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fince laft Auguft, good order was returning, mifchief feemed to fubfide, volunteering and reform to decline, and many of these observations might now have been unneceffary, if very ferious confequences were not to be dreaded from that combination of Mr. Wyville and Mr. Pitt, which has been not long fince announced to the public. It is no lefs than founding the trumpet of diforder in Ireland."

His lordship indeed exprefsly affirms the propofitions of reform in the Eng

lifh Houfe of Commons, to be nothing but a "mockery;" for, fays he, "to propofe a fpecific plan of reform that can please no fet of men, feems as likely means of evading reform, as any that can be offered." Should a reform, however, be effected, it includes an immediate diffolution to take the benefit of it; and this event his lordship imagines may not be quite agreeable to the parties immediately concerned in promoting the measure.

ART. CXXIII. Obfervations on the Importance of the American Revolution, and the Means of making it a Benefit to the World. To which is added, a Letter from M. Turgot, late Comptroller-General of the Finances of France: With an Appendix, containing a Tranflation of the Will of M. Fortuné Ricard, lately published in France. By Richard Price, D. D, LL. D. and Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in New England. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Cadell. 1785. THESE Obfervations are addreffed to the Free and United States of America, as a last teftimony of the author's good-will, and to them is prefixed the following advertisement :


Having reafon to hope I fhould be attended to in the American States, and thinking I faw an opening there favourable to the improvement and beft interests of mankind, I have been induced to convey thither the fentiments and advice contained in the following obfervations. They were, therefore, originally intended only for America. The danger of a fpurious edition has now obliged me to publish them in my

own country.

"I fhould be inexcufable did I not take this opportunity to exprefs my gratitude to a diftinguifhed writer (the Count de Mirabeau) for his tranflation of thefe Obfervations into French, and for the fupport and kind civility with which it has been accompanied.

"Mr. Turgot's letter formed a part of this tract when it was conveyed to America. I have now given a tranflation of it.

"I think it neceffary to add, that I have expreffed myfelf in fome refpects too ftrongly in the conclufion of the following obfervations. By accounts from perfons the best informed, I have lately been affured that no fuch diffentions exift among the American States as have been given out in this country;

that the new governments are in general well fettled, and the people happy under them; and that, in particular, a conviction is becoming univerfal of the neceffity of giving more ftrength to that power which forms, and which is to conduct and maintain their union."

Dr. Price introduces his Obfervations with acquainting his readers that, from pure conviction, he took a warm part in favour of the British colonies (now the United States of America) during the late war; that, in confequence of this, he was expofed to much abuse and fome danger; that he is thankful for having been fpared to be a witnefs to that very iffue of the war, which had all along been the object of his wishes; that he fees, with heart-felt fatisfaction, the revolution in favour of univerfal liberty which has taken place in America-a revolution which, he says, opens a new profpect in human affairs, and begins a new era in the history of mankind;-a revolution by which Bri-, tons themselves will be the greatest gainers, if wife enough to improve properly the check that has been given to the defpotifm of their minifters, and to catch the flame of virtuous liberty which has faved their American brethren.

"The late war (continues he) in its commencement and progrefs, did great good by dif feminating juft fentiments of the rights of mankind, and the nature of legitimate government; by exciting a fpirit of refiftance to tyranny which


has emancipated one European country, and is likely to emancipate others; and by occafioning the establishment in America, of forms of government more equitable and more liberal than any that the world has yet known. But, in its termination, the war has done ftill greater good by preferving the new governments from that destruction in which they must have been involved, had Britain conquered; by providing, in a fequeftered continent, poffeffed of many fingular advantages, a place of refuge for oppreffed men in every region of the world; and by laying the foundation there of an empire which may be the feat of liberty, fcience, and virtue, and from whence there is reafon to hope thefe facred bleffings will fpread, till they become univerfal, and the time arrives when kings and priests fhall have no more power to opprefs, and that ignominious flavery which has hitherto debafed the world is exterminated. I therefore think I fee the hand of Providence in the late war working for the general good.

Reason, as well as tradition and revelation, lead us to expect that a more improved and happy ftate of human affairs will take place before the confummation of all things. The world has hitherto been gradually improving. Light and knowledge have been gaining ground, and human life at prefent, compared with what it once was, is much the fame that a youth approaching to manhood is, compared with an infant.

