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him to attend his duty in that Houfe. He concluded by faying, that when the order for the attendance of the high-bailiff, &c. fhould have been read, it was his intention to move, that a new order be made for him to attend on Tuesday next.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer faid he did not mean to oppofe the motion of the right honourable gentleman: he himself was one of thofe who would lament, if, in difcuffing the bufinefs of the Weftininfter election, the Houfe fhould not receive the affiftance of those abilities which fo eminently diftinguifhed the right honourable gentleman who was abfent. If any accident had happened to him, he was forry for it; and hoped that the inconvenience arifing from it to the honourable member himself would not be of long continuance. But in giving way to the right honourable gentleman's motion, he would not give up his claim to the merit of renouncing that advantage, which the abfence of the right honourable member would give him, in agitating the queftion of the election: nor could he help remarking, that a motion for delay came not with a good grace from thofe who charged another honourable perfon, not lefs interested in the return for Westminster than the right honourable gentleman who was abfent, with a studied intention to procraftinate and fpin out the fcrutiny to an unreafonable length: the delay did not
now reft with any other than the right honourable member himfelf. When a petition was prefented to the Houfe a few days ago from certain electors of Weftminster, complaining that their city was not reprefented in parliament, they did not furely recollect that they were ably reprefented by the burgefs for Kirkwall, whofe abfence on this day was to create a delay that would for fome days longer ftop an enquiry into the caufe why Weftminster remains unreprefented. A grave and high authority, that of the right honourable member who made the motion, had faid that the right honourable gentleman who was abfent was the perfon most nearly concerned in the decifion of the election for the city in which he was then fpeaking; if he was so very nearly concerned, then it was not with the best grace that the electors had complained that they were not reprefented; for while they had the aid of the fhining abilities of the right honourable member, who was fo deeply interested in the queftion to which their complaint was directed, they might be truly faid to have not only a reprefentative, but a moft able one. concluded, by repeating what he had faid at the beginning, that he would not oppofe the motion, but that at the fame time he would have it known that the delay did not originate with him; and that it was countenanced by thofe only who complained of procraftination and affected delay.
IN the beginning of the year the Emperour of Germany caufed a reduction to take place in the revenues of the fuperiour ecclefiaftics, and has allowed 20,000 florins for the archbifhops, and 12,000 for the bishops. The following statement of the reve nues that were enjoyed by the bishops of Hungary feems to be an ample juftification of the Imperial measure. The income of the Archbishop of Gran amounted to 300,000 florins, that of the Bishop of Erlan to 80,000, the Bishop of Nitra had 40,000, of Roab LOND. MAG. Feb. 1785.
Vienna, March 6. M. Bufching has published an account of the population of the different eftates of Germany, by which it appears that Bohemia contains 2,100,000 inhabitants; Moravia 1,000,000; the circle of Auftria 4,150,000; the circle of Burgundy 1,600,000; and Bavaria 1,148,000. Thefe are only the principal eftates, the total of whofe inhabitants, according to the above, amounts to 21,000,000 of fouls. The population of Germany has, however, been reckoned at 25,000,000; but Monf. Bufching cannot think that the inhabitants of thofe parts which he has omitted can amount to 4,000,000.
the duchy of Sultzbach, the lordship of Mindelheim, the margraviate of Bergen-op-Zoom, the lordships and circles of Bavaria, Franconia, and Souabia, and the great bailiwick of Umftadt, are very populous, but we have no accurate lifts of them.
The revenues of the Elector in the duchies of Juliers and Bergues, and the county of Ravenftein, amount to 2,500,000 florins; in the Electoral Palatinate, including the duchies of Sultzbach and Neubourg, to 2,000,000; and in Bavaria to 5,000,000: total 9,500,000 florins, which make upwards of 20,700,000 livres Tournois.
The decreafe of population in the United States of America, fince the commencement of the late war, has often been afferted, and is now confirmed by Congrefs. Their first calculation was published in 1775, for levying a proper proportion of taxes in each state, and amounted to 3,137,869 fouls. In January 1784 another computation was made, when the numbers stood as follow, 2,389,300 fouls.
Koning fburg, Sept. 2. The Sieur Bufching has made out an exact eftimate of the present state of Leipfic, of which our readers will be glad to fee the following particulars: this city, which is peculiarly remarkable for two fairs held annually in it, is one of the principal cities in Germany. Its population is eftimated at 32,000 inhabitants; there are 22 libraries, 13 printing-houses, 436 merchants houfes, and 192 manufactories of different articles, fuch as brocades, taffeties, tobacco, paper, cards, &c. &c. The library of the chief magiftrate is very confiderable, confifting of 36,000 volumes, and near 2000 MSS. the most remarkable of which are in the oriental languages. The library belonging to the univerfity contains 26,400 volumes, befides manufcripts. There are other libraries belonging to the churches and fchools. There is likewife an academy for defigning, architecture, and painting; with feveral rooms of paintings and natural history. Since
the year 1701, the city has been lighted every night with 700 lamps.
