, fummer and winter, in refpect to light, are juft the fame: the fun rifes and fets as gorgeously in December, if the weather be clear, as in June. I remember seeing two pictures of Cuyp, companions-one, a cattle piece in fummer; the other, winter with figures fkaiting. The sky in both was equally warm, for which the