"Sure are the natures of things that this progrefs mult continue. During particular intervals it may be interrupted, but it cannot be deftroyed. Every prefent advance prepares the way for farther advances; and a fingle experiment or discovery may fometimes give rife to fo many more as fuddenly to raise the fpecies higher, and to refemble the effects of opening a new fenfe, or of the fall of a fpark on a train that springs a mine. For this reason, mankind may at laft arrive at degrees of improvement which we cannot now even fufpect to be poffible. A dark age may follow an enlightened age; but, in this cafe, the light, after being fmothered for a time, will break out again with a brighter luftre. The prefent age of increased light, confidered as fucceeding the ages of Greece and Rome, and an intermediate period of thick darknefs, furnishes a proof of the truth of this obfervation. There are certain kinds of improvement which, when once made, cannot be entirely loft. During the dark ages, the improvements made in the ages that preceded them remained fo far as to be recovered immediately at the refurrection of letters, and to produce afterwards that more rapid progrefs in improvement which has diftinguished modern times.".

"But among the events in modern times tending to the elevation of mankind, there are none probably of fo much confequence as the recent one which occafions thefe obfervations, Perhaps I do not go too far when fay that, next to the introduction of Chriftianity among mankind, the American revolution may prove the most important step in the progreffive courfe

of human improvement. It is an event which may produce a general diffution of the principles of humanity, and become the means of fetting free mankind from the thackles of fuperftition

and tyranny, by leading them to fee and know "that nothing is fundamental but in partial enquiry, an honeft mind, and virtuous practicethat ftate policy ought not to be applied to the fupport of fpeculative opinions and formularies of faith."That the members of a civil com-. munity are * confederates not subjects; and their rulers, fervants not maßlers.- -And that all legitimate government confiits in the dominion of equal laws made with common confent; that is, in the dominion of men over themselves; and not in the dominion of communities over communities, or of any men over other men."

"Happy will the world be when thefe truths fhall be every where acknowledged and practiced upon. Religious bigotry, that cruel demon, will be then laid afleep. Slavith governments and flavith hierarchies will then fink; and the old prophecies be verified, that the latt univerfal empire upon earth fhall be the empire of reason and virtue, under which the gofpel of peace (better understood) fhall have free courfe and be glorified, many will run to and fro, and knowedge be increafed, the wolf dwell with the lamb and the leopard with the kid, and nation no more lift up a fword against nation."

"It is a conviction I cannot refift, that the independence of the English colonies in America is one of the steps ordained by Providence to introduce thefe times; and I can fcarcely be deceived in this conviction, if the United States fhould efcape fome dangers which threaten them, and will take proper care to throw themfelves open to future improvements, and to make the most of the advantages of their prefent fituation. Should this happen, it will be true of them as it was of the people of the Jews, that in them all the families of the earth fhall be bleffed. It is fcarcely poffible they fhould think too highly of their own confequence. Perhaps, there never exifted a people on whofe wifdom and virtue more depended; or to whom a ffation of more importance in the plan of Providence has been affigned. They have begun nobly. They have fought, with fuccefs for themfelves and for the world; and, in the midst of invasion and carnage, established forms of government favourable in the highest degree to the rights of mankind.But they have much more to do; more indeed than it is poftible properly to reprefent. In this addrefs, my defign is only to take notice of a few great points which feem particularly to require their attention, in order to render them permanently happy in themfelves, and useful to mankind. On thefe points, I fhall deliver my fentiments with freedom, confcious I mean well; but, at the fame time, with real diffidence, confcious of my own liablenefs to error."

The Doctor now proceeds to confider the means of promoting human improvement and happiness in the United States; and the first thing, he fays, that requires their atttention, is the redemption of their debts, and making compenfation to that army which has carried them through the war. (To be continued.)

*Thefe are the words of Montefquieu.




April 26.


Young Lady, of the name of Collins, made her first appearance at this theatre in the character of Maria, in the Farce of the Citizen-and went through it with a fpirit and vivacity, far beyond what is generally difplayed by adventurers on the ftage, on their first entrée. She poffeffes a very good figure, and gave a fpecimen of talents, that promife, with proper attention, to render her a favourite with the public; her performance throughout was well received, and in many parts obtained general approbation.