Hamburgh, Sept. 3. The following lift of fhips which have entered the Baltic in the courfe of the year, and have gone from those parts, and which is faid to be correct, gives us fome idea of their trade: there entered at
Petersburgh and Cronftadt 621 fhips; at Riga 1252; at Dantzick 681; at Elbing 276; at Koningsburgh 1848; at Stettin 1186; at Wifmar 233; at Roftock 640; in all 6697. The number of fhips which have departed from ber of ships which have departed from thefe ports is 6532, viz. 614 from Peterburgh and Cronstadt; 1247 from Riga; 694 from Dantzick; 276 from Elbing; 1699 from Koningsburgh; 1134 from Stettin; 266 from Wifmar; and 632 from Rostock.
Petersburgh, May 1. The Emprefs has taken a refolution to establish a college of the principal commercial houfes, with power to decide without appeal all differences and other points in litigation relative to trade that are not of a criminal nature. There have been nominated for that purpofe four Ruffian merchants, four English merchants, and a like number of the other refpective nations, who, after having formed their plan, are to fubmit it to her Imperial Majefty's approbation. Hitherto all differences relative to trade were judged by the tribunals of this empire; the English alone were authorifed to get their's decided by the college of commerce.
A very great revolution is taking place imperceptibly in Spanish America; the cautions taken by the court of Madrid to prevent a rebellion, in imitation of the English colonies, have been prudent and vigorous. Many grievances have been redreffed, very able governors fent out, the fortifications every where repaired, and new ones erected; above 30,000 veteran troops fent thither for garrifons; but the whole fyftem occafions fuch an expence, that the American dominion on the new establishment cofts fo much,
as to leave barely 400,000l. a-year to Old Spain; this is enriching the colonies fo greatly, that it is likely to have the very contrary effect, though flowly, that is expected from it. The people growing wealthy from the great fums fpent among them, will be much
readier and more able to throw off their yoke. Some of the beft politicians of Spain have predicted this event.
A new fort of wheat has been difcovered in the mountains of Chili, which, if introduced in Europe, would totally change the face of our agriculture: it is a fhrub, perennial, hardy, and yields a great quantity of feed fembles wheat to the eye, tafte, and every year, which feed fo exactly rein its ufes, that for time immemorial an Indian tribe there has had no other fubfiftence. Each family has a certain number of thefe fhrubs, which they know by experience to be fufficient to fupport them. They are planted by flips or cuttings, five feet fquare, and the fpaces between dug or hoed. Upon the difcovery being made known at Madrid, the King was advised to refer a queftion to the Academy of Sciences, whether the cultivation fhould not be prohibited, left it fhould reduce the value of land to nothing: the academy deliberated, and replied, that the increafing the quantity of food would increafe the quantity of men, and that if Spain could contrive (which would be impoffible) to keep the wheat to herfelf, it would become the greatest nation in the world. The culture was, therefore, permitted. It is not known whether any of it has been brought into England.
Some time fince Mr. Maynard, of Nevis, brought fome mango feeds from India, and they were planted at Grenada and St. Vincent's, where a few trees have been raised to a very flourifhing ftate, and fruit has been produced, equal to that delicious mango which has hitherto been confined to India. The tree in fize and in its leaf refembles the Portugal laurel. The true bark, and many other valuable plants of medicinal qualities, have M 2
been difcovered on the mountains of ed, the clergy more regular in their Grenada.
The exertions which the prefent King of Spain has made to plant colonies in the Sierra Morena are very extraordinary. The firft emigration, which was of Germans, to the amount of fix thoufand, nearly failed, on account of D'Aranda being turned out of the miniftry. The fecond was five hundred Catholic Swifs, which did better, as a great deal of money was laid out to fupport them; but laft year the King fent for a new importation of Germans, Swifs, and French, and gave every family thirty acres of land, cultivated and fown for a year at his own expence.
How amiable is modefty when it
adds to the luftre of a diadem! with what a grace does a monarch refuse hopours intended for him, when he does every thing in his power to deferve them! This is the cafe with the prefent Emperour: Buda, in Hungaria, reftored by an imperial edict to its for mer fplendour, gives the moft flattering hopes to its inhabitants of feeing their trade and induftry thrive unfhackled, and bring plenty with all its comforts. Gratitude infpires their breaft, they petition the Emperour for leave to erect a ftatue to him, for the purpose of fignalizing the fatherly care of their benefactor. Jofeph, greater perhaps in this inftance than in any former one, returns the petition with the following anfwer written in his own hand:
"When I fhall have been fuccefsful in my attempt to level all thofe prejudices which ftop the progrefs of human reafon, and that they fhall be replaced by a zealous emulation, folely directed to true patriotifm, and a profound knowledge of what may be ufeful to our country:
"When every individual shall join in a common effort to contribute to the fecurity and welfare of the monarchy; when I fhall perceive equity and good order prefiding over the courts of juftice, knowledge increafed by the perfection of the means of acquiring It, the common people better inform !
difcipline, and a folid harmony eftablished between the civil laws and the holy precepts of our religion; when lords and vaffals fhall be made fully fenfible of the mutual regard they owe to each other, and both fhall cease to mifunderstand their true intereft:
When population is enlarged, husbandry improved, industry properly encouraged; when manufactures are brought to confummate perfection, and their produce bringing in fafe and quick returns; when, in fine, a free and unbounded circulation, pervading all the provinces, fhall have opened a wealthy fource of true eafe and riches, as I with and hope to fee it one day, then, perhaps, fhall I deferve a statue. But, how fhould I be entitled to it now? when all I have done by transferring the Hungarian Difcafters, or State Affemblies, to Buda, is only to procure to the inhabitants of that city. an opportunity of letting their lodgings at a better advantage, and felling. their wine at a more profitable rate. (Signed) "JOSEPH.
Vienna, June 23, 1784.
Copenhagen, July 30. The converfation here has for fome time been entirely engroffed by the calamities of Iceland. The following is the fubftance of the feveral accounts received from that ifland:
"The fubterraneous fire which broke out on June 7th last year in the western part of Skaptfield's Syffel (the district of Skaptfield) on the mountain Skaptan Gluver, fpread fo wide, that marks of its devaftation are visible at the distance of 20 leagues to the fouth fouth-weft. The conflagration extended to four leagues in breadth, and continued till the month of May this year. The fourth part of the burnt foil confifted of a very old lava and of marshes. The burnt earth refembles a heap of calcined ftones, of the colour of vitriol. The great river of Skaptage, which was from feven to eight fathoms deep, is entirely dried up. On the caft fide, the fire broke out much about the fame time in the channel of the Huervifiodt, n.arly of the fame depth with the
Skaptage, but here its breadth was not above a league. The whole extent of ground from which the flames iffued about ten leagues. At first the flames darted perpendicularly upwards, and feemed to iffue from a great depth, but afterwards they rolled along the furface, in waves resembling thofe of the fea; and when they approached the frozen mountains, whofe bowels are impregnated with fulphur and nitre, they raged with fuch fury, as to fweep away in a moment cattle, houses, and every thing in their way, even the foil.-Seventeen diftricts have been entirely ruined. The hay harveft failed, and the inhabitants were obliged to kill great part of their young ftore about the end of Autumn, for want of provender. What little they got in was of fo bad a quality, that it produced an epidemical diftemper among the cattle, by which, and the feverity of the winter, five-fixths of the cattle and three-fourths of the heep have perished. The inhabitants were obliged to house them in the beginning of September, and from the 25th of October to the 27th of April, there was a continued frost, and the ground covered with fnow. Many of the peasants, having loft their whole ftock, have been obliged to give up
house and land.
To add to their calamities, the fishery has been very unfuccefsful. In fhort, nothing can equal the diftrefs of the inhabitants, efpecially thofe of the interior parts, who, even if they have wherewithal to purchase the neceffaries of life from the trading towns on the coaft, cannot carry them home for want of horses."
The death of the Count of Albany, commonly called the Pretender, was copied into our Magazine for April from the Edinburgh papers. The report was premature. It was imagined that on his death, and that of his brother, the race of Stuart would become extinct, but it now feems in a fair way of being continued by a lady whom the old chevalier has lately declared to be his legitimate daughter. Of this event the following are faid to be the particulars:
Lady Charlotte, now created Duchefs of Albany, is daughter to that monarch in nubibus, commonly filed the Pretender. Her mother, we hear, was a Scotch lady of the firft fashion; but whether now alive or not, we canus to affert. Lady not take upon Charlotte lived retired and unknown, amongst the nuns of St. Mary, in the Rue St. Jacques, on a penfion of 60,000 livres, allowed her by her uncle, Cardinal York. Her ladyfhip's furprise must have been equally great and flattering, when, after fo many years paffed without taking the leaft notice of her, the Chevalier wrote to her from Florence, about a month ago, requesting her company to comfort him in his old age.
This letter enclofed the va rious inftruments, acknowledging her birth, granting her letters of legitimacy, and creating her Duchefs of Albany, together with a copy of his will, by which he appoints her heiress to all his poffeffions, both ideal and real; amongst the latter are included his goods and chattels in France, the parliament acknowledging that the former fhould not be subject to the right of escheat or aubaine, by which the faid estates must otherwife have reverted to the crown. The bulk of the Chevalier's fortune in France, including his jewels and moveables, is valued at above two millions of livres (about 100,000l.) Thofe who are acquainted with the wretched fituation in which he was found by the King of Sweden, whofe fenfibility was fo greatly affected by the Chevalier's diftrefs as to offer the latter his friendfhip, and to pay him a fubfidiary stipend, will look upon the above estimate as fomewhat exaggerated; but they fhould be told, that it is to this very vifit from his Swedish Majefty that the Chevalier is indebted for the recovery of the best part of the poffeffions alluded to.
The fact is as follows:The King of Sweden being informed, by the Chevalier that the Cardinal York kept from him all the family jewels, to a very confiderable amount, waited on him when at Rome, and expoftulated with him on the wretched plight to which the Chevalier was reduced, exhorting the Cardinal to re