April 27. A new Farce of two acts, called The HUMORIST, was performed last night at this theatre, for the first time, the principal characters in which were, Sir Anthony Halfwit Frolick



Mrs. Matadore
Mrs. Meddle

Mr. Parfons.
Mr. Baddeley.
Mr. Williams.
Mr. Bannister, Jun.
Mrs. Hopkins.
Mrs. Wilfon.
Mrs. Ward.

Frolick, a lover of fun and mifchief perfuades Sir Anthony Halfwit, an old virtuofo and his intended fon-in-law, Beaumont, that each other are out of their fenfes; then taking advantage of young Beaumont (who is just arrived in town) not being perfonally known to Sir Anthony, he perfonates the young lover, and paffes himfelf upon the old virtuofo as the man who is to pay his addreffes to his daughter. Dabble an advertifing dentist, becomes alfo an object of Frolick's attacks, as he procures his introduction to Mrs. Matadore, an old woman, whofe whole delight is in a pack of cards, excepting a remaining portion of vanity and coquetry, which renders her a dupe to Frolick's joke, and induces her to mistake Dabble for a lover, when he only attends her as a dentist. Upon Dabble's next appearance, Frolick impofes him upon Mrs. Meddle, a credulous female politician, for a French fpy, who immediately refolves to have him delivered up to the hands of juftice, but at the entreaties of Mrs. Matadore, the agrees to his difguifing himself in woman's apparel, in order to effect his efcape. Frolick's tricks upon Sir Anthony Halfwit and Beaumont being difcovered, he introduces them to be fpectators of the whimsical miftake into which he has led Mrs. Matadore, Mrs. Meddle, and Dabble; and at the moment when the dentist is on the point of making his escape, escorted by his two female friends. Frolick and the rest of the

characters of the drama make their appearance. A general explanation takes place, and every one at length discovering Who's Who, the piece concludes with the union of young Beaumont with Sir Anthony's daughter.

Such are the leading features of a piece that abounds with equivoques, and most of which the author has contrived to manage with a whimsical adroitness-the language is finart and pleafing though not brilliant, and the fcenes are laughable though strongly bordering on the abfurdOld Frolick's paffing himself upon the family with whom he is upon a vifit, for young Beaumont was too glaring a ftretch even for the ftrides of a farcical fancy.The character of Dabble is well conceived, and evidently meant to fatirize a well-known advertising dentist, whofe peculiarities have long rendered him a fubject of public converfation, the likeness however is not very striking fave where the author has ufed his very expreffions. Taking the Humourist upon the whole it is a very entertaining production, and will moft probably become a great favourite; it was received throughout with very deferved and inceffant applause. The performers were every thing the author could wish, and did their several characters every poffible juftice.The farce was preceded by an excellent prologue, fpoken by Mr. Bannister, jun. in a ftile and manner that did him the greatest credit, and fully merited the general and repeated plaudits he received.

May 24. The proprietors having generously allotted the ufe of the theatre for Mrs. Bellamy's benefit, a very fashionable audience appeared in her fupport. Mrs. Yates came forward in the part of the Dutchefs of Braganza, in which she was inimitable; and Mifs Farren fspoke a poetical addrefs at the end of the tragedy, in her caufe. Thus did the mufe of tears and the mufe of fmiles, contribute by two able difciples, to give her affiftance.

As Mifs Farren's addrefs contained an allufion to Bellifarius, and applied the fate of that general to Mrs. Bellamy; it is fair to continue the military phrafeology, and fay, that he had a fine army in her fupport, the wings of which were led by the Dutcheffes of Devonshire and Bolton; for those ladies and their friends occupied the two ftage boxes, and the next adjoining ones.

Mifs Farren's addrefs was calculated to prepare the entrée of Mrs. Bellamy, who coming forward expreffed herself to this effect," that he felt the utmoft gratitude for the favour of the house; that her profeffions were unfeigned, and that her tears were further proofs of her fincerity!"

General Howitzer
Captain Farquhar

May 12. CAPTAIN Jephfon's Opera of the CAMPAIGN, or Love in the Eaft-Indies, was this night brought forward. The principal characters are

Lieutenant Sulphur

Mr. Quick.
Mr. Johnstone.
Mrs. Kennedy.
Mr. Davies.


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The piece must have a fable, before one can be related. The incidents are at prefent fuch entire ftrangers to each other, that there hardly appears any connection between them; but as the fcene lies in the Eaft-Indies, where regular government is hardly known, the author, we imagine, has confidered the laws of Ariftotle as forms which he was at liberty to difpenfe with. Hence, we may obferve, the want of unity in the action; and that no importance is given either to event or character, to keep up the attention. In proof of this remark, we will inftance the circumftance of Gregory alias Tippo, enlifting, which, with his difcharge, makes part of the principal bufinefs of the fecond and third acts. Some paffages were highly offenfive-of this defcription may be confidered Gregory's remark on Sufan," that the received bribery and corruption from the whole camp," and the relation of a matron, who half an hour after her husband died, cuckolded his corpfe." Thefe, with fimilar nuifances to a decent ear, must be expunged.

Two of the characters are of a national caft, Mr. M'Saunderson, an avaricious commillary from North-Britain, and Capt. Farquhar, an open-hearted Irish officer; both of these characters


were played very ably, the former by Fearon, the latter by Johnstone. Quick filled the part of General Howitzer, who may be called a Shandean Coufin German to Uncle Toby. Mrs. Kennedy appeared as Saib, a Gentoo officer; and in priety to the part, ought to have difplayed the tawny complection of Orra. She could not, however, be prevailed on to renounce more than her feminine attire; and therefore preserved the native beauty of her face. Edwin was comic, as far as drill feverity permitted. Mrs. Bannifter deferves infinite praise, for the talte fhe manifested over her choral fifters; and Mrs, Martyr, in point of vivacity, has great claim to approbation.

The mufic is much indebted to Mr. Shield, for his fupervifing fkill. The accompaniments to most of the fongs, have we hear, been ar ranged and added, under his infpection. He has alfo embellished the opera with a few new airs; one in the fecond act to fome elegant words written by Mr. Pilon, deferves particular mention:-it begins "A breaft cold to love, &c." The air by Mrs. Wilfon, Wherefore languish, &c." is a fweet little fubject. The duet ending the fecond act is beautifully pathetic, and the finale at the end of the opera has great merit, The overture was a manufcript compofition of Haydns, poffeffing the genuine fpirit of that matter. The opera upon the whole was well received.



THE fpacious dimenfions of this elegant fructure, justly give it a pre-eminence over all other public buildings for masquerade accommodations. The various apartments were laid open in a fplendid itile. The balloon being difmiffed from its pendant ftation, the dome refumed its ufual brilliancy in a fuperb arrangement of lights. -The rooms were vifited by upwards of nine hundred mafques, principally dominos, agreeable to the ufual proportion. Several characters diftinguished themfelves by their pecularities; among these were to be noticed a French Abbe, an excellent Punch, a Momus, hung with caricatures and mottos, a female Cook, a DancingMafter with "kit in hand.". -Three gentlemen, difguifed like a King's-place Abbes, with two of her Nuns, formed a good group, and kept up their charactets with fpirit.-Lord T


was fufpected to be a principal in this affociation. Two or three good fathers of the Romish church, The characters of Forage and Peter from the Nunnery, were fupported with infinite effect; the Magpie fong of the latter, was fung to a select fupper party. Merlin vifited the company in his ftale character of Jupiter Tonans; but early in the evening, his eagle was fo weary, as to lofe the ufe of one wing; his godship, therefore, finding he could not take flight to the ambrofial feast, was content to eat an earthly Supper that would have fatisfied any two mortals. En paffant, a good cold collation was spread, the dishes were plenteously supplied, and the wines were of excellent quality. The prince, and a large party were among the fuperiors, of the affembly-and fupped in an apartment re ferved for that purpose.


May 12. THE managers have again brought forward Mr. Tenducci, in the opera of Orfeo, in which he and Ferrarefe gained much applaufe; and the little bewitching Simonet gave univerfal fatisfaction. The dances and fceneries both deferve much praife, efpecially amongst the latter, the Temple of Love. The former were got up in a matterly ftyle by Mr. Lepicq, who ever great in the execution, furpaffed himself on this occafion. His pantomime with Roffi in the Elyfian Fields, a reprefentation of Æneas meeting Dido, in thofe bleffed abodes, was defervedly

applauded. The chacone by that arbiter elegan. tiarum was a chef d'œuvre of the ferious and graceful dancing; but the ballet master feemed to have referved all his fire for the laft act. He and Roffi were admirable in the demi-character, and the Pas de Trois by Nivelon, Angeiolini, and the lively Dorival, was all life and fpirit. This happy blending of the ferious and comic dancing will ever produce a moit pleafing effect, and render ORFEO a conftant favourite with the public. "Cet Oracle eft plus fur que celui de Calcas!"



May 4. THIS evening the rooms were vifited by a company which may be called the ftandard of inufical tafte; moft of the approved amateurs were prefent. The felection of pieces was judicious. Mifs Chanu, who may be confidered as the laft vocal novelty, difplayed great elegance in a compofition of Stamitz's, but was particularly well in " Refta ingrata," &c. Tenducci poffeffes an expreffion that will always pleafe, in preference to bravura excellencies.

Of the inftrumental performers, praise is due to the concerto on the baffoon by Mr. Parkin fon; his tone and execution is fuperior to his predeceffor Swharts, who is faid to be the most finished player in Germany.--Baumgarten's

concertante was delightfully played by Meffrs. Cramer, Cervetto, Blake, and Fisher."

A concerto by Avifon commenced the fecond act: this divine harmonift holds a rank over all English matters at the Concert of Ancient Mufic. The ingenious Shield, the admired compofer of the prefent day, ftudied under him, ard the fcience and taste of the fcholar may be mentioned in honour of the master. Cramer acquitted himself ably in the folo paffages of the piece in question. Mr. Fisher was much diftinguifhed in his oboe concerto, and Bach's overture for a double orchestra wound up the concert with high eclat.


PREPARATIONS are making in a great ftyle against the approaching mufical feftival, which is to be held at the Abbey.-Mr. Wyat, who planned the temporary ftructures at Handel's Commemoration, has, we are informed, made a new difpofition of the feats at the Abbey, by excluding the galleries, and arranging the entire space infinitely more commodious and elegant; fo as to give it the form of an amphitheatre.

In a central fituation is erected a fuperb gal lery for their Majefties; the whole royal family the lords and ladies of the bed-chamber; the archbishops, bifhops, and dean and chapter of Weftminster; and the directors of the feftival. Oppofite to this, is conftructed the ftupendous orchestra, which will confift of upwards of five hundred of the most capital vocal and inftrumental performers in Europe, under the conduct of Mr. Bates.

The following Papers were laid on the Table of the House of Commons, on the 29th ult. for the perufal of the Members:

N account of the net produce of all the Stamps

5th of January 1784. Totals of cuftoms


£.13,913 18 6
87,174 3 6
11,470 O O
15,996 18

Exchequer, the 28th day
of April, 1785.


64,653 8 0

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NORTH-BRITAIN. AN account of the feveral taxes impofed laft 128,5554feffion of parliament, from their respective commencements to the 5th of January 1785, which is as far as the returns are come in; diftinguishing the produce of each tax, as ordered by the votes of the Hon. Houfe of Commons. 11th April, 1785.

An account of the net produce of all the taxes, from Christmas Eve 1784, to the 5th of January 1785.

Totals of cultoms

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L.158,629 1 3
166,511 II
55,604 0 O


58,927 19 11

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s. d.

Nov.1.Wafh from malted corn,&c.11,708 2 11
-Ditto from melaffes

237 6 11

Sept. 1. Rum imported from
the British Plantations, at 4s. 8d. 8,227 13 8
Aug. 1.Additional duty on candles 2,480 6 104
Licences for retailing

wax and fpermaceti candles
10th Additional duty on paper
Oct.1.Ditto on linens,cottons, &c.
Sept. 1. Bricks and tiles, &c.
10. Excife Licences

о 5

219 16

466 6

552 O 2,495 O

Total £26,386 18 63

Excife-Office, Edinburgh,

April 22, 1785. J. EDGAR, Accompt. JAMES RAMSAY, Accompt. General. Extracted A. HAMILTON, D. Comptroller. GILB. LAURIE, G.BROWN, I. WHARTON. MONTHLY

3 D

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